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UNIVERSITATEA VALAHIA DIN TÂRGOVIŞTE
DEPARTAMENTUL PENTRU ÎNVĂŢĂMÂNT LA DISTANŢĂ
ŞI FORMARE CONTINUĂ
FOR DISTANCE - LEARNING STUDENTS
CONTENTS CUVÂNT ÎNAINTE.............................................................................................3
CHAPTER ONE – BASIC ENGLISH................................................................4
Lesson one – Introducing oneself (conversation)…………………………………5
Lesson two- Getting around (conversation)……………………………………...8
Lesson three – Nationalities-Countries (conversation)…………………………12
Lesson four – A student’s daily Programme …………………………………...16
Lesson five – The family………………………………………………………...20
Lesson six – Weather …………………………………………………………...24
Lesson seven – Meals…………………………………………………………...29
Lesson eight – At the library……………………………………………………33
Lesson nine – What’s your job?...........................................................................37
Lesson ten – At a public meeting………………………………………………..41
CHAPTER TWO – ENGLISH FOR GEOGRAPHERS
Lesson one – Great Britain……………………………………………………..46
Lesson two – London…………………………………………………………...51
Lesson three – The United States of America…………………………………..60
Lesson four – American Cities………………………………………………….66
Lesson five – Australia………………………………………………………….72
Lesson six – Important People in Britain……………………………………….76
Lesson seven – Famous British Seamen………………………………………...79
Lesson eight – Europe’s Premodern Heritage………………………………….81
Lesson nine – Bucharest………………………………………………………...84
Lesson ten – Romania…………………………………………………………...89
CHAPTER THREE – ENGLISH FOR ECONOMISTS……………………96
Lesson one – Advertising………………………………………………………..97
Lesson two – How to Stage Successful Trade Fairs and Exhibitions………….103
Lesson three – Tourist Industry and Touristic Activity………………………...107
Lesson four – Foreign TradeComposition – Development Trends…………….110
Lesson five – The International Monetary Fund………………………………114
Lesson six – Economic Co-operation………………………………………….119
Lesson seven – Marketing – Past and Present………………………………...123
CHAPTER FOUR – SUPLIMENTARY READINGS-ENGLISH AND
AMERICAN HOLIDAYS, LITERATURE AND CIVILIZATION………….126
2. Thanksgiving Day………………………………………………………129
4. St. Valentine’s Day……………………………………………………..134
6. William Shakespeare…………………………………………………...141
7. American literature.................................................................................144
8. Habits and ways - Tea …………………………………………………146
În condiţiile civilizaţiei actuale, când comunicarea largă între oameni şi
popoare a devenit o realitate obişnuită, cunoaşterea unei limbi de circulaţie
internaţională este o necesitate. Dacă în Evul Mediu limba latină a fost pentru
europeni limba comună a culturii şi ştiinţei, astăzi, în epoca ordinatoarelor, a
zborurilor cosmice, a transformărilor urbane spectaculoase şi a dezvoltării fără
precedent a schimburilor internaţionale, toţi cetăţenii lumii învaţă limba engleză
pentru a se înţelege între ei. Engleza este astăzi limba ştiinţei, a tehnicii, a
Lumea ştiinţifică şi intelectuală foloseşte poate cel mai mult această
limbă, puţini fiind oamenii de ştiinţă şi cercetătorii care să nu o cunoască şi să nu
îşi redacteze lucrările direct în engleză.
Ilustrările de mai sus nu epuizează nici pe departe lista posibilă. Să ne
referim acum la oamenii simpli şi mai puţini simpli. Cine nu a trecut prin
momentul penibil când nu putem înfiripa o conversaţie cu un străin, când suntem
reduşi la gesturi, mimică sau interjecţii? Unele persoane sunt dispuse să
remedieze carenţa prin studiu, sistematic chiar. Altele, se izolează sub imperiul
fricii îndărătul unor „porţi zăvorâte” şi cred că limba engleză este inaccesibilă lor,
după cum studierea ei (chiar la nivel elementar) li se pare un efort inutil sau,
oricum prea mare. Unul din scopurile acestui curs este să demonstreze că
inaccesibilitatea e o prejudecată, iar efortul merită să fie întreprins până şi de
către cei din fire lenevoşi.
În învăţarea limbii engleze la un nivel mediu de cunoştiinţe se ajunge fără
dificultate şi sperăm că acest curs conceput pentru studenţii de la forma de
învăţământ la distanţă, va demonstra că necesitatea cunoaşterii limbii engleze se
poate satisface de către oricine, uşor şi cu plăcere.
Acest curs practic de limba engleză este destinat studenţilor de la
specializările Geografie, Istorie-Geografie şi profilul Economic anii I şi II, care
doresc să aibă o pregătire corespunzătoare în domeniile de interes.
El a fost conceput în aşa fel încât, în cei doi ani de studiu ai limbii
engleze, să ajute la consolidarea cunoştiinţelor acumulate până aici, precum şi la
însuşirea de noi elemente specifice specializării studiate.
CHAPTER ONE - BASIC ENGLISH
Introducere Chapter one – Basic English (Capitolul unu – Engleza de bază) se adresează atât
studenţilor de la specializarea Geografie, Istorie-Geografie cât şi celor de la
profilul Economic. Însuşirea unui limbaj de specialitate nu se poate face fără a
avea o bază solidă, de aceea capitolul conţine în principal elemente practice şi
applicative la îndemâna acelora care doresc să-şi însuşească, să consolideze şi să
folosească un limbaj minim de limba engleză.
Cele zece lecţii care alcătuiesc capitolul cuprind teme axate pe principalele
aspecte ale vieţii cotidiene – de muncă, sociale, culturale – având drept scop să
formeze deprinderi de limbă necesare însuşirii ulterioare a limbajului legat de
problematica geografică, istorico-geografică şi economică.
Fiecare lecţie cuprinde un text însoţit de o temă gramaticală prezentată sugestiv
şi concis prin structuri, scheme şi tabele. Schemele gramaticale prezintă probleme
de gramatică şi construcţii pentru a căror înţelegere şi mai ales folosire, studenţii
întâmpină dificultăţi. Expunerea gramaticală este urmată de diferite tipuri de
exerciţii lexicale şi gramaticale menite să formeze deprinderi de limbă la cei ce
studiază limba engleză.
Obiective operaţionale: după parcurgerea primului capitol studenţii vor
se prezinte şi să facă cunoştiinţă cu alte persoane vorbitoare de limba
poarte o conversaţie simplă, referitoare la locul natal, meserie, şi să ceară
indicaţii pentru a ajunge în locul dorit;
vorbească despre programul său zilnic, despre vreme şi mesele principale;
poată să se descurce în diferite situaţii cum ar fi la bibliotecă şi la diferite
completeze un curriculum vitae;
recunoască, să diferenţieze şi să folosească în aplicaţii practice timpuri
verbale precum prezentul simplu şi continuu, prezentul perfect simplu şi
continuu, mai mult ca perfectul simplu şi continuu; capete deprinderi pentru traduceri din şi în limba engleză;
Capitolul unu conţine următoarele lecţii: 1. Lesson one – Introducing oneself ………………………………………….5
2. Lesson two – Getting around ………………………………………………8
3. Lesson three – Nationalities-Countries …………………………………...12
4. Lesson four – A student‟s daily programme ……………………………...16
5. Lesson five – The family ………………………………………………….20
6. Lesson six – Weather ………………………………………………...........24
7. Lesson seven – Meals ……………………………………………………..29
8. Lesson eight – At the library ………………………………………...........33
9. Lesson nine – What‟s your job? …………………………………………..37
10. Lesson ten – At a public meeting ………………………………………..41
Bibliografie selectivă: - Bantaş, Andrei (1991) – Essential English, Ed. Teora Bucureşti
- Galiş, Livia & colaboratorii (1982) – Limba Engleză pentru învăţământul
superior economic, Ed.Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti
- Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana (1993) – Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed.
- * * * - Speak English Nr. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6/ 1990
INTRODUCING ONESELF (PREZENTARI)
J.D.: Excuse me. Who are you?
S.R.: I‟m Sandra Reynolds. I‟m your English teacher, and who are you?
J.D.: How do you do. My name‟s Jane David. I‟m a student.
K.S.: And my name is Ken Smith. I‟m a student, too.
S.R.: How do you do. (I‟m) glad to meet you. (It‟s) nice to meet you.
J.D.: It‟s nice to meet you, too. Greetings
S.R.: Good morning. (Good afternoon; Good evening).
J.D.: Good evening. How are you?
