muschi note

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    Skeletal muscle tissue represents the

    most abundant tissue type in the human

    body, amounting to 60% of the averageweight.

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    ! Tesutul striat scheletic

    ! Tesutul striat cardiac

    ! Tesutul neted

    Tesutul muscular I.

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    Caracteristica general!

    ! Contrac"ia muscular!

    ! interac"iune de natur!fizico-chimic!ntre

    proteine contractile

    ! controlata prin oscilatiile concentratiei intracelulare

    de

    Actina!

    i miozina

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    Tesutul muscular I.

    ! Tesutul muscular striat scheletic

    !

    Tesutul muscular striat cardiac

    ! Comparatie intre cele tipuri de

    celule musculare striateSaturday, December 26, 15

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    M. striat: localizare

    Tesutul muscular striat

    scheletic:! m. somatici (scheletici);

    ! TD: musculatura cavitatii

    bucale si a faringelui; $sup. esofag; sfincter analext.;

    ! AR: m. laringelui;

    ! AE: sfincter uretral ext;

    ! Analizatori: m. extrinseci

    ai globului ocular si

    muschii din urecheaSaturday, December 26, 15

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    Raporturile cu tesutul conjunctivCeluleleconjunctive pun in

    valoare/moduleazacontractia

    Dispozitie paralela,

    orientate pedirectia miscarii

    principale

    Cele 3 structuriconjunctive:

    endomisium,

    perimisium,

    epimisiumSaturday, December 26, 15

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    M f l gi

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    Morfologie! Celule musculare,

    denumite si fibremusculare

    ! Forma: cilindru!

    Nu se ramifica! Pe sect.

    transversale:rotunjite sau poligonale

    ! Lungime: de la mmla cm

    ! Grosime 25-100%m

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    ! Structuri

    membranare:

    ! Tubii T

    ! Caveolele

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    Raporturile RS cu tubii T si miofibrilele

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    Raporturile RS cu tubii T si miofibrilele

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    Organizarea unui sarcomer

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    Organizarea unui sarcomer

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    Structura miofilamentelor

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    Structura miofilamentelor

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    Cuplarea excitatiei cu contractia

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    Cuplarea excitatiei cu contractia

    ! Controlata de oscilatiile concentratiei de calciu.

    !

    Contractiaeste initiata de o forma de depolarizare amembranei; hiperpolarizareaeste asociata cu relaxarea;

    ! Activarea unor receptori mebranari declanseaza alte

    mecanisme care cresc concentratia de calciu; Cel mai

    important: sistemul PLC/IP3/DAG. Alte mecanisme:

    deschiderea unor canale operate de receptor sau de

    intinderea mecanica.

    ! Intrarea Ca legarea de troponina C modificarea

    conformatiei spatiale eliberarea situsurilor de

    interactiune de pe monomerii de actina interactiunirepetitive ale actinei cu miozina glisarea filamentelor

    subtiri printre cele groase

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    egenerareamuschiului scheletic

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    muschiului scheletic

    ! Tesutulmuscularstriatscheletic estecapabil deregenerare

    limitata! Celulele

    satelite,observabilenumai cu MEsunt

    responsabilederegenerare

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    Tesutul muscular striat

    Patologie: Distrofiile musculare

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    Tesutul muscular striat

    I. Placa motorie

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    Placa motorie I

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    Placa motorie I.

    - Fibrele motorii sunt axoni

    mielinici ai unor neuroni motori.

    Axonul se arborizeaza, isi pierdeteaca de mielina;

    - Capatul terminal al fiecarei

    ramificatii devine dilatat (buton

    sinaptic) si stabileste jonctiuneacu celula musculara;

    - Placa are in compunere: o

    terminatie axonala, fanta

    sinaptica si membrana celulei

    musculare

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    Placa neuro-musculara

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    -Placa motorie II.

    Terminatia axonala:

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    Terminatia axonala:

    acop. de cel. Schwann,

    contine mitocondrii,

    REN, si 300.000 vezicule

    sinaptice (!40-50 nm)

    cu ACh

    depolarizare axondeschidere can. de Ca

    fuziune vezicule cu mb.presinaptica

    eliberare Ach

    difuziune Achlegare de receptori

    (receptori- canale ionice)

    -aparitie influx ioniccu depolarizare si

    -aparitia potentialului deactiune

    -raspandirea pot. de act.

    prin sist. tubilor T, cu

    initierea contractieiSaturday, December 26, 15

    Placa motorie III.

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    Pentru prevenirea

    elaborarii unor ras-

    punsuri multiple, oenzima aflata la nivelul

    laminei externe ale

    fantei sinaptice: AchCo,

    degradeaza Ach

    Degradarea: citeva sutede milisecunde

    Colina: transportata in

    terminatia axonala(simport sodiu/colina)

    Resinteza (din acetat si

    colina), catalizata de

    acetilcolin-transferaza

    Mb. veziculelor sinaptice:

    reciclateSaturday, December 26, 15

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