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UNIVERSITATEA VALAHIA DIN TRGOVITE DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU NVMNT LA DISTAN I FORMARE CONTINU
PRACTICAL ENGLISH FOR DISTANCE - LEARNING STUDENTS
CONTENTSCUVNT NAINTE.............................................................................................3 CHAPTER ONE BASIC ENGLISH................................................................4 Lesson one Introducing oneself (conversation)5 Lesson two- Getting around (conversation)...8 Lesson three Nationalities-Countries (conversation)12 Lesson four A students daily Programme ...16 Lesson five The family...20 Lesson six Weather ...24 Lesson seven Meals...29 Lesson eight At the library33 Lesson nine Whats your job?...........................................................................37 Lesson ten At a public meeting..41 CHAPTER TWO ENGLISH FOR GEOGRAPHERS AND HISTORIANS.........................................................45 Lesson one Great Britain..46 Lesson two London...51 Lesson three The United States of America..60 Lesson four American Cities.66 Lesson five Australia.72 Lesson six Important People in Britain.76 Lesson seven Famous British Seamen...79 Lesson eight Europes Premodern Heritage.81 Lesson nine Bucharest...84 Lesson ten Romania...89 CHAPTER THREE ENGLISH FOR ECONOMISTS96 Lesson one Advertising..97 Lesson two How to Stage Successful Trade Fairs and Exhibitions.103 Lesson three Tourist Industry and Touristic Activity...107 Lesson four Foreign TradeComposition Development Trends.110 Lesson five The International Monetary Fund114 Lesson six Economic Co-operation.119 Lesson seven Marketing Past and Present...123 CHAPTER FOUR SUPLIMENTARY READINGS-ENGLISH AND AMERICAN HOLIDAYS, LITERATURE AND CIVILIZATION.126 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Halloween..127 Thanksgiving Day129 Christmas131 St. Valentines Day..134 Easter..137 William Shakespeare...141 American literature.................................................................................144 Habits and ways - Tea 146 2
Cuvnt nainten condiiile civilizaiei actuale, cnd comunicarea larg ntre oameni i popoare a devenit o realitate obinuit, cunoaterea unei limbi de circulaie internaional este o necesitate. Dac n Evul Mediu limba latin a fost pentru europeni limba comun a culturii i tiinei, astzi, n epoca ordinatoarelor, a zborurilor cosmice, a transformrilor urbane spectaculoase i a dezvoltrii fr precedent a schimburilor internaionale, toi cetenii lumii nva limba englez pentru a se nelege ntre ei. Engleza este astzi limba tiinei, a tehnicii, a comerului. Lumea tiinific i intelectual folosete poate cel mai mult aceast limb, puini fiind oamenii de tiin i cercettorii care s nu o cunoasc i s nu i redacteze lucrrile direct n englez. Ilustrrile de mai sus nu epuizeaz nici pe departe lista posibil. S ne referim acum la oamenii simpli i mai puini simpli. Cine nu a trecut prin momentul penibil cnd nu putem nfiripa o conversaie cu un strin, cnd suntem redui la gesturi, mimic sau interjecii? Unele persoane sunt dispuse s remedieze carena prin studiu, sistematic chiar. Altele, se izoleaz sub imperiul fricii ndrtul unor pori zvorte i cred c limba englez este inaccesibil lor, dup cum studierea ei (chiar la nivel elementar) li se pare un efort inutil sau, oricum prea mare. Unul din scopurile acestui curs este s demonstreze c inaccesibilitatea e o prejudecat, iar efortul merit s fie ntreprins pn i de ctre cei din fire lenevoi. n nvarea limbii engleze la un nivel mediu de cunotiine se ajunge fr dificultate i sperm c acest curs conceput pentru studenii de la forma de nvmnt la distan, va demonstra c necesitatea cunoaterii limbii engleze se poate satisface de ctre oricine, uor i cu plcere. Acest curs practic de limba englez este destinat studenilor de la specializrile Geografie, Istorie-Geografie i profilul Economic anii I i II, care doresc s aib o pregtire corespunztoare n domeniile de interes. El a fost conceput n aa fel nct, n cei doi ani de studiu ai limbii engleze, s ajute la consolidarea cunotiinelor acumulate pn aici, precum i la nsuirea de noi elemente specifice specializrii studiate.
CHAPTER ONE - BASIC ENGLISH
IntroducereChapter one Basic English (Capitolul unu Engleza de baz) se adreseaz att studenilor de la specializarea Geografie, Istorie-Geografie ct i celor de la profilul Economic. nsuirea unui limbaj de specialitate nu se poate face fr a avea o baz solid, de aceea capitolul conine n principal elemente practice i applicative la ndemna acelora care doresc s-i nsueasc, s consolideze i s foloseasc un limbaj minim de limba englez. Cele zece lecii care alctuiesc capitolul cuprind teme axate pe principalele aspecte ale vieii cotidiene de munc, sociale, culturale avnd drept scop s formeze deprinderi de limb necesare nsuirii ulterioare a limbajului legat de problematica geografic, istorico-geografic i economic. Fiecare lecie cuprinde un text nsoit de o tem gramatical prezentat sugestiv i concis prin structuri, scheme i tabele. Schemele gramaticale prezint probleme de gramatic i construcii pentru a cror nelegere i mai ales folosire, studenii ntmpin dificulti. Expunerea gramatical este urmat de diferite tipuri de exerciii lexicale i gramaticale menite s formeze deprinderi de limb la cei ce studiaz limba englez. Obiective operaionale: dup parcurgerea primului capitol studenii vor putea s: se prezinte i s fac cunotiin cu alte persoane vorbitoare de limba englez; poarte o conversaie simpl, referitoare la locul natal, meserie, i s cear indicaii pentru a ajunge n locul dorit; vorbeasc despre programul su zilnic, despre vreme i mesele principale; poat s se descurce n diferite situaii cum ar fi la bibliotec i la diferite ntlniri publice; completeze un curriculum vitae; recunoasc, s diferenieze i s foloseasc n aplicaii practice timpuri verbale precum prezentul simplu i continuu, prezentul perfect simplu i continuu, mai mult ca perfectul simplu i continuu; capete deprinderi pentru traduceri din i n limba englez;
Capitolul unu conine urmtoarele lecii:1. Lesson one Introducing oneself .5 2. Lesson two Getting around 8 3. Lesson three Nationalities-Countries ...12 4. Lesson four A students daily programme ...16 5. Lesson five The family .20 6. Lesson six Weather ...........24 7. Lesson seven Meals ..29 8. Lesson eight At the library ...........33 9. Lesson nine Whats your job? ..37 10. Lesson ten At a public meeting ..41
Bibliografie selectiv:- Banta, Andrei (1991) Essential English, Ed. Teora Bucureti - Gali, Livia & colaboratorii (1982) Limba Englez pentru nvmntul superior economic, Ed.Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti - Gleanu-Frnoag, Georgiana (1993) Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Omegapress, Bucureti -* * * - Speak English Nr. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6/ 1990 4
LESSON ONE CONVERSATION INTRODUCING ONESELF (PREZENTARI) FORMAL J.D.: Excuse me. Who are you? S.R.: Im Sandra Reynolds. Im your English teacher, and who are you? J.D.: How do you do. My names Jane David. Im a student. K.S.: And my name is Ken Smith. Im a student, too. S.R.: How do you do. (Im) glad to meet you. (Its) nice to meet you. J.D.: Its nice to meet you, too. Greetings S.R.: Good morning. (Good afternoon; Good evening). J.D.: Good evening. How are you? S.R.: Im fine thank you. And how are you? J.D.: Very well, thank you./ Rather unwell. S.R.: Good bye. See you later. J.D.: Good night. See you tomorrow. Atenie! Nu se spune niciodat Good day, nici la ntlnire nici la desprire. n engleza modern este o form de expediere a interlocutorului, ceva de felul Poi pleca. VERY FORMAL J.D.: Good morning, Professor Reynolds. Let me introduce myself. My names Jane David. Im your new student. S.R.: How do you do. Welcome to our courses. My names Sandra Reynolds. J.D.: How do you do. Im pleased to meet you, Professor Reynolds. S.R.: Im your English Professor. What are you studying this term? J.D.: Im studying English language this term and English literature next term. S.R.: Till tomorrow then. J.D.: Its been nice knowing you. Good bye for now. INFORMAL J.D.: Hi, Im Jane. Im a new student. Who are you? K.S.: Hi, Im Ken. Im a new student, too. Glad to know you. Where are you from? J.D.: Im from Canada. Are you from Canada, too? K.S.: No, Im not. Im from Scotland. J.D.: Oh, how nice! K.S.: See you soon. J.D.: Bye-bye for now.
I. EXPLANATORY NOTES1. Name = First name = Christian name = Given name: Jane, Jennifer, Robert, Mary, Kenneth, Sandra etc. Surname = Family name = Last name: Reynolds, David, Bush, Smith, MacDonald, OCasey, Roberts etc.
2. How Do We Address People? There are different ways of addressing people and of speaking: Informal or friendly between friends, teenagers, young people (classmates), businessmen; Formal between acquaintances and also for older people or people in higher jobs. Very formal for people we want to show respect to. How do we address unknown people? Excuse me, sir (madam, officer/constable etc.) Ladies and gentlemen (when addressing an audience). How about people we know? Hi, Ted / Hi, Betty (more used for young people). Hello, Fred / Hello, Barney (it is slightly more formal). We can greet acquaintances or people we know whether they are older or in higher jobs with hello, or good morning / afternoon / evening. At a very formal level, respect may be shown by adding their name: Hello, Mr. Smith (for gentlemen), Hello, Mrs. Reynolds (for married ladies), Hello, Miss David (for unmarried ladies), or Hello, Mes Green (for ladies, when their marital status is not important). If the persons have titles, they are used in calling them: Professor Hill, Dr. Brown, Dean Roberts (only one title - the highest is used together with the surname). For very high ranks we can use: Your Excellency, Your Highness, Your Sanctity. II. GRAMMAR 1.PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronume personale) Desemneaz persoanele ce pot aprea ntr-un dialog interlocutorul) sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se vorbete.