S.R.: I‟m fine thank you. And how are you?
J.D.: Very well, thank you./ Rather unwell.
S.R.: Good bye. See you later.
J.D.: Good night. See you tomorrow.
Atenţie! Nu se spune niciodată „Good day”, nici la întâlnire nici la despărţire. În
engleza modernă este o formă de expediere a interlocutorului, ceva de felul „Poţi
J.D.: Good morning, Professor Reynolds. Let me introduce myself. My name‟s
Jane David. I‟m your new student.
S.R.: How do you do. Welcome to our courses. My name‟s Sandra Reynolds.
J.D.: How do you do. I‟m pleased to meet you, Professor Reynolds.
S.R.: I‟m your English Professor. What are you studying this term?
J.D.: I‟m studying English language this term and English literature next term.
S.R.: Till tomorrow then.
J.D.: It‟s been nice knowing you. Good bye for now.
J.D.: Hi, I‟m Jane. I‟m a new student. Who are you?
K.S.: Hi, I‟m Ken. I‟m a new student, too. Glad to know you. Where are you
J.D.: I‟m from Canada. Are you from Canada, too?
K.S.: No, I‟m not. I‟m from Scotland.
J.D.: Oh, how nice!
K.S.: See you soon.
J.D.: Bye-bye for now.
I. EXPLANATORY NOTES 1. Name = First name = Christian name = Given name: Jane, Jennifer, Robert,
Mary, Kenneth, Sandra etc.
Surname = Family name = Last name: Reynolds, David, Bush, Smith,
MacDonald, O‟Casey, Roberts etc.
2. How Do We Address People?
There are different ways of addressing people and of speaking:
Informal or friendly – between friends, teenagers, young people (classmates),
Formal – between acquaintances and also for older people or people in higher
Very formal – for people we want to show respect to.
How do we address unknown people? “Excuse me, sir (madam, officer/constable
“Ladies and gentlemen” (when addressing
How about people we know? “Hi, Ted / Hi, Betty” (more used for young people).
“Hello, Fred / Hello, Barney” (it is slightly more
formal). We can greet acquaintances or people we know whether they are older or
in higher jobs with “hello”, or “good morning / afternoon / evening”. At a very
formal level, respect may be shown by adding their name: ”Hello, Mr. Smith”
(for gentlemen), “Hello, Mrs. Reynolds” (for married ladies), “Hello, Miss
David” (for unmarried ladies), or “Hello, Mes Green” (for ladies, when their
marital status is not important). If the persons have titles, they are used in calling
them: “Professor Hill”, “Dr. Brown”, “Dean Roberts” (only one title - the highest
– is used together with the surname). For very high ranks we can use: “Your
Excellency”, “Your Highness”, “Your Sanctity”.
1.PERSONAL PRONOUNS (Pronume personale)
Desemnează persoanele ce pot apărea într-un dialog (vorbitorul,
interlocutorul) sau înlocuieşte obiectul despre care se vorbeşte.
Person Nominative Dative Accusative
Singular 1st person
he, she, it
him, her, it
Plural 1st person
2. Verb TO BE present tense – link verb (verb de legătură)
Affirmative Interrogative Negative Interrogative-
I am Am I? I am not Am I not?
You are Are you? You are not Are you not?
He, she, it is Is he, she, it? He, she, it is not Is he,she,it not?
We are Are we? We are not Are we not?
You are Are you? You are not Are you not?
They are Are they? They are not Are they not?
În engleza vorbită este mai folosită forma contrasă:
I‟m a teacher. / I‟m not a teacher.
You‟re a student. / You‟re not a student.
He‟s a policeman. / He‟s not a policeman.
She‟s an air – hostess. / She‟s not an air – hostess.
It‟s an animal. / It‟s not an animal.
We‟re workers./ We‟re not workers.
You‟re engineers. / You‟re not engineers.
They‟re taxi – drivers. / They‟re not taxi – drivers.
Verbul TO BE ca verb de legătură (link verb) se foloseşte: cu un substantiv (la
singular, întotdeauna precedat de articolul nedefinit „a” sau „an”) „I am a
mother”; cu un adjectiv, „He is tired” sau cu adverb de loc, „He is in the
room” / „He is there”.
I. Substitute the nouns in the following sentences by the personal pronouns
in the correct case.
Model: I like this book. I like it.
1. I am very pleased with this test paper. 2. John arrives at the faculty early. 3. I
always give George good books to read. 4. Three students are talking about the
exam. 5. The assistant-lecturer is asking Henry a question. 6. The professor is
lending the student a book. 7. Students are very attentive during seminars. 8. I see
my coleague going to the library. 9. Give mother a glass of water, please. 10.
Read the lesson, please. 11. Let‟s go and see grandmother. 12. I want to give my
grandparents a present. 13. I‟ll thank father tomorrow. 14. Look at Tom and me!
15. I can‟t see your friends. 16. Give the cat some milk.
II. Fill in the blanks using the personal pronouns in brackets in the correct
1. This is a book for ... (he). 2. John always buys text-books for ... (they). 3. I
never speak to ... (she) during lectures. 4. I am putting ... (it) on the shelf. 5.
Every day, I see ... (you) in the classroom. 6. I pay attention to ... (it). 7. I tell ...
(she) not to be late. 8. She requests ... (they) to take part in the scientific session.
CONVERSATION – GETTING AROUND
1. (British version)
Liz: Hi, Jenny, How are you?
Jenny: Rather unwell this morning. And you?
Liz: Oh, I‟m fine, thanks, but I‟m sorry for you. Why are you such in a hurry? It‟s
pretty hot today, isn‟t it? Can I help you?
Jenny: I‟m late for class, and I want to buy some stationery, you know, writing
paper, notebooks and a ball-(point) pen. Is there a stationer‟s near here?
Liz: Yes, of course. Can you see that restaurant over there?
Jenny: The one on the corner?
Liz: Turn at the restaurant and keep straight on up to the next cross-roads; go
across the road and take the first turning to the left. The stationer‟s on the left side
of the street. You can‟t miss it.
Jenny: Thanks a lot. But that‟s quite a distance.
Liz: Yes, that‟s right, but you can find there everything you need: there are
writing paper, pads, envelopes, refills for your pen, erasers and even a marvelous
assortment of greeting cards and diaries. There are also glue, ink, thumbtacks
2. (American version)
Jenny: Pardon (Excuse) me, officer. Where‟s the City Bank?
Policeman: It‟s downtown, five blocks from here, straight ahead.
Jenny: Is it on the left?
Policeman: No. It‟s on the right. It‟s across the coffee shop.
Jenny: Thanks very much.
Policeman: You‟re welcome.
VOCABULARY stationery – papetărie
notebook – blocnotes, carnet
ball-(point) pen – pix
cross-road – intersecţie
writing paper pad – tampon pentru hârtia de scris
envelope – plic
refill – mine de pix
eraser – gumă de şters
diary – jurnal (intim)
glue – lipici
ink – cerneală
thumbtack – pioneză
1. block (in America) = “cvartal”, grup de case pătrat sau dreptunghiular între 4
străzi. block of flats / apartment house = bloc
downtown = în sau spre centrul comercial al unui oraş
2. Expressing GRATITUDE (expresii de mulţumire): Thanks – Thank you –
Many thanks – Thanks a lot – Thanks again – Thank you very much – Thank you
very much indeed – Thank you ever much for (letting me know)… - It‟s been
3. Possible responses, depending on the occasion (posibile răspunsuri, în funcţie
Don‟t mention it (I‟m glad to help you) – It‟s all right – It‟s my pleasure – You‟re
welcome – I‟m very much obliged to you
Study and remember (expressions):
It takes you only ten minutes to get there – vă trebuie numai zece minute
ca să ajungeţi acolo
Turn to the left/right! – Luaţi-o spre stânga
Go straight on/ahead! – Mergeţi tot înainte
The red light is on – Semaforul arată roşu
Trolley buses run till … o´clock – Troleibuzele circulă până la ora …
Would you mind telling me the way to …? – Sunteţi amabil să-mi spuneţi
care este drumul către …?
Could you put me right? – M-aţi putea îndruma?
This way, please! – Pe aici, vă rog!
Take the first turning to the left/right – Luaţi-o pe prima stradă la
At the next crossroads turn to the left/right – La prima intersecţie luaţi-o
It´s on the right hand side – Este pe partea dreaptă
Can you direct me to …? – Îmi puteţi arăta direcţia către …?
Is this the right way to …? – Acesta este drumul către …?
