02 characteristics afla

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4/19/2012 1 Development Science I : CHARACTERISTICS OF AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPE Prof. Dr. HADI SUSILO ARIFIN Graduate School of International Development and Cooperation Hiroshima University Japan Spring 2012 Material Source: AFLA Modul (Arifin HS, Wulandari C, Pramukanto and Kaswanto RL, 2008); Arifin HS, Wulandari C, Pramukanto and Kaswanto RL, 2010. Analisis Lanskap Agroforestri. IPB Press. Bogor. 199p QUIZ What is “agroforestry landscape”? What is watershed? AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPE Agroforestry in landscape scale Ecological boundaries Bio- regional Watershed ~ Water catchment ~ Water drainage ~ Catchment Area DRAINAGE PATTERN AND SETTLEMENTS IN SOUTHERN PART OF RINJANI ECOSYSTEM ECPE, WWF LOMBOK) WATERSHED Is an area of internal drainage, the size an shape of which is determined by surface topography. Is completely encircled by a divide or a ridge line. Precipitation falling on one side of the divide drains toward the outlet or mouth of the watershed on that side of the divide. WATERSHED 0 10km N Cianjur City Mt. Gede Arus antara Peresapan Water Table 1.Interception 2. Run-off 3. Interflow 5. Percolation 4. Evapotranspiratration Land use in Cianjur-Cisokan Watershed (Harashina, Takeuchi, Arifin, 2001)

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Page 1: 02 Characteristics AFLA

4/19/2012

1

Development Science I:

CHARACTERISTICS OF

AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPE

Prof. Dr. HADI SUSILO ARIFIN

Graduate School of International Development and Cooperation

Hiroshima University – Japan – Spring 2012

Material Source: AFLA Modul (Arifin HS, Wulandari C, Pramukanto and Kaswanto RL, 2008);

Arifin HS, Wulandari C, Pramukanto and Kaswanto RL, 2010. Analisis Lanskap Agroforestri.

IPB Press. Bogor. 199p

QUIZ

• What is “agroforestry landscape”?

• What is watershed?

AGROFORESTRY LANDSCAPE

• Agroforestry in landscape scale

• Ecological boundaries

• Bio- regional

• Watershed ~ Water catchment ~ Water

drainage ~ Catchment Area

DRAINAGE PATTERN AND SETTLEMENTS IN

SOUTHERN PART OF RINJANI ECOSYSTEM

(ECPE, WWF LOMBOK)

WATERSHED

• Is an area of internal drainage, the size an

shape of which is determined by surface

topography.

• Is completely encircled by a divide or a

ridge line.

• Precipitation falling on one side of the

divide drains toward the outlet or mouth of

the watershed on that side of the divide.

WATERSHED

0

10kmN

Cianjur City

Mt. GedeArus antara

PeresapanWater Table

1.Interception

2. Run-off

3. Interflow

5. Percolation

4. Evapotranspiratration

Land use in Cianjur-Cisokan Watershed

(Harashina, Takeuchi, Arifin, 2001)

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4/19/2012

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HS Arifin DocHS Arifin Doc

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SIMPLE AGROFORESTRY

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COMPLEX AGROFORESTRY

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TALUN, FOREST GARDENS

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KEBUN CAMPURAN, MIXED GARDENS

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PEKARANGAN, HOME GARDENS

HS Arifin DocHS Arifin Doc

Agrosylvofisheries

TUMPANG SARI

COMPLEX

AGROFORESTRY

HS Arifin DocHS Arifin Doc

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Floristic Composition: number

of species, individula number,

plant stratification

LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE,

FUNCTION AND CHANGE

• Landscape Structure is determined by the composition, the configuration, and the proportion of different patches across the landscape.

• Landscape Function refers to how each element in the landscape interacts based on its life cycle events.

• Landscape Change ~ Landscape Dynamic is the changing of landscape in the scale of spatio-temporal.

CHARACTERIZING AGROFORESTRY

LANDSCAPES

• Approaches for identifying, assessing and understanding important properties, characteristics, patterns and dynamics of agroforestry landscapes.

• This includes identifying landscape elements, structures and functions, as well as interactions among elements and overall dynamics and emergent properties (e.g., biodiversity, hydrology, carbon sequestration, etc.).