Person 1 person 2nd person 3rd personst
Nominative I you he, she, it
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
we you they
Dative (to) me (to) you (to) him (to) her (to) it (to) us (to) you (to) them
Accusative me you him, her, it
us you them
2. Verb TO BE present tense link verb (verb de legtur) Affirmative I am You are He, she, it is We are You are They are Interrogative Am I? Are you? Is he, she, it? Are we? Are you? Are they? Negative I am not You are not He, she, it is not We are not You are not They are not InterrogativeNegative Am I not? Are you not? Is he,she,it not? Are we not? Are you not? Are they not?
n engleza vorbit este mai folosit forma contras: Im a teacher. / Im not a teacher. Youre a student. / Youre not a student. Hes a policeman. / Hes not a policeman. Shes an air hostess. / Shes not an air hostess. Its an animal. / Its not an animal. Were workers./ Were not workers. Youre engineers. / Youre not engineers. Theyre taxi drivers. / Theyre not taxi drivers. Verbul TO BE ca verb de legtur (link verb) se folosete: cu un substantiv (la singular, ntotdeauna precedat de articolul nedefinit a sau an) I am a mother; cu un adjectiv, He is tired sau cu adverb de loc, He is in the room / He is there. EXERCISES I. Substitute the nouns in the following sentences by the personal pronouns in the correct case. Model: I like this book. I like it. 1. I am very pleased with this test paper. 2. John arrives at the faculty early. 3. I always give George good books to read. 4. Three students are talking about the exam. 5. The assistant-lecturer is asking Henry a question. 6. The professor is lending the student a book. 7. Students are very attentive during seminars. 8. I see my coleague going to the library. 9. Give mother a glass of water, please. 10. Read the lesson, please. 11. Lets go and see grandmother. 12. I want to give my grandparents a present. 13. Ill thank father tomorrow. 14. Look at Tom and me! 15. I cant see your friends. 16. Give the cat some milk. II. Fill in the blanks using the personal pronouns in brackets in the correct case: 1. This is a book for ... (he). 2. John always buys text-books for ... (they). 3. I never speak to ... (she) during lectures. 4. I am putting ... (it) on the shelf. 5. Every day, I see ... (you) in the classroom. 6. I pay attention to ... (it). 7. I tell ... (she) not to be late. 8. She requests ... (they) to take part in the scientific session.
LESSON TWO CONVERSATION GETTING AROUND 1. (British version) Liz: Hi, Jenny, How are you? Jenny: Rather unwell this morning. And you? Liz: Oh, Im fine, thanks, but Im sorry for you. Why are you such in a hurry? Its pretty hot today, isnt it? Can I help you? Jenny: Im late for class, and I want to buy some stationery, you know, writing paper, notebooks and a ball-(point) pen. Is there a stationers near here? Liz: Yes, of course. Can you see that restaurant over there? Jenny: The one on the corner? Liz: Turn at the restaurant and keep straight on up to the next cross-roads; go across the road and take the first turning to the left. The stationers on the left side of the street. You cant miss it. Jenny: Thanks a lot. But thats quite a distance. Liz: Yes, thats right, but you can find there everything you need: there are writing paper, pads, envelopes, refills for your pen, erasers and even a marvelous assortment of greeting cards and diaries. There are also glue, ink, thumbtacks a.s.o. * * * 2. (American version) Jenny: Pardon (Excuse) me, officer. Wheres the City Bank? Policeman: Its downtown, five blocks from here, straight ahead. Jenny: Is it on the left? Policeman: No. Its on the right. Its across the coffee shop. Jenny: Thanks very much. Policeman: Youre welcome. VOCABULARY stationery papetrie notebook blocnotes, carnet ball-(point) pen pix cross-road intersecie writing paper pad tampon pentru hrtia de scris envelope plic refill mine de pix eraser gum de ters diary jurnal (intim) glue lipici ink cerneal thumbtack pionez Explanatory notes: 1. block (in America) = cvartal, grup de case ptrat sau dreptunghiular ntre 4 strzi. block of flats / apartment house = bloc downtown = n sau spre centrul comercial al unui ora 2. Expressing GRATITUDE (expresii de mulumire): Thanks Thank you Many thanks Thanks a lot Thanks again Thank you very much Thank you very much indeed Thank you ever much for (letting me know) - Its been really marvelous 8
3. Possible responses, depending on the occasion (posibile rspunsuri, n funcie de ocazie): Dont mention it (Im glad to help you) Its all right Its my pleasure Youre welcome Im very much obliged to you Study and remember (expressions): It takes you only ten minutes to get there v trebuie numai zece minute ca s ajungei acolo Turn to the left/right! Luai-o spre stnga Go straight on/ahead! Mergei tot nainte The red light is on Semaforul arat rou Trolley buses run till oclock Troleibuzele circul pn la ora Would you mind telling me the way to ? Suntei amabil s-mi spunei care este drumul ctre ? Could you put me right? M-ai putea ndruma? This way, please! Pe aici, v rog! Take the first turning to the left/right Luai-o pe prima strad la stnga/dreapta At the next crossroads turn to the left/right La prima intersecie luai-o la stnga/dreapta Its on the right hand side Este pe partea dreapt Can you direct me to ? mi putei arta direcia ctre ? Is this the right way to ? Acesta este drumul ctre ? You are still some way off Suntei nc la o oarecare distan Its just round the corner Este chiar dup col We happen to be going in that direction ourselves ntmpltor i noi mergem n aceast direcie Im trying to find my way to - ncerc s gsesc drumul ctre You are going the wrong way Mergei ntr-o direcie greit Is it much of a walk? Este mult de mers pe jos? Do I take this street or that? S o iau pe aceast strad, sau pe cealalt? Its quite a distance Este destul de departe Which is the quickest way to ? Care este calea cea mai rapid ctre GRAMMAR 1. Verbul TO BE exprimnd existena there is / there are (este, se afl, se gsete / sunt, se afl, se gsesc) Cuvntul neaccentuat thereeste urmat de o form a verbului TO BE n propoziii care exprim noiunea de existen (este o expresie care nu exist n limba romn. Limba francez are ceva asemntor n expresia il y a). Se folosete ori de cte ori subiectul propoziiei este o persoan oarecare nedefinit sau un obiect, iar predicatul este verbul TO BE. Aceast expresie introduce noi informaii interlocutorului: Exemple: There is (Theres) a pen on the desk. There are (Therere) two books on the table. There is a glass on the table. There are lots of interesting buildings in Edinburgh. There are writing paper pads ... There is glue in the bottle. Observai c: a) There se folosete n loc de subiect; b) There is se folosete naintea unui substantiv la singular; c) There are se folosete naintea unui substantiv la plural; 9
Interogativul se formeaz: Is there a stationery near here? Are there many children in the room? Negativul: There is not (isnt). / There are not (arent). Observai c i n acest caz exist forme contrase, neaccentuate. Atenie! S nu confundai cuvntul THERE din expresiile THERE IS i THERE ARE cu adverbul THERE care se traduce cu ACOLO. ntr-o propoziie ele pot aprea mpreun. Ex. There are two chairs there. (Sunt dou scaune acolo). 2. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul Substantivelor) Rules a. Majoritatea substantivelor formeaz pluralul adugnd -s la forma singularului: b. Substantivele care se termin n -sh, -ch, -tch, -ss, -s, -x primesc -es Singular bedroom picture tap glass bus brush watch box party country leaf life tomato potato man woman child tooth foot goose mouse Examples Plural bedrooms pictures taps glasses buses brushes watches boxes parties countries leaves lives tomatoes potatoes men women children teeth feet geese mice
c. Cnd substantivele se termin n -y precedat de o consoan, -y se schimb n i i se adaug es: d. Substantivele care se termin n -f, -fe l schimb pe f n v i se adaug -es: e. Substantivele care se termin n -o precedat de o consoan primesc -es: f. Substantive cu pluralul neregulat:
Terminaia pluralului se citete: [s] [z] dup consoane surde: dup vocale i consoane [p], [t], [f], [k], [h],  sonore: [b], [d], [v], [g], [l], [m], [n], , [r],  clocks jugs taps towels baths films
[iz] dup: [s], [z], , [t], [d] wages classes brushes watches buses
EXERCISES I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the phrase: 1. There ... a teacher in the classroom. 2. There ... two teachers in the classroom. 3. There ... many pupils in the classroom. 4. There ... a dog in the room. 5. There ... books and notebooks on the shelf. 6. There ... books on the floor. 7. There ... a blackboard on the wall. 8. There ... many pictures on the wals. 9. There ... a map in the classroom. 10. There ... many flowers in the garden. II. Change these sentences according to the patterns: a) There is a large table in the room. (small) / There isnt a small one. b) There are two black cats in the garden. (white) / There arent two white ones. 1. There is a short pencil in the pencil-box. (long) 2. There are three glasses on the table. (clean) 3. There are two green books in the bag. (brown) 4. There is a young man in the room. (old) 5. There are two large armchairs in the room. (small) 6. There is an old newspaper on the table. (new) 7. There is a white dog in the schoolyard. (black) 8. There are two red blouses on the chair (blue). 9. There is a tall man in the garden. (short) 10. There are two fat cats under the tree. (thin) III. Make questions and answers. 1. There is a kitchen in the flat. (Yes) 2. There are two living-rooms in the flat. (No) 3. There is a dog in the classroom. (No) 4. There are three cats in the schoolyard. (Yes) 5. There are two books on the desk. (No) 6. There is a book on the floor. (No) 7. There is a dining-room in the house. (Yes) 8. There are two bedrooms in the house. (Yes) 9. There are three armchairs in the living-room. (Yes) 10. There is a bookcase in the bedroom. (No) IV. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural: 1. Our students club often organizes (evening party). 2. She has just put ten (tomato) on the plate. 3. All the (child) who have reached the age of six go to school. 4. Have you already brushed your (tooth)? 5. She has bought two (loaf). 6. Have you turned off the hot and cold (tap)? 7. You go to the library after (class), dont you? 8. She has put six (glass) on the table. 9. There are many fallen (leaf) on the ground. 10. I have never seen such beautiful (picture). 11. (Woman) have equal rights with (man) in our country. 12. They have put the (watch) into (box) that do not exceed an overall length of two (foot). V. Use the plural of the nouns in brackets making the necessary changes. In case no change is possible, explain the reasons: 1. He was thanked for his (work) at the hospital. 2. They were fully aware of the (spirit) of the time. 3. The poet published his new (volume) at the start of the century. 4. The Chinese invented the (compass). 5. The (information) didnt come in time. 6. I have a small (cactus) at home. 7. Dont fight with him. His (force) is enormous. 8. I feel a (pain) in my leg. 9. Its a (damage) that cant be repaired. 10. I wont take anybodys (advice). 11. I dont like his (manner) of speech. 12. Six to eight hours of practice a day gave him a great (ability) for playing the piano in less than a year. 13. Lots of (people) come to the Romanian seaside every summer. 14. I like the (fabric) my husband brought me as a birthday present. 15. She has a brooch of diamonds set in (platinum).