You are still some way off … – Sunteţi încă la o oarecare distanţă…
It´s just round the corner – Este chiar după colţ
We happen to be going in that direction ourselves – Întâmplător şi noi
mergem în această direcţie
I´m trying to find my way to … - Încerc să găsesc drumul către …
You are going the wrong way – Mergeţi într-o direcţie greşită
Is it much of a walk? – Este mult de mers pe jos?
Do I take this street or that? – Să o iau pe această stradă, sau pe cealaltă?
It´s quite a distance – Este destul de departe
Which is the quickest way to …? – Care este calea cea mai rapidă către …
GRAMMAR 1. Verbul TO BE exprimând existenţa – there is / there are (este, se află, se
găseşte / sunt, se află, se găsesc)
Cuvântul neaccentuat „there”este urmat de o formă a verbului TO BE în
propoziţii care exprimă noţiunea de existenţă (este o expresie care nu există în
limba română. Limba franceză are ceva asemănător în expresia „il y a”). Se
foloseşte ori de câte ori subiectul propoziţiei este o persoană oarecare nedefinită
sau un obiect, iar predicatul este verbul TO BE.
Această expresie introduce noi informaţii interlocutorului:
Exemple: There is (There´s) a pen on the desk.
There are (There‟re) two books on the table.
There is a glass on the table.
There are lots of interesting buildings in Edinburgh.
There are writing paper pads ...
There is glue in the bottle.
Observaţi că: a) There se foloseşte în loc de subiect;
b) There is se foloseşte înaintea unui substantiv la singular;
c) There are se foloseşte înaintea unui substantiv la plural;
Interogativul se formează: Is there a stationery near here?
Are there many children in the room?
Negativul: There is not (isn´t). / There are not (aren´t).
Observaţi că şi în acest caz există forme contrase, neaccentuate.
Atenţie! Să nu confundaţi cuvântul THERE din expresiile THERE IS şi THERE
ARE cu adverbul THERE care se traduce cu ACOLO. Într-o propoziţie ele pot
Ex. There are two chairs there. (Sunt două scaune acolo).
2. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS (Pluralul Substantivelor)
a. Majoritatea substantivelor formează
pluralul adăugând -s la forma singularului:
b. Substantivele care se termină în -sh, -ch,
-tch, -ss, -s, -x primesc -es
c. Când substantivele se termină în -y
precedat de o consoană, -y se schimbă în i
şi se adaugă –es:
d. Substantivele care se termină în -f, -fe îl
schimbă pe f în v şi se adaugă -es:
e. Substantivele care se termină în -o
precedat de o consoană primesc -es:
f. Substantive cu pluralul neregulat: man
Terminaţia pluralului se citeşte:
după consoane surde:
[p], [t], [f], [k], [h], [θ]
după vocale şi consoane
sonore: [b], [d], [v], [g],
[l], [m], [n], [η], [r], [ð]
după: [s], [z], [ſ], [tſ],
I. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the phrase:
1. There ... a teacher in the classroom. 2. There ... two teachers in the classroom.
3. There ... many pupils in the classroom. 4. There ... a dog in the room. 5. There
... books and notebooks on the shelf. 6. There ... books on the floor. 7. There ... a
blackboard on the wall. 8. There ... many pictures on the wals. 9. There ... a map
in the classroom. 10. There ... many flowers in the garden.
II. Change these sentences according to the patterns:
a) There is a large table in the room. (small) / There isn‟t a small one.
b) There are two black cats in the garden. (white) / There aren‟t two white ones.
1. There is a short pencil in the pencil-box. (long) 2. There are three glasses on
the table. (clean) 3. There are two green books in the bag. (brown) 4. There is a
young man in the room. (old) 5. There are two large armchairs in the room.
(small) 6. There is an old newspaper on the table. (new) 7. There is a white dog in
the schoolyard. (black) 8. There are two red blouses on the chair (blue). 9. There
is a tall man in the garden. (short) 10. There are two fat cats under the tree. (thin)
III. Make questions and answers.
1. There is a kitchen in the flat. (Yes) 2. There are two living-rooms in the flat.
(No) 3. There is a dog in the classroom. (No) 4. There are three cats in the
schoolyard. (Yes) 5. There are two books on the desk. (No) 6. There is a book on
the floor. (No) 7. There is a dining-room in the house. (Yes) 8. There are two
bedrooms in the house. (Yes) 9. There are three armchairs in the living-room.
(Yes) 10. There is a bookcase in the bedroom. (No)
IV. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural:
1. Our students‟ club often organizes (evening party). 2. She has just put ten
(tomato) on the plate. 3. All the (child) who have reached the age of six go to
school. 4. Have you already brushed your (tooth)? 5. She has bought two (loaf).
6. Have you turned off the hot and cold (tap)? 7. You go to the library after
(class), don‟t you? 8. She has put six (glass) on the table. 9. There are many
fallen (leaf) on the ground. 10. I have never seen such beautiful (picture). 11.
(Woman) have equal rights with (man) in our country. 12. They have put the
(watch) into (box) that do not exceed an overall length of two (foot).
V. Use the plural of the nouns in brackets making the necessary changes. In
case no change is possible, explain the reasons:
1. He was thanked for his (work) at the hospital. 2. They were fully aware of the
(spirit) of the time. 3. The poet published his new (volume) at the start of the
century. 4. The Chinese invented the (compass). 5. The (information) didn‟t come
in time. 6. I have a small (cactus) at home. 7. Don‟t fight with him. His (force) is
enormous. 8. I feel a (pain) in my leg. 9. It‟s a (damage) that can‟t be repaired.
10. I won‟t take anybody‟s (advice). 11. I don‟t like his (manner) of speech. 12.
Six to eight hours of practice a day gave him a great (ability) for playing the
piano in less than a year. 13. Lots of (people) come to the Romanian seaside
every summer. 14. I like the (fabric) my husband brought me as a birthday
present. 15. She has a brooch of diamonds set in (platinum).
NATIONALITIES – COUNTRIES
Jenny: Meet my friend, Ingrid.
Ingrid: Hello. Pleased to meet you. What nationality are you?
Pedro: I‟m from Peru./ I‟m Peruvian. Where are you from?
Ingrid: I‟m from Sweden./ I‟m Swedish.
Pedro: Is your family in London, too?
Ingrid: No, my family is in Sweden and in Australia.
Ingrid: Are you in London on holiday or on business?
Pedro: I‟m on business. I‟m a physicist. I‟m working in a Research Centre for
three months. It‟s not far from London. What about you? Are you a student, or a
post graduate student? If not, what‟s your job?
Ingrid: No, I‟m not a student. I‟m visiting an English family for a year to brush
up my English. Are you staying in a private house, too?
Pedro: At the moment I‟m staying at a hotel.
Ingrid: Isn‟t too expensive?
Pedro: It sure is, but tomorrow morning I‟m registering for a special Nuclear
Physics Course, and then I‟m moving to a bed-sitter. Look! Here is my
registration card. Be so kind and help me to fill it in.
Because the hotel is too expensive, Pedro wants to rent a nice, small apartment /
flat. So, he has two ways to find it:
1. Direct conversation
Pedro: Excuse me, are you Mrs. Scott?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am.
Pedro: How do you do, Mrs. Scott. I‟m Pedro Gonzales your new tenant. You‟re
the landlady, aren‟t you?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, I am. How do you do, Mr. Gonzales. Nice to meet you. This is
Maggie Baxter. She‟s your neighbour.
Maggie: Hello, Pedro, nice to meet you.
Pedro: Hello, Maggie, glad to see you, too. Can I see the bed-sitter Mrs. Scott? Is
Mrs. Scott: Of course you can. Come in, please. It‟s upstairs. My flat is
Pedro: Oh, it‟s very nice.
2. On the phone
Five three oh, four nine seven eight. Mrs. Scott: Hello?
Pedro: It‟s about the flat / apartment to let in the morning paper ads. Is it still to
Mrs. Scott: Oh yes, of course it is.
Pedro: Can you tell me about it?
Mrs. Scott: There are two rooms: a living-room and a bedroom, and also a
kitchen and a bathroom, of course. You can come and see it.
Pedro: Where is it?
Mrs. Scott: It‟s in the neighbourhood of the University College, near Regent‟s
Pedro: What‟s your address?
Mrs. Scott: 54 Drummond Street, near Euston Station.
Pedro: Oh, and how much is the rent?
Mrs. Scott: Two hundred pounds / £ 200 a month.
Pedro: I can come in twenty or thirty minutes. Is that all right?