• Attention is given to understanding heterogeneity and diversity in landscapes, including the degree to which agricultural and forestry components may be segregated or integrated, and to classifying different types of landscape configurations.

• Diversity includes both biophysical and human dimensions of landscape elements and processes.

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Ombilin

river

Solok town

Paning-

gahan

Coffee

enclave

Padang

Bukit-

tingi

Maninjau

Singkarak

PLTA

Epicentre 6.3 Richter

earthquake, 6-3-2007

Multistakeholder interactions, governance, conflict, incentives:

historical development, drivers of change, scenarios & future

Landscape scale pattern of interactions, emergence

of ‘environmental services’

Value chain and marketing of AF products

Farmer management of

agroforestry patches on farm

Tree-Soil-Crop-

Climate-Fauna

interactions

Local government

NGO activist

Business (wo)man

Extensionist

Researcher

Future

roles of

graduates

Compe-

tencies

required

Observe

Analyze

Predict

Empathize

Negotiate

Courtesy of van Noordwijk

Stakeholders:

What are the

roles, who are

the players,

what are their

interests?

Conditions &

Trends:

What are the

goods and

services

people derive?

2.Dynamic

landscape mosaics

1. Multi

stakeholder

perceptions

Agreed

changes

Spontaneous changes

3.Negotiation

Process

4. Innovation driversNatural capital

Knowledge sys-tems

Market access

Rules & institutions

NEGOTIATION SUPPORT SYSTEM (NSS);

Bringing science and knowledge to negotiation tables

2.Dynamic

landscape mosaics

1. Multi

stakeholder

perceptions

Agreed

changes

Spontaneous changes

3.Negotiation

Process

4. Innovation driversNatural capital

Knowledge sys-tems

Market access

Rules & institutions

2.Dynamic

landscape mosaics

1. Multi

stakeholder

perceptions

Agreed

changes

Agreed

changes

Spontaneous changesSpontaneous changes

3.Negotiation

Process

4. Innovation driversNatural capital

Knowledge sys-tems

Market access

Rules & institutions

Natural capital

Knowledge sys-tems

Market access

Rules & institutions

NEGOTIATION SUPPORT SYSTEM (NSS);

Bringing science and knowledge to negotiation tables

Halimun

Bungo

Kalahan

Bac Khan

Luang

Prabhang

Kapuas Hulu

Batang Toru

W Aceh

Tulang Bawang

Lantapan

SingkarakClaveria

Bao Shan

Hoa Binh

Upper Ping

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

0 50 100 150 200 250Population density, km-2

Fo

rest

co

ver

(%)

Indonesia

Philippines

MMSEA

How does forest

cover compare to

population density &

SEAsia baseline?

Integrate <> Segregate

Natural forest

Prima- Secon-

ry dary

Time

Tre

e c

over

Planted trees

Where is the landscape

on the degradation/

rehabilitation transition?

Courtesy of van Noordwijk

FIVE CATEGORIES OF

LANDSCAPE AGROFORESTRY

• Tree-Soil-Crop-Climate-Fauna interactions

• Farmer management of agroforestry patches on farm

• Value chain and marketing of AF products

• Landscape scale pattern of interactions, emergence of „environmental services‟

• Multi stakeholder interactions, governance, conflict, incentives

CASE STUDY OF AGROFORESTRY LANSCAPE IN MENDALAM SUB-

WATERSHED – WEST KALIMANTAN

CHARACTERISTICS OF

MENDALAM SUB-WATERSHED

• Mendalam River Basin is located in West Kalimantan

Province, Indonesia 123o 55‟ 58” East Longitude – 113o

37‟ 26” East Longitude and 0o 49‟ 22” North Latitude – 1o

19‟ 28” North Latitude.

• The area of Mendalam river basin is about 147,200 ha or

about 1.5 % of total Kapuas Watershed (9,874,910 Ha;

with the river 1,086 km distance).

• Location in Kapuas Hulu District Conserved District

(56.51 % protected areas) Betung Kerihun National Park

(BKNP) and Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP).

• 60% of Mendalam River Basin area is outside BKNP ~

c.a. 718 households ~ more than one tribe.