LESSON THREE NATIONALITIES COUNTRIES Jenny: Meet my friend, Ingrid. Pedro: Hello. Ingrid: Hello. Pleased to meet you. What nationality are you? Pedro: Im from Peru./ Im Peruvian. Where are you from? Ingrid: Im from Sweden./ Im Swedish. Pedro: Is your family in London, too? Ingrid: No, my family is in Sweden and in Australia. Pedro: Oh! Ingrid: Are you in London on holiday or on business? Pedro: Im on business. Im a physicist. Im working in a Research Centre for three months. Its not far from London. What about you? Are you a student, or a post graduate student? If not, whats your job? Ingrid: No, Im not a student. Im visiting an English family for a year to brush up my English. Are you staying in a private house, too? Pedro: At the moment Im staying at a hotel. Ingrid: Isnt too expensive? Pedro: It sure is, but tomorrow morning Im registering for a special Nuclear Physics Course, and then Im moving to a bed-sitter. Look! Here is my registration card. Be so kind and help me to fill it in. * * * MOVING IN Because the hotel is too expensive, Pedro wants to rent a nice, small apartment / flat. So, he has two ways to find it: 1. Direct conversation Pedro: Excuse me, are you Mrs. Scott? Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am. Pedro: How do you do, Mrs. Scott. Im Pedro Gonzales your new tenant. Youre the landlady, arent you? Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am. How do you do, Mr. Gonzales. Nice to meet you. This is Maggie Baxter. Shes your neighbour. Maggie: Hello, Pedro, nice to meet you. Pedro: Hello, Maggie, glad to see you, too. Can I see the bed-sitter Mrs. Scott? Is it upstairs? Mrs. Scott: Of course you can. Come in, please. Its upstairs. My flat is downstairs. Pedro: Oh, its very nice. 2. On the phone Five three oh, four nine seven eight. Mrs. Scott: Hello? Pedro: Its about the flat / apartment to let in the morning paper ads. Is it still to let? Mrs. Scott: Oh yes, of course it is. Pedro: Can you tell me about it? Mrs. Scott: There are two rooms: a living-room and a bedroom, and also a kitchen and a bathroom, of course. You can come and see it. Pedro: Where is it? 12
Mrs. Scott: Its in the neighbourhood of the University College, near Regents Park. Pedro: Whats your address? Mrs. Scott: 54 Drummond Street, near Euston Station. Pedro: Oh, and how much is the rent? Mrs. Scott: Two hundred pounds / 200 a month. Pedro: I can come in twenty or thirty minutes. Is that all right? Mrs. Scott: Yes, of course. Oh, wait. Whats your name? Pedro: Pedro Gonzales. Mrs. Scott: Can you spell it? Pedro: P-E-D-R-O G-O-N-Z-A-L-E-S Mrs. Scott: Thank you. See you in half an hour. Pedro: Good bye. See you soon. VOCABULARY bed-sitter = bed-sitting-room garsonier, camer combinat ads. (prescurtare de la advertisements) reclam, publicitate GRAMMAR 1. THE PRESENT TENSE (Common Aspect) Timpul Prezent (Aspectul Comun) Negative Form
Interrogative NegativeForm Interogative Form I work I do Do I work? Do I not work? You work not(dont)work Do you work? (Dont I work?) He, she, it works You do not work Does he, she, it Do you not work? He,she,it does not work? Does he, she, it We work (doesnt) work Do we work? not You work We do not work Do you work? work?(Doesnt They work You do not work Do they work? he..) They do not work Do we not work? Do you not work? Do they not work? Rules Examples 1. Timpul prezent, aspectul comun, se folosete pentru a arta o aciune Students study for their exams. obinuit sau repetat n prezent. 2. Adeseori este folosit cu adverbe de Every year, the Academy organizes tipul: often, usually, never, always, post-graduate courses. every year. 3. Poate arta o aciune viitoare, dac este nsoit de un adverb de timp We sit for an exam tomorrow. exprimnd viitorul. In acest caz, aciunea viitoare face parte dintr-un program stabilit. 4. Este folosit n loc de prezentul I like this book. continuu cu acele verbe care nu sunt ntrebuinate la forma continu (to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, to want, to own, to consist of/in, to belong) 13
THE PRESENT TENSE (Continuous Aspect) Timpul Prezent (Aspectul Continuu) Se formeaz cu verbul TO BE la prezent i participiul prezent (forma n ing) a verbului de conjugat. Mai simplu, se poate exprima: TO BE + Ving ( V este verbul de conjugat). Affirmative Form I am (Im) working You are working He, she, it is working We are working You are working They are working Negative Form Interrogative Form NegativeInterrogative Form Am I working? Am I Are you working? working? Are you Is he, she, it working? working? Is he, she, it working? Are we working? Are we working? Are you working? Are you working? Are they working? Are they working?
I am not working You are not working He, she, it is not working We are not working You are working They are working not not
not not not not not not
Rules 1. Prezentul continuu arat o aciune n curs de desfurare n momentul vorbirii. Uneori, momentul aciunii este fixat prin adverbe de timp ca: now, at the present moment. 2. Prezentul continuu exprim uneori o aciune ce caracterizeaz subiectul ntro anumit perioad de timp. Aceasta rezult din context. 3. Ca i aspectul comun, poate arta o aciune viitoare care a fost planificat ntr-un moment prezent, dac este nsoit de un adverb de timp exprimnd viitorul. EXERCISES
Examples They are studying for tomorrows examination. We are not planning our holidays at the present moment. What are you doing here in Bucharest? I am studying economics.
They are coming to see us next week.
I. Put the following sentences in the third person singular: 1. We listen to courses. 2. They take down notes. 3. You study for your exam. 4. I like learning when I enjoy the subject. 5. You always lend me your text-books. 6. I go home at 2 oclock. 7. I usually come to the faculty at 8 oclock. 8. I pay attention to what the lecturer says. 9. You like being in time for the courses. II. Make the following sentences a) interrogative b) negative 1. I leave home at 7 a.m. every day. 2. This student speasks English very well. 3. He reads very fast. 4. Students read sports magazines every day. 5. He writes his 14
homework in the afternoon. 6. I always go to the cinema with pleasure. 7. He likes to watch television on Saturday evening. 8. He likes Latin grammar. 9. He reads a few pages of Spanish literature every week. 10. You write many letters. III. Use the verbs in brackets in the present tense (common or continuous aspect): 1. Students from other countries (come) to get trained as economists at the Academyof Economic Studies. 2. We (attend) classes regularly. 3. He (like) English. 4. Today, we (study) commercial correspondence in our English seminar. 5. We (rehearse) for a show this evening. 6. They (meet) at 8 oclock tonight. 7. She just (leave) for the mountains. 8. He (not like) to borrow the books, he (prefer) to buy them. 9. Where you (hurry)? 10. We (hurry) to the lecture-hall as we (not want) to be late. IV. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parantheses using Present Tense Simple or Continuous: 1. I ... the water for coffee in a special pot (to boil). 2. Come and make the coffee! The water ... (to boil). 3. This shop ... at 8 a.m. and ... at 8 p.m. (to open; to close). 4. I ... the book to read the new lesson (to open). 5. Dont shout that loud! I ... you very well(to hear). 6. Dont interrupt them! They ... to a scientific broadcast (to listen). 7. I ... what you ... (to see; to mean). 8. Wait aminute, will you? I ... them off (to see). 9. A man ... with his nose (to smell). 10. Usually she ... a very quiet child, but now she ... naughty (to be; to be) V. Put the verbs in parantheses in the Present Tense Simple. Notice the adverbs they are associated with: 1. Mother never ... (to go out) without a shopping bag. 2. We often ... (to play) chess in the evenings.3. They usually ... (to do) their shopping at this supermarket. 4. She always ... (to listen to) the concerts broadcast on the radio on Sunday mornings. 5. I occasionally ... (to read) a thriller before going to sleep. 6. Our kids frequently ... (to break) something while playing hide-and-seek in their room. 7. Grandmother hardly ever ... (to take) a sleeping pill. 8. They always ... (to come) in time. 9. My husband never ... (to catch) anything when he ... (to go) fishing. 10. Do your friends sometimes ... (to ask) you to babysit? VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions: 1. Except ... Romanian students, there is also a considerable number ... students coming ... other countries. 2. There are canteens providing meals ... the students. 4. This term, we insist ... commercial correspondence. 5. Students attend conferences ... various subjects. 6. This professor gives lectures ... political economy. 7. All higher education institutes are endowed ... libraries. 8. The students spend their holidays ... the mountains.