Mrs. Scott: Yes, of course. Oh, wait. What‟s your name?
Pedro: Pedro Gonzales.
Mrs. Scott: Can you spell it?
Pedro: P-E-D-R-O G-O-N-Z-A-L-E-S
Mrs. Scott: Thank you. See you in half an hour.
Pedro: Good bye. See you soon.
bed-sitter = bed-sitting-room – garsonieră, cameră combinată
ads. – (prescurtare de la advertisements) – reclamă, publicitate
1. THE PRESENT TENSE (Common Aspect)
Timpul Prezent (Aspectul Comun)
Affirmative Form Negative Form Interrogative
He, she, it works
You do not work
He,she,it does not
We do not work
You do not work
They do not work
Do I work?
Do you work?
Does he, she, it
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
Do I not work?
(Don‟t I work?)
Do you not work?
Does he, she, it
Do we not work?
Do you not work?
Do they not work?
1. Timpul prezent, aspectul comun, se
foloseşte pentru a arăta o acţiune
obişnuită sau repetată în prezent.
2. Adeseori este folosit cu adverbe de
tipul: often, usually, never, always,
3. Poate arăta o acţiune viitoare, dacă
este însoţit de un adverb de timp
exprimând viitorul. In acest caz,
acţiunea viitoare face parte dintr-un
4. Este folosit în loc de prezentul
continuu cu acele verbe care nu sunt
întrebuinţate la forma continuă (to like,
to dislike, to love, to hate, to want, to
own, to consist of/in, to belong)
Students study for their exams.
Every year, the Academy organizes
We sit for an exam tomorrow.
I like this book.
THE PRESENT TENSE (Continuous Aspect)
Timpul Prezent (Aspectul Continuu)
Se formează cu verbul TO BE la prezent şi participiul prezent (forma în –
ing) a verbului de conjugat. Mai simplu, se poate exprima: TO BE + Ving
( „V” este verbul de conjugat).
Affirmative Form Negative Form Interrogative Form Negative-
I am (I‟m)
You are working
He, she, it is
We are working
You are working
They are working
I am not working
You are not
He, she, it is not
We are not
You are not
They are not
Am I working?
Are you working?
Is he, she, it
Are we working?
Are you working?
Are they working?
Am I not
Are you not
Is he, she, it not
Are we not
Are you not
Are they not
1. Prezentul continuu arată o acţiune în
curs de desfăşurare în momentul
Uneori, momentul acţiunii este fixat
prin adverbe de timp ca: now, at the
2. Prezentul continuu exprimă uneori o
acţiune ce caracterizează subiectul într-
o anumită perioadă de timp. Aceasta
rezultă din context.
3. Ca şi aspectul comun, poate arăta o
acţiune viitoare care a fost planificată
într-un moment prezent, dacă este
însoţit de un adverb de timp exprimând
They are studying for tomorrow‟s
We are not planning our holidays at
the present moment.
What are you doing here in Bucharest?
I am studying economics.
They are coming to see us next week.
I. Put the following sentences in the third person singular:
1. We listen to courses. 2. They take down notes. 3. You study for your exam. 4. I
like learning when I enjoy the subject. 5. You always lend me your text-books. 6.
I go home at 2 o‟clock. 7. I usually come to the faculty at 8 o‟clock. 8. I pay
attention to what the lecturer says. 9. You like being in time for the courses.
II. Make the following sentences – a) interrogative
1. I leave home at 7 a.m. every day. 2. This student speasks English very well. 3.
He reads very fast. 4. Students read sports magazines every day. 5. He writes his
homework in the afternoon. 6. I always go to the cinema with pleasure. 7. He
likes to watch television on Saturday evening. 8. He likes Latin grammar. 9. He
reads a few pages of Spanish literature every week. 10. You write many letters.
III. Use the verbs in brackets in the present tense (common or continuous
1. Students from other countries (come) to get trained as economists at the
Academyof Economic Studies. 2. We (attend) classes regularly. 3. He (like)
English. 4. Today, we (study) commercial correspondence in our English
seminar. 5. We (rehearse) for a show this evening. 6. They (meet) at 8 o‟clock
tonight. 7. She just (leave) for the mountains. 8. He (not like) to borrow the
books, he (prefer) to buy them. 9. Where you (hurry)? 10. We (hurry) to the
lecture-hall as we (not want) to be late.
IV. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parantheses using
Present Tense Simple or Continuous:
1. I ... the water for coffee in a special pot (to boil). 2. Come and make the coffee!
The water ... (to boil). 3. This shop ... at 8 a.m. and ... at 8 p.m. (to open; to
close). 4. I ... the book to read the new lesson (to open). 5. Don‟t shout that loud!
I ... you very well(to hear). 6. Don‟t interrupt them! They ... to a scientific
broadcast (to listen). 7. I ... what you ... (to see; to mean). 8. Wait aminute, will
you? I ... them off (to see). 9. A man ... with his nose (to smell). 10. Usually she
... a very quiet child, but now she ... naughty (to be; to be)
V. Put the verbs in parantheses in the Present Tense Simple. Notice the
adverbs they are associated with:
1. Mother never ... (to go out) without a shopping bag. 2. We often ... (to play)
chess in the evenings.3. They usually ... (to do) their shopping at this
supermarket. 4. She always ... (to listen to) the concerts broadcast on the radio on
Sunday mornings. 5. I occasionally ... (to read) a thriller before going to sleep. 6.
Our kids frequently ... (to break) something while playing hide-and-seek in their
room. 7. Grandmother hardly ever ... (to take) a sleeping pill. 8. They always ...
(to come) in time. 9. My husband never ... (to catch) anything when he ... (to go)
fishing. 10. Do your friends sometimes ... (to ask) you to babysit?
VI. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:
1. Except ... Romanian students, there is also a considerable number ... students
coming ... other countries. 2. There are canteens providing meals ... the students.
4. This term, we insist ... commercial correspondence. 5. Students attend
conferences ... various subjects. 6. This professor gives lectures ... political
economy. 7. All higher education institutes are endowed ... libraries. 8. The
students spend their holidays ... the mountains.
A STUDENT‟S DAILY PROGRAMME
The clock has just struck six. Mary is in her bedroom. She has got up,
opened the window and turned on the radio. She is doing her morning exercises
to the music.
It is half past six. Mary has got into the bathroom. She is standing at the
wash-basin. What has she just done? She has just turned on the hot and cold taps.
What is she going to do next? She is going to pour some water into the glass and
brush her teeth. Then she is going to have a shower. She doesn‟t have a bath in
the morning. She takes a bath before she goes to bed.
Mary has already brushed her teeth with her tooth-brush and tooth-paste.
She has had a warm shower. She has dried herself on the towel and has got
dressed. What is she doing now? She is doing her hair in front of the looking-
It is seven o‟clock. Mary is in the dining-room. Has she already had her
breakfast? No, not yet. She is laying the table for breakfast. She has just put some
coffee-cups, a sugar-bowl, a milk-jug and some plates on the table. Is she going
to have breakfast by herself? No, she is not. She is waiting for her brother who
hasn‟t shaved yet.
It is half past seven. Mary and her brother have just finished their
breakfast. They are in a hurry. They are leaving for the Academy of Economic
It takes them twenty minutes to get to the Academy by bus. They arrive
there ten minutes before the bell rings. So they have a chat with their fellow-
students. Only six students of their group are from Bucharest, the others either
come from different parts of the country, or from other countries. They usually
have a lot of things to talk about.
The classes begin at eight o‟clock and are over at ten minutes to two three
times a week. Twice a week they have classes in the afternoon. They regularly
attend lectures and seminars.
After classes in the morning they have their lunch at the student‟s canteen.
Then they go home on foot. On their way home they do some shopping. After a
short rest they do their homework and read up for seminars.
Then Mary prepares something for dinner and her brother helps her. They
have their dinner at seven o‟clock in the evening. After dinner they usually look
through some newspapers or magazines, or read some novels or listen to music,
or watch a film on TV.
On Sundays they often go to the students‟ club that regularly organizes
various cultural activities such as evening parties, cinema shows, lectures on
music and literature with recitals by famous musicians and actors.
MORNING AND EVENING
- What do you usually do at your office?
- In the morning I receive letters and cables which I have to answer that very
day. My secretary usually helps me to type the answers. Twice a week I have a
meeting where we discuss different business questions with our chief manager.
Almost every day I have business interviews, talks or conferences with the
representatives of the foreign firms we have done business with lately. In the
afternoon I usually make appointments on the phone with engineers of the
producing enterprises or foreign businessmen for the next day. Sometimes I make
business trips with a view to concluding sales contracts.
to get up
to leave for
to get to
- What do you usually do in the evening?