Page 5: 02 Characteristics AFLA

4/19/2012

5

• As a macro scale, forest area in Kapuas Hulu District

is 2.984.203 ha.

• 17.5% (523.094 ha) was forest production.

• 15.5% (461.063 ha) was marginal land due to illegal

logging and mining exploitation.

• In October 1, 2003 Decree of Forest Minister No. 144

(2003) published Declaration of Kapuas Hulu District

as a conservation district.

• The protected area is 54.9% from the total areaBKNP

(800.000 ha), DSNP (132.000 ha), Danau Empangau

Protected Forest (628.973 ha), water catchment area

(360 ha), and peat soil area (67.082 ha).

• As a micro scale, the landscape mosaic

could be observed through landscape

dynamic from the riparian area to the inland

near the forest.

• It was established the land use order, i.e.

tembawang (kebun campuran = mixed

gardens), which is lied between river and

housing site; pekarangan (home gardens);

kebun tanaman (plantation); ladang (dry

lands); and finally is hutan (forests).

SLOPE CLASSIFICATION IN

MENDALAM SUB RIVER BASIN,

KAPUAS HULU WATERSHED

No. Slope ClassArea

Ha %

1 1 (0 – 8 %) 84,556 46.0

2 2 (8 – 15 %) 72,027 39.2

3 3 (15 – 25 %) 26,796 14.5

4 4 (25 – 45 %) 494 0.3

Total 183,873 100.0

LAND COVER TYPE OF MENDALAM

RIVER BASIN 1990, 2000 AND 2005 *

No. Land Cover Type

Area (ha)

1990 2000 2005

ha % ha % ha %

1 Low Land Forest 142,31776.6

141,91777.2

141,37

176.9

2 Secondary Dry

Land Forest

20,59911.1

19,66810.7

19,23110.5

3 Secondary Wetland

Forest

5,6583.0

5,0132.7

4,5472.5

4 Mixed Agriculture

Dry Land

15,1598.2

17,1369.3

18,72310.2

Total** 185,723 100 183,734 100 183,872 100

* Sources: Landsat TM analysis 1990, 2000 and 2005 in Livelihood Study of the Upper

Stream of Kapuas Watershed (2007)

** The total area is based on Landsat Data.

Land Cover Type of Sub DAS Mendalam

(Landsat ETM 1990-left, and 2000-right)

SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL-CULTURAL

CONDITION

NO Village / Hamlet ∑ Populations Total Families

1 Datah Diaan village, the hamlets of:

a. Nanga Hovat

b. Uma' Suling

c. Pagung

144

280

376

35

64

106

SUB TOTAL 800 205

2 Padua Mendalam village, the hamlets of:

a. Teluk Telaga

b. Tanjung Karang

c. Lung Miting

706

222

311

152

57

74

SUB TOTAL 1,212 287

3 Tanjung Jati village, the hamlets of:

a. Semangkok

b. Nanga Sambus

c. Tanjung Jati

342

714

1,702

73

175

143

SUB TOTAL 2,758 391

T O T A L 4,770 883

Total Populations

Page 6: 02 Characteristics AFLA

4/19/2012

6

COMPLEX AGROFORESTRY AND

VEGETATION STRUCTURE IN MENDALAM

RIVER BASIN

No Type of AF Vegetation Structure Pattern Remarks

1. Tembawang

(Mixed gardens) in

river side

Durian, fern (paku ikan), palm sugar,

coconut, banana, sweet potato, peanut,

green bean.

Cash crops are

cultivated

intensively.

2. Pekarangan (Home

Gardens)

Durian, rambutan, pamelo, coconut,

pumpkins, pepper, juna (Dayak onion),

taro, vegetable zinger (Alpinia sp.), poultry.

Cultivated

intensively.