LESSON FOUR A STUDENTS DAILY PROGRAMME The clock has just struck six. Mary is in her bedroom. She has got up, opened the window and turned on the radio. She is doing her morning exercises to the music. bathroom It is half past six. Mary has got into the bathroom. She is standing at the wash-basin. What has she just done? She has just turned on the hot and cold taps. What is she going to do next? She is going to pour some water into the glass and brush her teeth. Then she is going to have a shower. She doesnt have a bath in the morning. She takes a bath before she goes to bed. Mary has already brushed her teeth with her tooth-brush and tooth-paste. She has had a warm shower. She has dried herself on the towel and has got dressed. What is she doing now? She is doing her hair in front of the lookingglass. dining-room It is seven oclock. Mary is in the dining-room. Has she already had her breakfast? No, not yet. She is laying the table for breakfast. She has just put some coffee-cups, a sugar-bowl, a milk-jug and some plates on the table. Is she going to have breakfast by herself? No, she is not. She is waiting for her brother who hasnt shaved yet. to leave for It is half past seven. Mary and her brother have just finished their breakfast. They are in a hurry. They are leaving for the Academy of Economic Studies. to get to It takes them twenty minutes to get to the Academy by bus. They arrive there ten minutes before the bell rings. So they have a chat with their fellowstudents. Only six students of their group are from Bucharest, the others either come from different parts of the country, or from other countries. They usually have a lot of things to talk about. class The classes begin at eight oclock and are over at ten minutes to two three times a week. Twice a week they have classes in the afternoon. They regularly seminar attend lectures and seminars. After classes in the morning they have their lunch at the students canteen. Then they go home on foot. On their way home they do some shopping. After a rest short rest they do their homework and read up for seminars. Then Mary prepares something for dinner and her brother helps her. They have their dinner at seven oclock in the evening. After dinner they usually look through some newspapers or magazines, or read some novels or listen to music, or watch a film on TV. On Sundays they often go to the students club that regularly organizes various cultural activities such as evening parties, cinema shows, lectures on music and literature with recitals by famous musicians and actors. office MORNING AND EVENING - What do you usually do at your office? - In the morning I receive letters and cables which I have to answer that very day. My secretary usually helps me to type the answers. Twice a week I have a meeting where we discuss different business questions with our chief manager. Almost every day I have business interviews, talks or conferences with the representatives of the foreign firms we have done business with lately. In the afternoon I usually make appointments on the phone with engineers of the producing enterprises or foreign businessmen for the next day. Sometimes I make business trips with a view to concluding sales contracts. 16 to get up bedroom
- What do you usually do in the evening? - We generally stay at home and watch TV. Once a week we go to the pictures. Occasionally we go to a dance. - Have you been to the theatre this month? - Yes, we have been to the theatre twice this month. VOCABULARY bedroom - dormitor to strike (struck, struck) a bate, a suna to get up (got, got) a se scula to get into a intra to get to a ajunge la to get dressed a se mbrca bathroom camera de baie to stand (stood, stood) a sta n picioare sugar-bowl zaharni milk-jug can de lapte to shave a se brbieri plate farfurie to leave for (left, left) - a pleca lately n ultimul timp to do ones hair a-i aranja prul, a se coafa to turn on (the radio, the tap) a deschide (radioul, robinetul) to pour some water a turna (ceva) ap to dry oneself on the towel a se terge cu prosopul to lay (laid, laid) the table a pune masa to have breakfast / lunch / dinner a lua micul dejun / prnzul / cina to be in a hurry a se grbi to have a chat a sta de vorb to read up for seminars a se pregti pentru seminarii to do ones homework a-i face temele to have / to take a shower a face un du to conclude a sales contract a ncheia un contract de vnzare-cumprare to make an appointment a fixa o ntlnire with a view to (+gerunziu) n vederea, pentru a GRAMMAR THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (Perfectul Compus) Perfectul compus se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului to have la prezent i cu participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat: TO HAVE + V3 Common Aspect Negative Form
Affirmative Form I have finished You have finished He, she, it has finished
Interrogative(-Negative) Form I have not (havent) Have I (not) finished? finished. (Havent I finished?) You have not finished. Have you (not) finished? He, she, it has not Has he, she, it (not) (hasnt) finished. finished? (Hasnt he,she,it 17
We have finished You have finished They have finished
We have not finished You have not finished They have not finished
finished?) Have we (not) finished? Have you (not) finished? Have they (not) finished?
Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formeaz din forma scurt a infinitivului, prin adugarea desinenei ed, dup urmtoarele reguli ortografice: Spelling Rules 1) Verbele terminate la infinitiv n e mut pierd aceast vocal naintea desinenei ed 2) Verbele terminate la infinitive n y precedat de o consoan, schimb y n i Examples to live lived to arrive arrived to celebrate celebrated to study studied to dry dried to hurry hurried 3) Verbele monosilabice terminate ntr- to stop - stopped o consoan precedat de o vocal scurt dubleaz consoana final 4) Verbele plurisilabice, terminate ntr- to pre`fer / preferred o consoan precedat de o vocal i to com`pel / compelled avnd accentual pe ultima silab, to `travel / travelled precum i verbele terminate n l, indiferent de accent, dubleaz consoana final The use of the Present Perfect Tense Common Aspect Rules 1. Present Perfect exprim o aciune trecut care are legtur cu prezentul. a) Legtura poate fi temporal: aciunea ncepe n trecut i continu n present. Momentul nceperii aciunii se indic prin cuvntul since (prepoziie, conjuncie, adverb) din, de cnd. Durata aciunii se red printr-o locuiune adverbial introdus prin prepoziia for de: b) Legtura poate fi cauzal: aciunea sa terminat, dar urmrile ei continu s existe n present: 2. Present Perfect se refer la o perioad de timp nc n curs, ceea ce este indicat prin adverbele sau locuiunile adverbiale: today, this week, this summer, this month, lately, of late, this morning, this year, in the last few years. 3. Present Perfect exprim o aciune care a avut loc ntr-un trecut foarte apropiat. El este nsoit atunci de adverbe de timp nedefinit ca: often, Examples I have seen this film. I have known him for many years. We have not seen him since Monday. He has not slept well since that night.
Mary has opened the window. She has turned on the tap.
Have you been to the theatre this month? She has worked much this week.
The clock has just struck six. She has already brushed her teeth. He hasnt shaved yet.
seldom, ever, never, just, yet, always, already. EXERCISES I. Speak about Marys working day according to the plan: a) What she usually does in the morning (before breakfast). b) What she generally does at the Academy of Economic Studies. c) What she usually does after classes and in the evenings. d) How she spends her time on Sundays. II. Complete the dialogues using the words in brackets: When do your classes begin? (8 oclock; generally; in the morning0 How many classes do you have every day? (not more than six; sometimes four) Do you go straight home after classes? ( not always; the library or the readingroom; sometimes) What do you usually do there? ( to read books and magazines; to make notes on; to look through newspapers) And when do you usually do your English lessons? (to have got the necessary books; if; to do ones homework at home) Do you work in the library till late in the evening? (not to stay; late) And how do you spend your time in the evening when you are free? (to watch television; to go to the pictures or to the theatre; to go to see ones friends) Do you go to bed late? (not very; at about 11; as a rule). III. Use since or for and translate the sentences into Romanian: 1. I havent seen her Sunday. 2. I havent seen them 1980. 3. We havent seen them ten years. 4. She has been here morning. 5. We have been here an hour and a half. 6. He hasnt shaved two days. 7. I have known him five years. IV. Insert: a) the past participle of the regular verbs: to open, to turn, to pour, to brush, to dry, to shave, to finish, to stay, to watch, to live: 1. He has just the window. 2. She has just on the radio. 3. She has already her teeth. 4. She has already some water into the glass. 5. We have already our breakfast. 6. Has she herself on the towel? 7. Has he already ? 8. Have you at home and a film on TV? 9. They havent in Constantza. b) the past participle of the irregular verbs: to see, to strike, to get up, to put, to do, to go, to come, to have, to be, to lay, to stand, to leave: 1. I have this film on TV. 2. The clock has just seven. 3. George hasnt yet. 4. Have you a sugar-bowl on the table? 5. Why havent you your hair? 6. Jane has to the students club. 7. Has your brother home? 8. She has just a cold shower. 9. Have you to the pictures this week? 10. Who has the table for breakfast? 11. Who has just at the wash-basin? 12. They have just for their office. V. Translate into English: 1. Nu v-am vzut de doi ani. Unde ai fost? 2. Cine a deschis robinetul de ap cald? 3. N-am luat nc micul dejun. 4. Ai terminat micul dejun? Da, mi-a plcut foarte mult. 5. Ct este ora le dvs.? Ceasul meu a stat. 6. De cnd suntei la Bucureti? Sunt aici de duminic. 7. De cnd locuiete fratele tu n Bucureti? Din 1974. 8. De cnd avei televizorul? Numai de dou luni. 19
LESSON FIVE THE FAMILY student parents brother son grandparents daughter uncle cousin Mary is twenty years old. She is a student of the Faculty of the Agrarian Economy and Accounting. She lives with her parents in Bucharest. Her father is a worker. He works as a welder at a large plant. Her mother is a weaver at a textile mill. Mary has a brother. Marys brother, John is a doctor at the Brncovenesc Hospital. He has been working there since 1979. He has a family of his own: a wife and three children: two sons and one daughter. Helen, Johns wife, is an assistant-lecturer at the Academy of Economic Studies. Marys grand mother and grand father are pensioners. They live in Braov. Their grand sons and grand daughter often spend their holidays at their grand parents. Marys uncle lives in a provincial town. He is a miner. His wife is a very kind woman and a good housewife. Jane, their daughter, is Marys cousin. Marys great grand mother lives with them. * * * John: Where do you live? Peter: I live with my parents and grand parents in Bucharest. John: Have you got any sisters and brothers? Peter: Yes, our family is quite a big one: I have three brothers and two sisters who are twins. John: Are they older than you? Peter: I have only one brother who is older than me. The others are all younger. John: What is your elder brother? Peter: He is a civil engineer. He lives in Constantza. He is married and has two children. My sister-in-law is an economist. I can tell you Im very proud of being an uncle. I love my niece and my nephew very much. John: Oh, Im sure you do. Do they often come to Bucharest? Peter: No, they dont. You see, most of our relatives live there my uncles, aunts, and all my cousins. VOCABULARY parent printe; tat sau mam father tat mother mam welder sudor weaver estor son fiu daughter fiic great grandparent strbunic sau strbunic grand mother bunic grand father bunic grand daughter nepoat de bunic (bunic) grand son nepot de bunic (bunic) housewife gospodin sister sor brother frate cousin vr sau verioar twins gemeni 20
civil engineer inginer constructor to marry a cstori; a se cstori sister-in-law cumnat brother-in-law cumnat uncle unchi aunt mtu niece nepoat (de unchi sau mtu) nephew nepot (de unchi sau mtu) relative rud in-laws rude prin alian bachelor celibatar spinster celibatar an only child copil unic mill uzin, fabric, filatur, moar GRAMMAR I. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS ( Adjectivele i pronumele posesive) Possessive Adjectives Singular my meu, mea, mei, mele your tu, ta, ti, tale his lui her ei its lui, ei Possesive Pronouns Singular mine al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele yours al tu, a ta, ai ti, ale tale his al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui hers al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei its su, a sa, ai si, ale sale Plural ours al nostru, a noastr, ai notri, ale noastre yours al vostru, a voastr, ai votri, ale voastre theirs al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor Plural our - nostru, noastr, notri, noastre your vostru, voastr, votri, voastre their lor
Pronumele posesiv nlocuiete att numele obiectului posedat ct i al posesorului. Pronumele posesive nu determin substantive ca adjectivele posesive, ci le nlocuiesc. Observai mai jos diferena dintre adjectivul i pronumele posesiv i pronumele personal n cazul dativ/acuzativ: Posesive adjective Posesive pronoun Personal pronoun Its my car. Its mine. It belongs to me. II. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS (Adjectivele i pronumele demonstrative) de apropiere this these 21 de deprtare that those
Se traduc: this acest, aceast; aceste, aceasta that acel, acea; acela, aceea these aceti, aceste; acetia, acestea those acei, acele; aceia, acelea
1. Possessive Adjectives Where is my book? She gave me his address. Our classroom is very nice . His coat is new. Her dress is nice. Our house stands in a quiet street The room is large. Its walls are white. . 2. Demonstrative Adjectives This young man is my best friend. That house is very small. These pencils are good. Those flowers are roses.