- We generally stay at home and watch TV. Once a week we go to the pictures.
Occasionally we go to a dance.
- Have you been to the theatre this month?
- Yes, we have been to the theatre twice this month.
bedroom - dormitor
to strike (struck, struck) – a bate, a suna
to get up (got, got) – a se scula
to get into – a intra
to get to – a ajunge la
to get dressed – a se îmbrăca
bathroom – camera de baie
to stand (stood, stood) – a sta în picioare
sugar-bowl – zaharniţă
milk-jug – cană de lapte
to shave – a se bărbieri
plate – farfurie
to leave for (left, left) - a pleca
lately – în ultimul timp
to do one‟s hair – a-şi aranja părul, a se coafa
to turn on (the radio, the tap) – a deschide (radioul, robinetul)
to pour some water – a turna (ceva) apă
to dry oneself on the towel – a se şterge cu prosopul
to lay (laid, laid) the table – a pune masa
to have breakfast / lunch / dinner – a lua micul dejun / prânzul / cina
to be in a hurry – a se grăbi
to have a chat – a sta de vorbă
to read up for seminars – a se pregăti pentru seminarii
to do one‟s homework – a-şi face temele
to have / to take a shower – a face un duş
to conclude a sales contract – a încheia un contract de vânzare-cumpărare
to make an appointment – a fixa o întâlnire
with a view to (+gerunziu) – în vederea, pentru a
GRAMMAR THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Perfectul compus se formează cu ajutorul verbului to have la prezent şi cu
participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat: TO HAVE + V3
Affirmative Form Negative Form Interrogative(-Negative)
I have finished
You have finished
He, she, it has finished
I have not (haven‟t)
You have not finished.
He, she, it has not
Have I (not) finished?
(Haven‟t I finished?)
Have you (not) finished?
Has he, she, it (not)
We have finished
You have finished
They have finished
We have not finished
You have not finished
They have not finished
Have we (not) finished?
Have you (not) finished?
Have they (not) finished?
Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formează din forma scurtă a infinitivului,
prin adăugarea desinenţei –ed, după următoarele reguli ortografice:
Spelling Rules Examples
1) Verbele terminate la infinitiv în – e
mut pierd această vocală înaintea
to live – lived
to arrive – arrived
to celebrate – celebrated
2) Verbele terminate la infinitive în –y
precedat de o consoană, schimbă y în i
to study – studied
to dry – dried
to hurry – hurried
3) Verbele monosilabice terminate într-
o consoană precedată de o vocală scurtă
dublează consoana finală
to stop - stopped
4) Verbele plurisilabice, terminate într-
o consoană precedată de o vocală şi
având accentual pe ultima silabă,
precum şi verbele terminate în –l,
indiferent de accent, dublează consoana
to pre`fer / preferred
to com`pel / compelled
to `travel / travelled
The use of the Present Perfect Tense – Common Aspect
1. Present Perfect exprimă o acţiune
trecută care are legătură cu prezentul.
a) Legătura poate fi temporală: acţiunea
începe în trecut şi continuă în present.
Momentul începerii acţiunii se indică
prin cuvântul since (prepoziţie,
conjuncţie, adverb) – din, de când.
Durata acţiunii se redă printr-o
locuţiune adverbială introdusă prin
prepoziţia for – de:
b) Legătura poate fi cauzală: acţiunea s-
a terminat, dar urmările ei continuă să
existe în present:
I have seen this film.
I have known him for many years.
We have not seen him since Monday.
He has not slept well since that night.
Mary has opened the window.
She has turned on the tap.
2. Present Perfect se referă la o
perioadă de timp încă în curs, ceea ce
este indicat prin adverbele sau
locuţiunile adverbiale: today, this week,
this summer, this month, lately, of late,
this morning, this year, in the last few
Have you been to the theatre this
She has worked much this week.
3. Present Perfect exprimă o acţiune
care a avut loc într-un trecut foarte
apropiat. El este însoţit atunci de
adverbe de timp nedefinit ca: often,
The clock has just struck six.
She has already brushed her teeth.
He hasn’t shaved yet.
seldom, ever, never, just, yet, always,
I. Speak about Mary‟s working day according to the plan:
a) What she usually does in the morning (before breakfast).
b) What she generally does at the Academy of Economic Studies.
c) What she usually does after classes and in the evenings.
d) How she spends her time on Sundays.
II. Complete the dialogues using the words in brackets:
“When do your classes begin?” (8 o‟clock; generally; in the morning0
“How many classes do you have every day?” (not more than six; sometimes four)
“Do you go straight home after classes?” ( not always; the library or the reading-
“What do you usually do there?” ( to read books and magazines; to make notes
on; to look through newspapers)
“And when do you usually do your English lessons?” (to have got the necessary
books; if; to do one‟s homework at home)
“Do you work in the library till late in the evening?” (not to stay; late)
“And how do you spend your time in the evening when you are free?” (to watch
television; to go to the pictures or to the theatre; to go to see one‟s friends)
“Do you go to bed late?” (not very; at about 11; as a rule).
III. Use “since” or “for” and translate the sentences into Romanian:
1. I haven‟t seen her … Sunday. 2. I haven‟t seen them … 1980. 3. We haven‟t
seen them … ten years. 4. She has been here … morning. 5. We have been here
… an hour and a half. 6. He hasn‟t shaved … two days. 7. I have known him …
a) the past participle of the regular verbs: to open, to turn, to pour, to brush, to
dry, to shave, to finish, to stay, to watch, to live:
1. He has just … the window. 2. She has just … on the radio. 3. She has already
… her teeth. 4. She has already … some water into the glass. 5. We have already
… our breakfast. 6. Has she … herself on the towel? 7. Has he already …? 8.
Have you … at home and … a film on TV? 9. They haven‟t … in Constantza.
b) the past participle of the irregular verbs: to see, to strike, to get up, to put, to
do, to go, to come, to have, to be, to lay, to stand, to leave:
1. I have … this film on TV. 2. The clock has just … seven. 3. George hasn‟t …
yet. 4. Have you … a sugar-bowl on the table? 5. Why haven‟t you … your hair?
6. Jane has … to the students‟ club. 7. Has your brother … home? 8. She has just
… a cold shower. 9. Have you … to the pictures this week? 10. Who has … the
table for breakfast? 11. Who has just … at the wash-basin? 12. They have just …
for their office.
V. Translate into English:
1. Nu v-am văzut de doi ani. Unde aţi fost? 2. Cine a deschis robinetul de apă
caldă? 3. N-am luat încă micul dejun. 4. Aţi terminat micul dejun? – Da, mi-a
plăcut foarte mult. 5. Cât este ora le dvs.? – Ceasul meu a stat. 6. De când sunteţi
la Bucureşti? – Sunt aici de duminică. 7. De când locuieşte fratele tău în
Bucureşti? – Din 1974. 8. De când aveţi televizorul? – Numai de două luni.
Mary is twenty years old. She is a student of the Faculty of the Agrarian
Economy and Accounting.
She lives with her parents in Bucharest. Her father is a worker. He works
as a welder at a large plant. Her mother is a weaver at a textile mill. Mary has a
brother. Mary‟s brother, John is a doctor at the Brâncovenesc Hospital. He has
been working there since 1979. He has a family of his own: a wife and three
children: two sons and one daughter. Helen, John‟s wife, is an assistant-lecturer
at the Academy of Economic Studies.
Mary‟s grand mother and grand father are pensioners. They live in
Braşov. Their grand sons and grand daughter often spend their holidays at their
Mary‟s uncle lives in a provincial town. He is a miner. His wife is a very
kind woman and a good housewife. Jane, their daughter, is Mary‟s cousin.
Mary‟s great grand mother lives with them.
John: Where do you live?
Peter: I live with my parents and grand parents in Bucharest.
John: Have you got any sisters and brothers?
Peter: Yes, our family is quite a big one: I have three brothers and two sisters
who are twins.
John: Are they older than you?
Peter: I have only one brother who is older than me. The others are all younger.
John: What is your elder brother?
Peter: He is a civil engineer. He lives in Constantza. He is married and has two
children. My sister-in-law is an economist. I can tell you I‟m very proud of being
an uncle. I love my niece and my nephew very much.
John: Oh, I‟m sure you do. Do they often come to Bucharest?
Peter: No, they don‟t. You see, most of our relatives live there – my uncles,
aunts, and all my cousins.