3. Kebun Tanaman/

Plantations

Rubber, coffee, cocoa Semi-intensive

4. Ladang (Dry

Lands)

Rice, corn, vegetable zinger (Alpinia sp.),

cucumber, pepper, cassava

Semi-intensive

5. Hutan (Forest) Mangosten, cekalang, pandanus, star fruit

(belimbing darah), rambutan, bamboo,

rottan, tengkawang (Shorea stenoptera),

trees for honey bee (lebah madu)

Cultivated

extensively

LAND USE TYPE IN EACH

KAMPONG IN MENDALAM RIVER

BASIN

No Kampong Ethnic Land Uses Type

1. Nanga Hovat Dayak Bukat Type A

2. Uma Suling (Padua Kompleks) Dayak Kayan Type A

3. Pagung (Padua Kompleks) Dayak Kayan Type A

4. Teluk Telaga (Padua Kompleks) Dayak Kayan Type A & Type B

5. Janjung Karang Dayak Kayan Type B & Type C

6. Lung Miting Dayak Kayan Type A

7. Semangkok Dayak Taman Type D

8. Nanga Sambus Malay Type C

Hilir

Hulu

NANGA HOVAT:

- BUKAT

- TYPE A

UMA

SULING:

- KAYAN

- TYPE A

PAGUNG

:

- KAYAN

- TYPE A

TELUK

TELAGA:

- KAYAN

- TYPE A + B

TG. KARANG:

- KAYAN

- TYPE B + C

LUNG

MITING:

- KAYAN

- TYPE A

SEMANGKOK:

- TAMAN

- TYPE D

NANGA SMABUS:

- MALAY

- TYPE B + C

PADUA

KOMPLEKS

SETTLEMENT PROFILE ALONG

MENDALAM SUB-WATERSHED

Arifin, Wulandari, Pramukanto & Kaswanto, (2008)

Ladang & Kebun

Ladang

Hutan

Abandon Land,

Kebun Tembawang

Houses

1/2 - 1 jam

TYPE A

Nanga Hovat Residential Area

Landscape Mosaic of Type A in

Mendalam River Basin

Uma’ Suling Residential Area in

Datah Diaan Village

Arifin, Wulandari, Pramukanto & Kaswanto, (2008)

TYPE B

Tembawang, Abandon Land,

Kebun

Ladang

Hutan

Houses

Kebun

22

Landscape Mosaic of Type B in

Mendalam River Basin

Type of Kampong (Settlement)

which is Located in the Riverside

Arifin, Wulandari, Pramukanto & Kaswanto, (2008)

TYPE C

Hutan

Ladang

Tembawang, Abandon Land,

Kebun

Houses

Pekarangan

Landscape Mosaic of Type C in

Mendalam River Basin

Type of Kampong (Settlement)

which is Located in the Riverside

Arifin, Wulandari, Pramukanto & Kaswanto, (2008)

Page 7: 02 Characteristics AFLA

4/19/2012

7

TYPE D

Hutan

Ladang

Tembawang, Abandon Land,

Kebun

Long House

Kebun

Bentang

Landscape Mosaic of Type D in

Mendalam River Basin

Performance of Long House

Arifin, Wulandari, Pramukanto & Kaswanto, (2008)

LANDSCAPE PLANNING

• landscape planners must look beyond the 'closely drawn technical limits' and 'narrowly drawn territorial boundaries' which constrain design projects.

• Landscape planners tend to work on projects which:

* are of broad geographical scope

* concern many land uses or many clients

* are implemented over a long period of time

– In rural areas, the damage caused by unplanned mineral extraction was one of the early reasons for a public demand for landscape planning.

LAND COVER

Land cover ClassProportion of area

2001 2004

Forest 91.9 90.5

Agroforestry 2.6 2.9

Crop land 0.07 0.2

Bush 0.4 1.0

Grassland 0.02 0.1

Rice field 0.2 0.3

Settlement 0.1 0.2

EROSION AND

SEDIMENTATION RATE

2

4

1

22

3

5 99631250

1

2

3

4

5

Mendalam

1986-2004

Mendalam

2005

Sibau

1986-2004

Sibau 2005 Kapuas

Koheng

1986-2004

Kapuas

Koheng

2005

Subcatchment

ero

si

(to

n/h

a/y

r)

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Sed

imen

tati

on

(m

g/l

)

Erosi (ton/ha) Sedimentation (mg/l)

PROBLEM MAP

See You Next Week

Hadi Susilo ArifinMobile: +81-80-4735-4859

E-mail/YM/FB/Skype: [email protected] www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id