Possessive Pronouns This book is mine. I have lost my pencil Please, give me yours. This is not their house, theirs is bigger than his. The new coat is his. This nice dress is hers. This house is ours. The fault is mine. These seats are theirs. Demonstrative Pronouns This is my dictionary and that is hers. These are his magazines, and those are mine.
III. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Prezentul perfect continuu) Se formeaz cu ajutorul verbului TO BE la prezentul perfect i participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: HAVE (HAS) BEEN + Ving Affirmative I have been working / Ive been working You have been working He, she, it has been working/Hes been We have been working You have been working They have been working Negative I have not been working / I havent been You have not been working He, she, it has not been working We have not been working You have not been working They have not been working Interrogative Have I been working? Have you been working? Has he, she, it been working? Have we been working? Have you been working? Have they been working?
Interrogative - Negative Have I not been working?/ Havent I been Have you not been working? Has he, she, it not been working? Have we not been working? Have you not been working? Have they not been working?
Prezentul perfect la aspectul continuu se folosete: 1. pentru o aciune care a nceput n trecut i care continu i n present: Ive been waiting for him for half an hour. (Im still waiting for him) 2. pentru o aciune care a nceput n trecut i care tocmai s-a ncheiat: Im so sorry Im late. Have you been waiting for me for a long time? EXERCISES I. Enlarge upon: a) Your own family. b) Three relatives. Describe each one to a friend: - What each relative looks like. - Where he / she lives and works. - What his / her interests are. II. Ask questions to the following sentences, according to the model: Model: Ive been waiting for you for half an hour. How long have you been waiting for me? 1. He has been teaching French for two years. 2. Ive been writing the letter for an hour. 3. The children have been playing in the park since they came from school. 4. She has been working in the garden since 8 oclock. 5. The boys have been fishing since early in the morning. 6. He has been staying with us for a week. 7. He has been reading since I have been here. 8. I have been peeling potatoes for twenty minutes now. 9. She has been teaching at this school for five years. III. Write the following sentences in the plural: 1. This is an interesting book. 2. That clock is slow. 3. This little boy is Marys brother. 4. That young man is a student at the Faculty of Trade. 5. This family is a very big one. 6. That play was very good, the acting was wonderful indeed! 7. That is a naughty boy, isnt he? 8. This is the most beautiful crystal glass Ive ever seen. 9. That dictionary was printed in 1903. 10. This is the ring she lost yesterday. IV. Replace the underlined words by possessive adjectives: 1. Johns book is on the desk. 2. The childrens toys are neatly arranged on the shelves. 3. My sisters room is very large and clean. 4. Where are mothers shoes? 5. Our brothers new books are extremely valuable 6. Marys old flat looks quite shabby. 7. The students copybooks are all on the desks. 8. Your sisters watch is very nice and keeps good time. V. Translate into English: a) 1. Familia lor este foarte numeroas. 2. Casa noastr este situat pe o strad extrem de linitit. 3. Familia ei locuiete n Bucureti; unde locuiete a ta? 4. Fratele ei mai mare lucreaz de doi ani la o uzin de tractoare. 5. Inelul lui de logodn este aici; unde este al tu? 6. Aceast tnr este fata cumnatului vostru, nu-i aa? 7. Acestea sunt darurile de nunt pe care le-au primit tinerii cstorii de la bunica lor. 8. Aceste verighete sunt pentru nunta lor de argint. 9. Florile acelea le-am cumprat pentru stbunica mea. 10. Apartamentul acela este nc neocupat.
LESSON SIX WEATHER People everywhere enjoy talking about the weather, Isnt the weather nice today? or Hasnt the weather been awful lately? are excellent beginnings for informal conversations. Weather conditions across Romania are varied but generally speaking it is climate a temperate continental climate. season The year is divided into four seasons: spring which begins officially with the equinox in mid March and then summer, autumn and winter. temperature Temperatures in Romania are measured according to Centigrade not like in England and in the United States where they are measured according to the Fahrenheit scale, on which 32 degrees is the freezing point of water and 212 degrees the boiling point. Fahrenheit temperatures can be converted to Centigrade, and vice versa by the use of simple formulas that may be found in any general reference book. severe Winter weather varies widely: with severe conditions in the northern parts of the country and milder conditions in the southern areas. In the mountains, subzero temperatures are common and there is much snow. In the south there are fewer days with freezing temperatures. Spring is a delightful season. The temperatures are moderate, and the blooming trees and flowers make the city and the countryside bright with colour. Everyone longs to get outside and enjoy the new season. Many students find it hard to concentrate on their work and we jokingly refer to this condition as spring fever. hot Summer is longer and hotter in the southern part than in the northern one. The mountains and the sea coast generally enjoy moderate temperatures. Summer is the great season for all sports in the open air. Most people take their vacations during summer, and the highways are crowded. mild Autumn, like spring, has many mild days and comfortable temperatures. Nature puts on its second display of colour, with the red and yellow of the leaves rain and the bright fall flowers. Toward the end of autumn, there is abundant rain, as the weather gradually gets colder and winter sets in. weather Scientific weather forecasting is a serious matter and the concern of the forecasting Romanian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The weather reports and prediction are printed in most newspapers and are read regularly over the radio and TV. weather * * * A: Do you think well be able to go to the beach tomorrow? B: Why not? Have the plans changed? A: No, but Im worried about the weather. It might rain. B: It certainly seems fine now. Theres not a cloud in the sky. A: Yes, but you know how quickly the weather can change around here. B: Not a chance. The Weather Institute has announced fine weather. A: What time shall we be on the beach? B: Any time after day-break. Would seven oclock do? Or perhaps you want to make it even earlier? A: Seven oclock is all right with me.
VOCABULARY awful groaznic climate clim equinox echinox solstice solstiiu degree grad to freeze a nghea to convert a transforma mild blnd delightful ncnttor lately n ultimul timp informal neoficial accuracy exactitate flood inundaie high wind vnt puternic boiling point punct de fierbere to be converted a fi transformat reference book carte de referin weather forecasting timpul probabil according to n conformitate cu to long a nzui din tot sufletul, a dori fierbinte / cu pasiune, a tnji display expunere, expoziie, prezentare, etalare GRAMMAR THE PAST TENSE ( Timpul trecut) InterrogativeNegative I visited I did not visit Did I visit? Did I not visit? You visited You did not visit Did you visit? Did you not visit? He, she, it visited He,she,it did not Did he,she,it Did he,she,it not visit visit? visit We visited We did not visit Did we visit? Did we not visit? You visited You did not visit Did you visit? Did you not visit? They visited They did not visit Did they visit? Did they not visit? The use of the Past Tense Rules Examples 1. Past Tense exprim o aciune trecut They asked me to come earlier. terminat care nu are legtur cu prezentul. 2. Exprim o aciune care are loc ntr- I met him at a concert two weeks ago. un moment precis n trecut. 3. Exprim o aciune care are loc n cursul unei perioade terminate, We spent our vacation at the seaside exprimat prin adverbe de timp definit last year. ca: yesterday, last night, last week etc. 4. Dup when se folosete When did they graduate from the ntotdeauna Past Tense cnd aciunea institute? are loc n trecut 5. Pentru a exprima o aciune repetat He used to come and see us every week 25 Affirmative Negative Interrogative
n trecut folosim used + infinitiv, would end. + infinitivul scurt She would walk about the garden for hours. ADJECTIVES DEGREES OF COMPARISON ( Adjectivele gradele de comparaie) Comparaia sintetic comparativ superlativ taller the tallest
pozitiv 1. Adjective monosilabice 2. Adjective bisilabice terminate n: -y -ow -er -ble Adjective plurisilabice Comparativul a) de superioritate b) de egalitate c) de inferioritate Superlativul a) absolut b) relativ c) de inferioritate Cnd se compar dou lucruri sau fiine se folosete n general comparativul precedat de articolul hotrt, iar cnd se compar trei sau mai multe lucruri sau fiine se folosete superlativul. n limba englez exist comparative duble care denot o intensificare ce se red prin: a) repetare (din ce n ce mai, tot mai) b) cu ajutorul unor astfel de cuvinte sau expresii ca: far, still, ever, much, a great deal etc. Pentru a reda cu ct mai...cu att mai se folosesc dou comparative precedate de the Superlativul absolut se mai poate forma cu ajutorul urmtoarelor adverbe: extremely, terribly, exceedingly, quite. Most se folosete numai n cazul adjectivelor cu comparaie analitic. tall
pretty narrow clever able
prettier the prettiest narrower the narrowest cleverer the cleverest abler the ablest Comparaia analitic interesting more the most interesting interesting taller than, more interesting than as tall as, as interesting as not so tall as, less tall than, not so interesting as, less interesting than very tall, very interesting the tallest, the most interesting the least tall, the least interesting John is the taller of the two brothers. John is the tallest of his classmates.