VOCABULARY parent – părinte; tată sau mamă
father – tată
mother – mamă
welder – sudor
weaver – ţesător
son – fiu
daughter – fiică
great grandparent – străbunic sau străbunică
grand mother – bunică
grand father – bunic
grand daughter – nepoată de bunică (bunic)
grand son – nepot de bunic (bunică)
housewife – gospodină
sister – soră
brother – frate
cousin – văr sau verişoară
twins – gemeni
civil engineer – inginer constructor
to marry – a căsători; a se căsători
sister-in-law – cumnată
brother-in-law – cumnat
uncle – unchi
aunt – mătuşă
niece – nepoată (de unchi sau mătuşă)
nephew – nepot (de unchi sau mătuşă)
relative – rudă
in-laws – rude prin alianţă
bachelor – celibatar
spinster – celibatară
an only child – copil unic
mill – uzină, fabrică, filatură, moară
GRAMMAR I. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
( Adjectivele şi pronumele posesive)
my – meu, mea, mei, mele our - nostru, noastră, noştri,
your – tău, ta, tăi, tale your – vostru, voastră, voştri,
his – lui their – lor
her – ei
its – lui, ei
mine – al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele ours – al nostru, a noastră, ai noştri,
yours – al tău, a ta, ai tăi, ale tale yours – al vostru, a voastră, ai voştri,
his – al lui, a lui, ai lui, ale lui theirs – al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor
hers – al ei, a ei, ai ei, ale ei
its – său, a sa, ai săi, ale sale
Pronumele posesiv înlocuieşte atât numele obiectului posedat cât şi al
posesorului. Pronumele posesive nu determină substantive ca adjectivele
posesive, ci le înlocuiesc.
Observaţi mai jos diferenţa dintre adjectivul şi pronumele posesiv şi pronumele
personal în cazul dativ/acuzativ:
Posesive adjective Posesive pronoun Personal pronoun
It‟s my car. It‟s mine. It belongs to me.
II. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS
(Adjectivele şi pronumele demonstrative)
de apropiere de depărtare
Singular this that
Plural these those
this – acest, această; aceste, aceasta
that – acel, acea; acela, aceea
these – aceşti, aceste; aceştia, acestea
those – acei, acele; aceia, acelea
1. Possessive Adjectives Possessive Pronouns
Where is my book?
She gave me his address.
Our classroom is very nice
His coat is new.
Her dress is nice.
Our house stands in a quiet street
The room is large. Its walls are white.
This book is mine.
I have lost my pencil – Please, give me
This is not their house, theirs is bigger
The new coat is his.
This nice dress is hers.
This house is ours.
The fault is mine.
These seats are theirs.
2. Demonstrative Adjectives Demonstrative Pronouns
This young man is my best friend.
That house is very small.
These pencils are good.
Those flowers are roses.
This is my dictionary and that is hers.
These are his magazines, and those are
III. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
(Prezentul perfect continuu)
Se formează cu ajutorul verbului TO BE la prezentul perfect şi participiul
prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: HAVE (HAS) BEEN + Ving
I have been working / I‟ve been
You have been working
He, she, it has been working/He‟s
been … We have been working
You have been working
They have been working
Have I been working?
Have you been working?
Has he, she, it been working?
Have we been working?
Have you been working?
Have they been working?
Negative Interrogative - Negative
I have not been working / I haven‟t
been You have not been working
He, she, it has not been working
We have not been working
You have not been working
They have not been working
Have I not been working?/ Haven‟t I
been Have you not been working?
Has he, she, it not been working?
Have we not been working?
Have you not been working?
Have they not been working?
Prezentul perfect la aspectul continuu se foloseşte:
1. pentru o acţiune care a început în trecut şi care continuă şi în present:
I‟ve been waiting for him for half an hour. (I‟m still waiting for him)
2. pentru o acţiune care a început în trecut şi care tocmai s-a încheiat:
I‟m so sorry I‟m late. Have you been waiting for me for a long time?
I. Enlarge upon:
a) Your own family.
b) Three relatives. Describe each one to a friend:
- What each relative looks like.
- Where he / she lives and works.
- What his / her interests are.
II. Ask questions to the following sentences, according to the model:
Model: I’ve been waiting for you for half an hour. How long have you been
waiting for me?
1. He has been teaching French for two years. 2. I‟ve been writing the letter for
an hour. 3. The children have been playing in the park since they came from
school. 4. She has been working in the garden since 8 o‟clock. 5. The boys have
been fishing since early in the morning. 6. He has been staying with us for a
week. 7. He has been reading since I have been here. 8. I have been peeling
potatoes for twenty minutes now. 9. She has been teaching at this school for five
III. Write the following sentences in the plural:
1. This is an interesting book. 2. That clock is slow. 3. This little boy is Mary‟s
brother. 4. That young man is a student at the Faculty of Trade. 5. This family is a
very big one. 6. That play was very good, the acting was wonderful indeed! 7.
That is a naughty boy, isn‟t he? 8. This is the most beautiful crystal glass I‟ve
ever seen. 9. That dictionary was printed in 1903. 10. This is the ring she lost
IV. Replace the underlined words by possessive adjectives:
1. John’s book is on the desk. 2. The children’s toys are neatly arranged on the
shelves. 3. My sister’s room is very large and clean. 4. Where are mother’s
shoes? 5. Our brother’s new books are extremely valuable 6. Mary’s old flat
looks quite shabby. 7. The students’ copybooks are all on the desks. 8. Your
sister’s watch is very nice and keeps good time.
V. Translate into English:
a) 1. Familia lor este foarte numeroasă. 2. Casa noastră este situată pe o stradă
extrem de liniştită. 3. Familia ei locuieşte în Bucureşti; unde locuieşte a ta? 4.
Fratele ei mai mare lucrează de doi ani la o uzină de tractoare. 5. Inelul lui de
logodnă este aici; unde este al tău? 6. Această tânără este fata cumnatului vostru,
nu-i aşa? 7. Acestea sunt darurile de nuntă pe care le-au primit tinerii căsătoriţi de
la bunica lor. 8. Aceste verighete sunt pentru nunta lor de argint. 9. Florile acelea
le-am cumpărat pentru stăbunica mea. 10. Apartamentul acela este încă neocupat.
People everywhere enjoy talking about the weather, “Isn‟t the weather
nice today?” or “Hasn‟t the weather been awful lately?” are excellent beginnings
for informal conversations.
Weather conditions across Romania are varied but generally speaking it is
a temperate continental climate.
The year is divided into four seasons: spring which begins officially with
the equinox in mid March and then summer, autumn and winter.
Temperatures in Romania are measured according to Centigrade not like
in England and in the United States where they are measured according to the
Fahrenheit scale, on which 32 degrees is the freezing point of water and 212
degrees the boiling point. Fahrenheit temperatures can be converted to
Centigrade, and vice versa by the use of simple formulas that may be found in
any general reference book.
Winter weather varies widely: with severe conditions in the northern parts
of the country and milder conditions in the southern areas. In the mountains, sub-
zero temperatures are common and there is much snow. In the south there are
fewer days with freezing temperatures.
Spring is a delightful season. The temperatures are moderate, and the
blooming trees and flowers make the city and the countryside bright with colour.
Everyone longs to get outside and enjoy the new season. Many students
find it hard to concentrate on their work and we jokingly refer to this condition as
Summer is longer and hotter in the southern part than in the northern one.
The mountains and the sea coast generally enjoy moderate temperatures. Summer
is the great season for all sports in the open air. Most people take their vacations
during summer, and the highways are crowded.
Autumn, like spring, has many mild days and comfortable temperatures.
Nature puts on its second display of colour, with the red and yellow of the leaves
and the bright fall flowers. Toward the end of autumn, there is abundant rain, as
the weather gradually gets colder and winter sets in.
Scientific weather forecasting is a serious matter and the concern of the
Romanian Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The weather reports and
prediction are printed in most newspapers and are read regularly over the radio
A: Do you think we‟ll be able to go to the beach tomorrow?
B: Why not? Have the plans changed?
A: No, but I‟m worried about the weather. It might rain.
B: It certainly seems fine now. There‟s not a cloud in the sky.
A: Yes, but you know how quickly the weather can change around here.
B: Not a chance. The Weather Institute has announced fine weather.
A: What time shall we be on the beach?
B: Any time after day-break. Would seven o‟clock do? Or perhaps you want to
make it even earlier?
A: Seven o‟clock is all right with me.