The days are getting shorter and shorter. The problems to solve are more and more interesting. His exercise is far better than hers. We attach ever greater significance to this work. The longer the days the shorter the nights. The more you study the better you know your lesson. This is an extremely attractive book. They lived in a terribly noisy street.
It was a most beautiful day.
Superlativul relativ al tuturor This homework is far more difficult than the adjectivelor poate fi accentuat previous one. prin far i by far. Yesterdays trip was less enjoyable than we expected by far.
EXERCISES I. Enlarge on: a) The weather conditions in Romania. b) The four seasons and their main characteristic. c) Your favourite season. II. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives: Sad, grey, dry, lovely, heavy, simple, mild, few, bright, hard, hot, yellow, abundant, serious, dangerous, dull, fresh, thick, cool, severe. III. Change the following sentences into the past: 1. Weather conditions change quite often. 2. The day is rainy and we cant go on the trip. 3. I like to watch the snowflakes fall from the grey sky. 4. The streets are slippery and we have to be careful. 5. Towards the end of autumn the temperature grows colder. 6. Snow begins to melt under the bright sunrays. 7. Everything looks fresh, new and joyous. 8. We listen to the weather forecast on the radio. IV. Use the adjectives in brackets in the proper degrees of comparison: 1. Winters are (mild) in the southern areas of our country. 2. In the south there are (few) days with freezing temperatures. 3. Last year we had (heavy) snowfalls than usual. 4. In September we may have some of (lovely) autumn days. 5. The sky is cloudless and if the heat wave lasts, we might have (hot) month. 6. I feel (good) in spring than in any other season. 7. Yesterday we had a very cold day but today it is much (cold). 8. It isnt any (warm) today than it was yesterday, is it? 9. Which is the part of our country with (abundant) rainfall? 10. In spring flowers have (bright) colours. 11. In winter we have (low) temperatures with few days above the freezing point. 12. Summer is (good) season for outdoor sports. 13. Today it is (little) windy than yesterday. 14. I am sure my exercise is as (good) as yours. V. Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the adjectives or adverbs in brackets: 1. (soon, good) Thethe rain stops the2. (strong) The wind getsand3. (much, good) Thehe worked theresults he obtained. 4. (early, good) Thewe start the5. (little) He seemed to getandinterested in the subject. 6. (high, cold) Thewe climbed theit became. 7. (much, rich) Theyou read thebecomes your vocabulary. 8. (fine, much) Thethe weather the... agreeable our stay in the mountains. 9. (few) There areandmistakes in your exercises. VI. Translate into English: 1. Anul trecut am avut o iarn aspr. 2. Noaptea trecut vntul a suflat foarte puternic. 3. Cnd a nceput s plou? 4. ncercau s se concenterze asupra subiectului. 5. Merge la munte n fiecare vacan de iarn. 6. Buletinul meteorologic a anunat timp frumos. 7. A plecat ieri cu trenul i se ntoarce peste dou sptmni. 8. Nu am urmrit explicaia. 9. Am hotrt s-mi schimb 27
proiectele de vacan. 10. Luna trecut am fcut o excursie foarte frumoas n nordul rii. 11. Nu i-am recunoscut dup atia ani. 12. n fiecare an merge n Delt pentru cteva zile. 13. Cnd ai vizitat Nordul Moldovei? 14. S-au hotrt n legtur cu data plecrii. 15 Clima unei ri depinde de poziia sa geografic. 16. n Romnia gsim o clim temperat-continental caracterizat de existena a patru anotimpuri. 17. Vremea se schimb odat cu schimbarea anotimpurilor. 18. n ara noastr avem cea destul de rar dar n Marea Britanie sunt multe zile cu cea.
LESSON SEVEN MEALS meal breakfast lunch As a rule we have three meals a day: breakfast in the morning, lunch in the middle of the day, and dinner in the evening. Breakfast is a frugal meal; nevertheless it means laying the table, boiling eggs, preparing tea and coffee to be served with rolls, toast, butter, marmalade, cheese, ham and some dairy products. Lunch usually begins with some appetizers such as a glass of plum brandy, some olives, then, comes a cold or warm horsdoeuvre followed by a soup. We, Romanians, are fond of clear soups, consomms, bouillons, meat ball soups, dumpling soups and chicken borsch. For the main course we may usually have some grilled, roast, boiled or fried fish or meat with plenty of vegetables or rice, some fruit, fresh or stewed, a cake, some ice-cream, a pie and a cup of black coffee to finish with. We generally have water or mineral water for lunch, but on special occasions we may have wine or beer. The Romanian dinner may be a light meal consisting of a glass of tea or milk and some sandwiches or it may be a big meal with cold meat or roast poultry, an omelette, a salad, and a pudding followed by some sweets. In England, meal-times differ from ours. The English have their breakfast between seven and nine in the morning, lunch between twelve and two in the afternoon, tea between four and five oclock and dinner at seven in the evening. They may also have supper, a light meal at about 10 or 11, at home or at the restaurant. English breakfast is generally a more substantial meal than in our country. It consists of fruit juice, corn flakes with milk, cream and sugar or porridge, followed by fried bacon and eggs. Some marmalade made of oranges maybe spread on the toast. Sometimes they may have a boiled egg, cold ham and black or white coffee. English food is rather plain compared to ours. They are not very fond of soups and they prefer warm consomms, beef, chicken, oxtail soups or cream soups. Fish, meat or poultry which comes next is generally fried or roasted. The favourite meal with the British is mutton and lamb with a mint sauce and all sorts of sauted vegetables and mixed salads. As for supper they may have fish, cold veal, pork or a steak and chips with some vegetables. Before having a meal we lay the table, we spread the table cloth and put on glasses, napkins, the salt cellar, the pepper box, the mustard pot, the bread basket. If it is breakfast we take the sugar-basin, cups, saucers, teaspoons, forks and knives out of the side-board. We cut the bread, the ham, the sausages and the cheese into slices and put them on a dish. For dinner we put soup plates and dinner plates before each person. The soup is brought in a soup-tureen and the other courses on dishes and plates. When the meal is over we clear the table. We clear away the plates, dishes and cutlery and wash them up in the kitchen. * * * Alice: What are we going to have for lunch today? Mother: Well, we have soup, beef steak and chips and an apple-pie. But are you already hungry? Its rather early for lunch. I was just baking the pie. Alice: All right. Ill wash my hands and set the table until everything is ready. Mother: Lunch is ready now. You may go and call the others. 29
to lay the table
to clear the table
John: Steak and chips! Thats my favourite meal! Mother: Help yourself until they are still hot, but remember we have apple-pie for dessert. VOCABULARY frugal frugal, cumptat roll chifl, corn appetizer aperitiv hors-doeuvre gustare naintea mesei propriu-zise consomm sup bouillon ciorb rneasc, bulion course fel de mncare (ca ordine) to grill a frige la grtar to broil a frige la grtar to boil a fierbe to roast a (se) frige, a (se) prji to fry a (se) prji pickles murturi poultry carne de pasre, psri de curte pudding budinc porridge gri de ovz fiert n lapte (terci de ovz) plain fad, fr gust mutton carne de oaie lamb carne de miel steak friptur la grtar sideboard bufet (cu vesel) soup-tureen supier dish 1. platou de servit, farfurie; 2. fel de mncare; pl. vase(de buctrie) cutlery tacmuri helping porie dairy products produse lactate plum brandy uic meat ball soup ciorb de perioare dumpling soup sup cu glute stewed fruit compot oxtail soup sup de coad de vit to lay the table a pune masa to set the table a pune masa to spread the table cloth a ntinde faa de mas to clear the table a strnge masa help yourself to - servii-v cu GRAMMAR THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (Trecutul Continuu) Affirmative I was coming You were coming / Youre coming He, she, it was coming We were coming You were coming They were coming 30 Negative I was not (wasnt) coming You were not (werent) coming He, she, it was not coming We were not coming You were not coming They were not coming
Interrogative Was I coming? Were you coming? Was he, she, it coming? Were we coming? Were you coming? Were they coming?
Interrogative Negative Was I not coming? / Wasnt I coming? Were you not coming? Was he, she, it, not coming? Were we not coming?/Werent we coming? Were you not coming? Were they not coming?