VOCABULARY awful – groaznic
climate – climă
equinox – echinox
solstice – solstiţiu
degree – grad
to freeze – a îngheţa
to convert – a transforma
mild – blând
delightful – încântător
lately – în ultimul timp
informal – neoficial
accuracy – exactitate
flood – inundaţie
high wind – vânt puternic
boiling point – punct de fierbere
to be converted – a fi transformat
reference book – carte de referinţă
weather forecasting – timpul probabil
according to – în conformitate cu
to long – a năzui din tot sufletul, a dori fierbinte / cu pasiune, a tânji
display – expunere, expoziţie, prezentare, etalare
GRAMMAR THE PAST TENSE
( Timpul trecut)
Affirmative Negative Interrogative Interrogative-
He, she, it visited
I did not visit
You did not visit
He,she,it did not
We did not visit
You did not visit
They did not visit
Did I visit?
Did you visit?
visit Did we visit?
Did you visit?
Did they visit?
Did I not visit?
Did you not visit?
Did he,she,it not
Did we not visit?
Did you not visit?
Did they not visit?
The use of the Past Tense
1. Past Tense exprimă o acţiune trecută
terminată care nu are legătură cu
They asked me to come earlier.
2. Exprimă o acţiune care are loc într-
un moment precis în trecut.
I met him at a concert two weeks ago.
3. Exprimă o acţiune care are loc în
cursul unei perioade terminate,
exprimată prin adverbe de timp definit
ca: yesterday, last night, last week etc.
We spent our vacation at the seaside
4. După „when” se foloseşte
întotdeauna Past Tense când acţiunea
are loc în trecut
When did they graduate from the
5. Pentru a exprima o acţiune repetată He used to come and see us every week
în trecut folosim used + infinitiv, would
+ infinitivul scurt
She would walk about the garden for
ADJECTIVES – DEGREES OF COMPARISON
( Adjectivele – gradele de comparaţie)
pozitiv comparativ superlativ
1. Adjective monosilabice tall taller the tallest
2. Adjective bisilabice terminate
a) de superioritate
taller than, more interesting than
b) de egalitate as tall as, as interesting as
c) de inferioritate not so tall as, less tall than, not so interesting
as, less interesting than
c) de inferioritate
very tall, very interesting
the tallest, the most interesting
the least tall, the least interesting
Când se compară două lucruri sau
fiinţe se foloseşte în general
comparativul precedat de articolul
hotărât, iar când se compară trei
sau mai multe lucruri sau fiinţe se
John is the taller of the two brothers.
John is the tallest of his classmates.
În limba engleză există
comparative duble care denotă o
intensificare ce se redă prin:
a) repetare (din ce în ce mai, tot
b) cu ajutorul unor astfel de
cuvinte sau expresii ca: far, still,
ever, much, a great deal etc.
The days are getting shorter and shorter.
The problems to solve are more and more
His exercise is far better than hers.
We attach ever greater significance to this
Pentru a reda „cu cât mai...cu atât
mai” se folosesc două
comparative precedate de „the”
The longer the days the shorter the nights.
The more you study the better you know
Superlativul absolut se mai poate
forma cu ajutorul următoarelor
adverbe: extremely, terribly,
This is an extremely attractive book.
They lived in a terribly noisy street.
Most se foloseşte numai în cazul
adjectivelor cu comparaţie
It was a most beautiful day.
Superlativul relativ al tuturor
adjectivelor poate fi accentuat
prin far şi by far.
This homework is far more difficult than the
Yesterday‟s trip was less enjoyable than we
expected by far.
I. Enlarge on:
a) The weather conditions in Romania.
b) The four seasons and their main characteristic.
c) Your favourite season.
II. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives:
Sad, grey, dry, lovely, heavy, simple, mild, few, bright, hard, hot, yellow,
abundant, serious, dangerous, dull, fresh, thick, cool, severe.
III. Change the following sentences into the past:
1. Weather conditions change quite often. 2. The day is rainy and we can‟t go on
the trip. 3. I like to watch the snowflakes fall from the grey sky. 4. The streets are
slippery and we have to be careful. 5. Towards the end of autumn the temperature
grows colder. 6. Snow begins to melt under the bright sunrays. 7. Everything
looks fresh, new and joyous. 8. We listen to the weather forecast on the radio.
IV. Use the adjectives in brackets in the proper degrees of comparison:
1. Winters are (mild) in the southern areas of our country. 2. In the south there are
(few) days with freezing temperatures. 3. Last year we had (heavy) snowfalls
than usual. 4. In September we may have some of (lovely) autumn days. 5. The
sky is cloudless and if the heat wave lasts, we might have (hot) month. 6. I feel
(good) in spring than in any other season. 7. Yesterday we had a very cold day
but today it is much (cold). 8. It isn‟t any (warm) today than it was yesterday, is
it? 9. Which is the part of our country with (abundant) rainfall? 10. In spring
flowers have (bright) colours. 11. In winter we have (low) temperatures with few
days above the freezing point. 12. Summer is (good) season for outdoor sports.
13. Today it is (little) windy than yesterday. 14. I am sure my exercise is as
(good) as yours.
V. Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the adjectives or adverbs in
1. (soon, good) The…the rain stops the…2. (strong) The wind gets…and…3.
(much, good) The…he worked the…results he obtained. 4. (early, good)
The…we start the…5. (little) He seemed to get…and…interested in the subject.
6. (high, cold) The…we climbed the…it became. 7. (much, rich) The…you read
the…becomes your vocabulary. 8. (fine, much) The…the weather the... agreeable
our stay in the mountains. 9. (few) There are…and…mistakes in your exercises.
VI. Translate into English:
1. Anul trecut am avut o iarnă aspră. 2. Noaptea trecută vântul a suflat foarte
puternic. 3. Când a început să plouă? 4. Încercau să se concenterze asupra
subiectului. 5. Merge la munte în fiecare vacanţă de iarnă. 6. Buletinul
meteorologic a anunţat timp frumos. 7. A plecat ieri cu trenul şi se întoarce peste
două săptămâni. 8. Nu am urmărit explicaţia. 9. Am hotărât să-mi schimb
proiectele de vacanţă. 10. Luna trecută am făcut o excursie foarte frumoasă în
nordul ţării. 11. Nu i-am recunoscut după atâţia ani. 12. În fiecare an merge în
Deltă pentru câteva zile. 13. Când aţi vizitat Nordul Moldovei? 14. S-au hotărât
în legătură cu data plecării. 15 Clima unei ţări depinde de poziţia sa geografică.
16. În România găsim o climă temperat-continentală caracterizată de existenţa a
patru anotimpuri. 17. Vremea se schimbă odată cu schimbarea anotimpurilor. 18.
În ţara noastră avem ceaţă destul de rar dar în Marea Britanie sunt multe zile cu
As a rule we have three meals a day: breakfast in the morning, lunch in
the middle of the day, and dinner in the evening.
Breakfast is a frugal meal; nevertheless it means laying the table, boiling
eggs, preparing tea and coffee to be served with rolls, toast, butter, marmalade,
cheese, ham and some dairy products. Lunch usually begins with some appetizers
such as a glass of plum brandy, some olives, then, comes a cold or warm hors-
d‟oeuvre followed by a soup. We, Romanians, are fond of clear soups,
consommés, bouillons, meat ball soups, dumpling soups and chicken borsch.
For the main course we may usually have some grilled, roast, boiled or
fried fish or meat with plenty of vegetables or rice, some fruit, fresh or stewed, a
cake, some ice-cream, a pie and a cup of black coffee to finish with. We generally
have water or mineral water for lunch, but on special occasions we may have
wine or beer.
The Romanian dinner may be a light meal consisting of a glass of tea or
milk and some sandwiches or it may be a big meal with cold meat or roast
poultry, an omelette, a salad, and a pudding followed by some sweets.
In England, meal-times differ from ours. The English have their breakfast
between seven and nine in the morning, lunch between twelve and two in the
afternoon, tea between four and five o‟clock and dinner at seven in the evening.
They may also have supper, a light meal at about 10 or 11, at home or at the
English breakfast is generally a more substantial meal than in our country.
It consists of fruit juice, corn flakes with milk, cream and sugar or porridge,
followed by fried bacon and eggs. Some marmalade made of oranges maybe
spread on the toast. Sometimes they may have a boiled egg, cold ham and black
or white coffee.
English food is rather plain compared to ours. They are not very fond of
soups and they prefer warm consommés, beef, chicken, oxtail soups or cream
soups. Fish, meat or poultry which comes next is generally fried or roasted. The
favourite meal with the British is mutton and lamb with a mint sauce and all sorts
of sautéed vegetables and mixed salads.