Se formeaz din verbul TO BE la timpul trecut i participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: WERE / WAS + Ving The use of the Past Continuous Tense Rules Examples 1. Trecutul continuu exprim o aciune n desfurare la un moment dat n trecut. Acest moment poate fi indicat de: This time yesterday I was preparing a) o expresie adverbial: at...oclock, at lunch. that time, this time yesterday b) o alt aciune: I was just having breakfast when you came. 2. Pentru aciuni paralele n trecut, While we were having dinner we forma continu se poate folosi att n watched TV. propoziia principal, ct i n cea sau secundar. De obicei, se evit folosirea While we had dinner we were formei continue n ambele propoziii. watching TV. 3. n vorbirea indirect n locul Vorbire direct: She said: I am prezentului continuu. cooking lunch just now. Vorbire indirect: She said she was cooking lunch just then. REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS (Pronumele reflexive i de ntrire) Pronume de ntrire I did it myself (eu nsumi am fcut-o) He enjoys himself (se He himself cooked the meal distreaz) (el nsui a gtit mncarea) She came by herself (a venit We prepared everything singur) ourselves (am pregtit totul singuri) See for yourselves (convingei-v singuri) To be by oneself ( a fi singur) Pronume reflexive I cut myself (m-am tiat) Examples
myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves oneself
Rules Pronumele reflexiv, se aeaz dup 31
verb i se folosete: 1. cnd aciunea verbului se rsfrnge asupra subiectului. Tendina actual este de eliminare a pronumelui. 2. n diateza reflexiv. 3. n expresii idiomatice precedat de by, of, for (cu sensul de singur)
I cut myself while I was preparing soup. You wash (yourself) in the morning. He enjoyed himself at the party. I was all by myself when it happened. The plate fell of itself. You must see for yourself. 4. n comparaii dup like, than, He is a better cook than herself. as n locul pronumelui personal. Pronumele de ntrire se aeaz n He himself has made the layer cake. general dup substantivul sau He has made the layer cake himself. pronumele pe care l ntrete sau la sfritul propoziiei. EXERCISES I. Translate the following questions and answer them: a) 1. What does your breakfast usually consist of? 2. Is there any difference between Romanian and English breakfast? 3. Do you generally have lunch at home or at a canteen? 4. What is your favourite sweet dish? 5. Why do the English pour milk in their coffee? 6. What are the English meals? 7. What are their favourite dishes? 8. How do you lay the table for two? b) 1. Care sunt principalele mese ale zilei? 2. Obinuii s luai o mas copioas seara? 3. Preferai ap mineral sau vin la masa de prnz? 4. Ajutai vreodat pe prini la strnsul mesei? 5. V place cafeaua neagr sau o preferai cu lapte? 6. V place mncarea mai gustoas sau mai fad? II. Answer the question using the Past Tense Continuous of the underlined verbs in your answers: Model: Why did you put salt in your coffee? (to read at breakfast time) I put salt in my coffee because I was reading at breakfast time. 1. Why didnt you buy anything for lunch? (to rain when I wanted to go out). 2. When did you learn that wonderful recipe? (to live with my aunt). 3. Why did the coffee boil over? (not to watch it). 4. When did you get the bad news? (to have lunch). 5. Why is your cake burned? (to do several things at a time). 6. When did you break the plate? (to try to dry it). 7. When did you cut yourself? (to sharpen the knife). 8. Why didnt you help the guests to some cake? (just to bake it). III. Fill in the blanks with the suitable reflexive or emphatic pronouns: 1. Dont eat too much or youll makeill. 2. I tried to cook the meal3. Makeat home and tell me whats all about. 4. I can only speak for5. he is a much better cook than6. Go and see for7. Helpto some more ice-cream. 8. We enjoyedat the party last night. IV. Link the sentences in each pair using the words in brackets; make all the necessary changes. Model: (While) The phone rang. We had breakfast. The phone rang while we were having breakfast. 1. (while) I prepared dinner. The children laid the table. 2. (just as) The lights went off. The guests arrived. 3. (as) I remembered I was short of flour. I prepared the vegetables for the pudding. 4. (while) I dropped too much salt in the salad. I dress it. 5. (while) I dropped a plate and broke it. I cleared the table. 32
LESSON EIGHT AT THE LIBRARY library A library is a building with a large collection of books where you can borrow books free of charge. You have only to know your way around a library and you can easily find any fact or idea you are looking for. There are all kinds of books: novels, short stories, plays, books of reference such as dictionaries, biographies, then scientific books, historical books, collection of poems, periodicals, magazines, etc. The library has a system: each book that the library owns is listed on an index card catalogue. The card catalogue can tell you immediately whether the library owns a copy of the book you want. The librarian, on the other hand, will tell you whether the book is in the library or has been lent. For each book in the library the card catalogue contains an author card, a title card and a subject card. On the upper left hand corner of each of these card is the call number by which you can find the book. If you want a book or a magazine you need an admission card issued by a member of the staff of the library. Then, you pick up an application slip, you look up the title of the book in the alphabetic or subject catalogue, you fill in the slip by entering the title of the book, the shelf mark and the authors name. The book will be delivered to you by a member of the staff. Moat public libraries have reading rooms provided with tables at which you may sit and read. If you want to take books for home reading you may do so by going to the lending department which runs a loan service. You may borrow one or two books at a time and you may keep them for a week or more. If by the end of this period you have not finished reading the book, you may renew it. While reading a book, make not of your thoughts and feelings as you go along. Reading is not only a pastime and a mean of education, it can lead you to a richer understanding of yourself as well as of the life around you. * * * Jane: I say Allan, can you give me some advice about reading, please? Allan: As you well know, reading is an essential part of your university life. Since all knowledge cannot be obtained in the classroom alone much of it must come from reading textbooks, reference books and other materials. The library of our Academy is well provided with a large stock of books, both in Romanian and in foreign languages. Jane: So, do you think I could find there some specialized books recommended in the bibliographies to our courses? Allan: Of course you could, there are latest editions published in our country and abroad. Jane: And what can you recommend me for my spare time, I mean something to improve my English? Allan: Try things that dont make difficult reading: short-stories, novels, plays, some modern authors who write in a simple straightforward style. So, start with Oscar Wilde, then G. Green, S. Maugham. Jane: Thank you very much. I shall follow your advice.
novel poem index card catalogue author card call numer admission card shelf
VOCABULARY to borrow a lua cu mprumut to look for a cuta novel roman short-story nuvel periodical publicaie periodic abroad n strintate to lend, lent, lent a da cu mprumut to issue a emite, a publica, (aici) a elibera o legitimaie textbook manual index card fi de cartotec card catalogue cartotec, fiier author card fiier pe autori title card fiier pe titluri subject card fiier tematic call number cota (crii) admission card legitimaie de intrare shelf mark fiier pe rafturi lending department secie de mprumut well provided bine aprovizionat spare time timp liber straightforward style stil direct book of reference ndreptar, carte de consultat to fill in a slip a completa un formular statistical year book anuar statistic the book is sold out cartea este epuizat GRAMMAR 1. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ( Mai mult ca perfectul) Mai mult ca perfectul se formeaz din forma de Past Tense a verbului TO HAVE i participiul trecut (forma a treia) a verbului de conjugat: HAD + V3 Affirmative I had stopped / Id stopped You had stopped He, she, it had stopped / Hed stopped We had stopped You had stopped / Youd stopped They had stopped Interrogative Had I stopped? Had you stopped? Had he, she, it stopped? Had we stopped? Had you stopped? Had they stopped? Negative I had not stopped / I hadnt stopped You had not stopped He, she, it had not stopped We had not stopped You had not stopped They had not stopped Interrogative-Negative Had I not stopped? / Hadnt I stopped? Had you not stopped? Had he, she, it not stopped? Had we not stopped?/ Hadnt we stopped? Had you not stopped? Had they not stopped?
Rules - Exprim o aciune trecut, terminat naintea unui moment dat din trecut. - Exprim o aciune trecut, terminat, anterioar altei aciuni trecute. - Se folosete n propoziii secundare temporale pentru a exprima o aciune anterioar unui moment viitor (sau viitor fa de trecut). - Exprim o aciune nceput naintea unui moment trecut i care se continu pn n acel moment.
Examples By seven oclock I had translated the article. When she had finished the book, she returned it to the librarian. I shall lend you the book after I had read it. He promised he would lend me the book when he had read it himself. She told me that she had been busy since she came back from school.
2. THE GENITIVE CASE (Cazul Genitiv) Rules Genitivul prepoziional: -se folosete cu substantivele care denumesc lucruri sau noiuni abstracte. Genitivul Saxon: - se folosete cu substantivele care denumesc fiine, persoane. Examples the colour of the wall. the city of London. the 23rd of May. the pupils room the students library Peters mother Burns(s) poems
- cu substantivele care denumesc a minutes silence noiuni de timp, de distan sau greutate a two miles walk (i cu substantive care denumesc zile, todays program anotimpuri) the nights coolness - cu substantivele care denumesc the oceans roar fenomene naturale, aspecte din natur. Londons parks - cu substantive care denumesc Romanias economy continente, ri, orae i cu our countrys natural wealth substantivele: city, country, town. the cars performance - cu anumite substantive ca: the sun, the the suns rays moon, the earth, car, ship, boat, vessel, the ships crew body, mind, science. for goodness sake - cu cteva substantive comune urmate for mercys sake de sake. at her hearts desire - n expresii consecrate. at ones fingers ends St. Pauls (cathedral) was rebuilt by - substantivele house, shop, store, Sir Christopher Wren. office, cathedral sunt adesea omise We buy bread at the bakers (shop). dup substantive aflate le genitivul sintetic.
EXERCISES I. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the library meant for? 2. What is a card catalogue? 3. What does a card catalogue contain? 4. What do you have to do if you want to read a book in a library? 5. Can we take books for home reading? 6. How long can you keep them? 7. Describe a reading room in the Faculty of Economic Studies. II. Supply the Past Perfect of the verbs in brackets: 1. Undergraduates could use the library after they (to register) as readers and (to get) an admission card. 2. He (to finish) just the books borrowed from the library when he went to take some new. 3. I read the book after I (to finish) my work. 4. My friend (not to read) an English book for years. 5. There were plenty of books that (to be rewritten) in simple language. 6. He told me he preferred to read a more difficult book that one which (to be made) simpler. 7. I (to finish) reading the story when he promised me an amusing novel. 8. By that time I already (to go through) half of the play. III. Change the following sentences so as to use a negative Past Perfect instead of the Past Tense. Make all the necessary changes: Model: I read a very interesting novel last year. I had never read such an interesting novel before. 1. It was the first time I read an English book. 2. There were many people in the reading room that day. 3. I often borrowed books from the library as a student. 4. This was the first dictionary I consulted. 5. While reading, I looked up the unknown words in the dictionary. 6. The book was first published in 1980. 7. I renewed the book for another week. 8. The writer signed the book with a pseudonym. IV. Substitute synthetic genitive forms for prepositional genitive forms: 1. He arrived at the library with a delay of a few minutes. 2. There is nothing like a holiday of a week in the company of a good book. 3. He promised to leave the place within a time of six weeks. 4. What is the point of view of the author? 5. Here is the news in the newspaper of yesterday. 6. You may find him I the office of the editor-in-chief. 7. I had to borrow the dictionary of Jane to look up some unknown words. 8. The book dealt with the economic development of Romania. V. Translate into English: a) 1. Care este programul zilei? 2. Performanele mainii lui sunt ntr-adevr neobinuite. 3. Cumpr pine la brutrie i carne la mcelrie sau mi fac toate cumprturile la supermarket. 4. Orice student de limb englez ar trebui s aib dicionarul de pronunie al lui Daniel Jones. 5. L-ai cunoscut pe bunicul Anei i al lui Paul, cel care era pasionat dup romanele tiinifico-fantastice? 6. Sala de lectur a bibliotecii noastre este o ncpere mare i luminoas. b) 1. nvasem deja cte ceva despre felul de via al englezilor cnd m-am dus la Londra. 2. Sptmna trecut am mprumutat o carte de la bibliotec; nu am mai mprumutat niciodat o carte pn atunci. 3. Cnd am ajuns n sala de lectur toate locurile erau deja ocupate. 4. Bibliotecara mi-a spus c mprumutase cartea cu cteva zile n urm. 5. Pn la nceputul anului universitar a fcut rezumatele tuturor crilor citite n timpul vacanei. 6. La librrie am aflat c manualul fusese retiprit. 7. Mi-am amintit c am mai citit aceast carte cu ani n urm. 8. Cartea fusese deja tradus n mai multe limbi cnd am cumprat-o. 36
LESSON NINE WHATS YOUR JOB? Maggie: Jenny, this is my friend Liz Taylor. Shes my next door neighbour Jenny: Is this Taylor or Gaylor? Liz: Taylor. T A Y L O R. Hello! Nice to meet you. Jenny: Hello! Pleased to meet you, too. Where are you from? Liz: Im from Scotland. From Edinburgh. Whats your nationality? Are you British, too? Jenny: No, I m from Canada, from Toronto. Whats your job? Liz: Im an art student, a sophomore, but Im a sales-assistant in the holidays. What about you? Are you a student in the University, too? If not, whats your occupation? Jenny: Im studying in London University College. Im a fresher. Liz: Im glad to have you as a neighbour. But isnt this flat too expensive? Jenny: Oh, yes, it is. Im moving to a hotel. Liz: Im sorry. I like it here. Im used to living in a house. In Edinburgh I live in a small house with my family, in a suburb, at 10 Cherry Tree Lane. Jenny: Whats Edinburgh like? Liz: It is the capital of Scotland, which is part of Great Britain. With half a million inhabitants, it is situated on the Firth of Forth, in the south-east of the country, but it is not very big. You can see green hills from its centre. There are thousands of tourists in Edinburgh every summer, especially during the International Festival of Music, Drama and the Arts, in August and September. It is a beautiful and historic city, with large avenues, like Paris. There are lots of interesting buildings: the Edinburgh Castle is in the centre of the city on a high hill. From the Castle to Holyrood House (the former residence of Scottish Kings) theres a very old street, the Royal Mile. There are also beautiful parks and Botanical Gardens. It is also an industrial city and a busy port. EXPLANATORY NOTES fresher student n primul an sophomore student n anul doi junior student n anul trei senior student n anul partru (terminal) Ei sunt numii n general undergraduates sau undergraduettes. Dup absolvire ei sunt Bachelor of Arts (or Science) BA sau BS/BSc. Urmtorul grad este cel de Master of Arts (or Science) MA/MSc. Cel mai nalt grad este cel de Doctor in Philosophy PhD, or Doctor of Science DSc. Other jobs are: architect architect air-hostess stuardez barber brbier, frizer carpenter tmplar clerk funcionar doctor medic, doctor dress-maker croitoreas electrician electrician hairdresser coafez, frizer journalist journalist, ziarist mechanic mechanic 37
nationality job student fresher
model model pilot pilot postman pota photographer fotograf secretary secretar shop-keeper negustor taxi-driver taximetrist, ofer de taxi teacher nvtor, professor (n nvmntul preuniversitar) vet veterinar waitress chelnri waiter - chelner GRAMMAR THE PAST PERFECT TENSE (Continuous Aspect) Mai mult ca perfectul (Aspectul continuu) Este alctuit din forma de Present Perfect a verbului TO BE urmat de participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: HAD BEEN + Ving Affirmative Form I had been working / Id been working You had been working He, she, it had been working We had been working You had been working They had been working Interrogative Form Had I been working? Had you been working? Had he, she, it been working? Had we been working? Had you been working? Had they been working? Rules 1. Timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspectul continuu arat o aciune nceput naintea unui moment trecut care continu i n acel moment. 2. O aciune repetat exprimat prin timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspect comun, poate fi uneori exprimat i prin timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspect continuu. Negative Form I had not been working/I hadnt been You had not been working He, she, it had not been working We had not been working You had not been working They had not been working Interrogative-Negative Form Had I not been working? Hadnt I been ...? Had you not been working? Had he, she, it not been working? Had we not been working? Had you not been working? Had they not been working? Examples When you came, I had been writing letters for an hour.
He had tried five times to get her on the phone. He had been trying to get her on the phone.
EXERCISES I. Complete the answers to the following questions about your job: 1. Whats your job? / Im a(n) (office-worker / engineer / economist / lawyer / doctor /secretary /nurse /worker / research worker) 2. Where do you work? / I work in a(n) (office / factory / research centre / hospital) 3. How far is it from your house? / It is a from my house. (20-minute walk / car drive / bus ride). 4. How long have you had this job? / Ive had this job foryears. 5. What are the working hours? / I work froma.m. top.m. every day. 6. How many weeks holiday do you have? / I have aholiday every year. (twoweek / three-week / four-week). 7. What training do you have? / I went to the (Polytechnic / University / Vocational school). 8. What are your prospects? / I can become ainyears time. (senior clerk/ deputy manager / top executive / general foreman /(chief) supervisor) II. Now, you formulate the questions necessary to interview someone about his/her job. Refer to his/her: job, workplace, distance from home, working hours, holiday, seniority in the job, training, prospects. III. Read this passage: My Job My name is Sandra Vlad, Im 29, Im married and have two children. I work in an office in a big shoe factory, as a secretary to the deputy factory manager. It is a half-hour bus ride from my house in the suburbs to the factory which is situated in the industrial district of the town. I have worked here for the past five years. My working hours are 7 a.m. to 3 p.m., five days a week. A ten-hour day is not unusual when there are important management meetings. Every day I open the managers letters, take them to him, write down the answers and then type and send them. I also answer incoming phone calls, dial some outgoing ones to other shoe manufacturers, to raw material suppliers or to important customers - , take messages when the manager is away and handle routine enquiries. I greet the visitors and take down notes in shorthand at important executive meetings. I earn quite a good salary and have a two-week holiday every year, as I have not worked long enough to be entitled to a longer holiday. I finished a secondary school ten years ago. There I learned shothand and typing as part of the schools programme of vocational training. After graduation I became a telephonist and did several months training with the Central PostOffice for which I worked for three years. Then I had a two-year break for children. I returned to work five years ago, and took the job Im still having. I enjoy my job, although it may be very tiring sometimes. I feel I play a responsible part in the factorys life, I am the first contact anyone has with the management. I like to be friendly and to meet lots of people. IV. Write about: Sandra Vlads job; the ideal job.
V. Fill in the blanks with little, a little, few, a few, much, many: 1. I havepens; I can give you one. 2. I havepens. I need them. 3. There aresheets of carbon paper there; you may take two or three. 4. There aresheets of carbon paper there; you may not take any. 5. There isnttime left before office-hours are over. 6. There areclerks in our office. 7. care should be taken when writing a report. 8. There aremistakes in this typed letter; please, re-type it. VI. Use the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous Tense: 1. When I met him he (work) in the enterprise for 10 years. 2. When I finished writing the minutes, I realized I (make) some mistakes. 3. When I passed by the office-building under construction, a man told me they (work) on it for three months. 4. When he finally arrived at the office, his colleague (wait) for him for an hour. 5. When you entered my office, I (prepare) my speech for 2 hours. 6. When the head of the department came in, I (file) papers for an hour. 7. When the office-hours were over, I (work) for 8 hours. 8. When he finished his speech, we (listen to) him for half an hour. VII. Translate into English: a) 1. tiam s bat la main i s stenografiez de 10 ani cnd am venit n acest birou. 2. Scriam un referat de 2 ore cnd a intrat directorul i mi-a cerut s adaug o nou problem. 3. El lucra de 20 de ani n industrie cn a devenit eful seciei. 4. Am ncercat s te gsesc la telefon toat dimineaa nainte ca n sfrit s-mi rspunzi. 5. Negocierile au durat 2 sptmni nainte s se semneze contractul. 6. Eram obosit cnd ai venit, pentru c fcusem 4 ore de traducere simultan n sala de conferine. 7. Scrisorile au putut fi expediate pentru c le btusem la main n ziua aceea. b) Cu ce te ocupi Jane? - Sunt stenodactilograf la o intreprindere de comer exterior din Bucureti. - i place meseria ta? - Da, foarte mult. De aceea am urmat cursurile colii de stenodactilografie. Acum, dup 5 ani de experien, redactez 50 de cuvinte pe minut i stenografiez 100 de cuvinte pe minut. - Care este partea cea mai interesant a muncii tale? - Faptul c tot ce fac mi ofer sentimentul rspunderii. Atunci cnd redactez o scrisoare comercial, tiu c orice greeal poate face o impresie proast asupra partenerului strin i, n consecin, fac toate eforturile ca scrisoarea s arate ireproabil. Acest lucru este valabil i pentru celelalte activiti ale mele: imagineaz-i ce s-ar ntmpla dac a ndosaria greit documentele! - ntruct eti att de contiincioas, bnuiesc c eti apreciat n ntreprinderea unde lucrezi. - Sper c da!
LESSON TEN AT A PUBLIC MEETING meeting There are different kinds of public meetings. Members of parliaments and other similar national assemblies are summoned to sessions and sittings. Delegates of the political party gather for their regular conferences or congresses. Meetings and conventions are held also by trade unions, womens organizations, artists, journalists, businessmen, etc. Sometimes men and women come to spontaneous rallies to protest against armaments drive, deployment of missiles, race barriers, etc, or to express their solidarity with the peoples fighting colonialism, for peace in the world. Scientists are convened to national and international symposia. The meeting can be ruled by its own standing orders, unwritten regulations and customs. These rules of procedure have been designed to enable any official gathering to be effective and legally correct. Any meeting is presided over by the chair (or the chairman), whose main duty is to conduct the meeting taking decisions on particular problems of the proceedings. He announces what the business is, gives members permission to speak, calls for a vote on a motion, announces the results of a vote and generally preserves order. All speeches or remarks of those present are addressed to the chair. The relator (raporteur)s duty is to give the required explanation. The secretarys duty is taking minutes. As soon as a person takes up chairmanship he calls the meeting to order and asks the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting. When they have been read, he asks Are there any omissions or errors? If the minutes are correct, a member moves that they should be adopted. This is seconded by another member. The chairman puts the motion to a vote. If there is an error or an omission, a member moves that a correction be made. After the minutes have been discussed and approved the meeting proceeds then to Business Arising From the Minutes. Members may ask for explanations why certain steps have not been