As for supper they may have fish, cold veal, pork or a steak and chips
with some vegetables.
Before having a meal we lay the table, we spread the table cloth and put
on glasses, napkins, the salt cellar, the pepper box, the mustard pot, the bread
basket. If it is breakfast we take the sugar-basin, cups, saucers, teaspoons, forks
and knives out of the side-board. We cut the bread, the ham, the sausages and the
cheese into slices and put them on a dish. For dinner we put soup plates and
dinner plates before each person. The soup is brought in a soup-tureen and the
other courses on dishes and plates.
When the meal is over we clear the table. We clear away the plates, dishes
and cutlery and wash them up in the kitchen.
Alice: What are we going to have for lunch today?
Mother: Well, we have soup, beef steak and chips and an apple-pie. But are you
already hungry? It‟s rather early for lunch. I was just baking the pie.
Alice: All right. I‟ll wash my hands and set the table until everything is ready.
Mother: Lunch is ready now. You may go and call the others.
to lay the table
to clear the
John: Steak and chips! That‟s my favourite meal!
Mother: Help yourself until they are still hot, but remember we have apple-pie for
frugal – frugal, cumpătat
roll – chiflă, corn
appetizer – aperitiv
hors-d‟oeuvre – gustare înaintea mesei propriu-zise
consommé – supă
bouillon – ciorbă ţărănească, bulion
course – fel de mâncare (ca ordine)
to grill – a frige la grătar
to broil – a frige la grătar
to boil – a fierbe
to roast – a (se) frige, a (se) prăji
to fry – a (se) prăji
pickles – murături
poultry – carne de pasăre, păsări de curte
pudding – budincă
porridge – griş de ovăz fiert în lapte (terci de ovăz)
plain – fad, fără gust
mutton – carne de oaie
lamb – carne de miel
steak – friptură la grătar
sideboard – bufet (cu veselă)
soup-tureen – supieră
dish – 1. platou de servit, farfurie; 2. fel de mâncare; pl. vase(de bucătărie)
cutlery – tacâmuri
helping – porţie
dairy products – produse lactate
plum brandy – ţuică
meat ball soup – ciorbă de perişoare
dumpling soup – supă cu găluşte
stewed fruit – compot
oxtail soup – supă de coadă de vită
to lay the table – a pune masa
to set the table – a pune masa
to spread the table cloth – a întinde faţa de masă
to clear the table – a strânge masa
help yourself to… - serviţi-vă cu …
GRAMMAR THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
I was coming
You were coming / You‟re coming
He, she, it was coming
We were coming
You were coming
They were coming
I was not (wasn‟t) coming
You were not (weren‟t) coming
He, she, it was not coming
We were not coming
You were not coming
They were not coming
Interrogative Interrogative – Negative
Was I coming?
Were you coming?
Was he, she, it coming?
Were we coming?
Were you coming?
Were they coming?
Was I not coming? / Wasn‟t I coming?
Were you not coming?
Was he, she, it, not coming?
Were we not coming?/Weren‟t we
Were you not coming?
Were they not coming?
Se formează din verbul TO BE la timpul trecut şi participiul prezent (-ing)
al verbului de conjugat: WERE / WAS + Ving
The use of the Past Continuous Tense
1. Trecutul continuu exprimă o acţiune
în desfăşurare la un moment dat în
trecut. Acest moment poate fi indicat
a) o expresie adverbială: at...o’clock, at
that time, this time yesterday
b) o altă acţiune:
This time yesterday I was preparing
I was just having breakfast when you
2. Pentru acţiuni paralele în trecut,
forma continuă se poate folosi atât în
propoziţia principală, cât şi în cea
secundară. De obicei, se evită folosirea
formei continue în ambele propoziţii.
While we were having dinner we
While we had dinner we were
3. În vorbirea indirectă în locul
Vorbire directă: She said: ”I am
cooking lunch just now”.
Vorbire indirectă: She said she was
cooking lunch just then.
REFLEXIVE AND EMPHATIC PRONOUNS
(Pronumele reflexive şi de întărire)
Pronume reflexive Pronume de întărire
I cut myself (m-am tăiat)
He enjoys himself (se
She came by herself (a venit
See for yourselves
To be by oneself ( a fi singur)
I did it myself (eu însumi am
He himself cooked the meal
(el însuşi a gătit mâncarea)
We prepared everything
ourselves (am pregătit totul
Pronumele reflexiv, se aşează după
verb şi se foloseşte:
1. când acţiunea verbului se răsfrânge
asupra subiectului. Tendinţa actuală
este de eliminare a pronumelui.
I cut myself while I was preparing
You wash (yourself) in the morning.
2. în diateza reflexivă. He enjoyed himself at the party.
3. în expresii idiomatice precedat de
„by”, „of”, „for” (cu sensul de singur)
I was all by myself when it happened.
The plate fell of itself.
You must see for yourself.
4. în comparaţii după „like”, „than”,
„as” în locul pronumelui personal.
He is a better cook than herself.
Pronumele de întărire se aşează în
general după substantivul sau
pronumele pe care îl întăreşte sau la
He himself has made the layer cake.
He has made the layer cake himself.
I. Translate the following questions and answer them:
a) 1. What does your breakfast usually consist of? 2. Is there any difference
between Romanian and English breakfast? 3. Do you generally have lunch at
home or at a canteen? 4. What is your favourite sweet dish? 5. Why do the
English pour milk in their coffee? 6. What are the English meals? 7. What are
their favourite dishes? 8. How do you lay the table for two?
b) 1. Care sunt principalele mese ale zilei? 2. Obişnuiţi să luaţi o masă copioasă
seara? 3. Preferaţi apă minerală sau vin la masa de prânz? 4. Ajutaţi vreodată pe
părinţi la strânsul mesei? 5. Vă place cafeaua neagră sau o preferaţi cu lapte? 6.
Vă place mâncarea mai gustoasă sau mai fadă?
II. Answer the question using the Past Tense Continuous of the underlined
verbs in your answers:
Model: Why did you put salt in your coffee? (to read at breakfast time)
I put salt in my coffee because I was reading at breakfast time.
1. Why didn‟t you buy anything for lunch? (to rain when I wanted to go out). 2.
When did you learn that wonderful recipe? (to live with my aunt). 3. Why did the
coffee boil over? (not to watch it). 4. When did you get the bad news? (to have
lunch). 5. Why is your cake burned? (to do several things at a time). 6. When did
you break the plate? (to try to dry it). 7. When did you cut yourself? (to sharpen
the knife). 8. Why didn‟t you help the guests to some cake? (just to bake it).
III. Fill in the blanks with the suitable reflexive or emphatic pronouns:
1. Don‟t eat too much or you‟ll make…ill. 2. I tried to cook the meal…3.
Make…at home and tell me what‟s all about. 4. I can only speak for…5. he is a
much better cook than…6. Go and see for…7. Help…to some more ice-cream. 8.
We enjoyed…at the party last night.
IV. Link the sentences in each pair using the words in brackets; make all the
necessary changes. Model: (While) The phone rang. We had breakfast.
The phone rang while we were having breakfast.
1. (while) I prepared dinner. The children laid the table. 2. (just as) The lights
went off. The guests arrived. 3. (as) I remembered I was short of flour. I prepared
the vegetables for the pudding. 4. (while) I dropped too much salt in the salad. I
dress it. 5. (while) I dropped a plate and broke it. I cleared the table.
AT THE LIBRARY
A library is a building with a large collection of books where you can
borrow books free of charge. You have only to know your way around a library
and you can easily find any fact or idea you are looking for.
There are all kinds of books: novels, short stories, plays, books of
reference such as dictionaries, biographies, then scientific books, historical
books, collection of poems, periodicals, magazines, etc.
The library has a system: each book that the library owns is listed on an
index card catalogue. The card catalogue can tell you immediately whether the
library owns a copy of the book you want. The librarian, on the other hand, will
tell you whether the book is in the library or has been lent.
For each book in the library the card catalogue contains an author card, a
title card and a subject card. On the upper left hand corner of each of these card is
the call number by which you can find the book.
If you want a book or a magazine you need an admission card issued by a
member of the staff of the library. Then, you pick up an application slip, you look
up the title of the book in the alphabetic or subject catalogue, you fill in the slip
by entering the title of the book, the shelf mark and the author‟s name.
The book will be delivered to you by a member of the staff.
Moat public libraries have reading rooms provided with tables at which
you may sit and read.
If you want to take books for home reading you may do so by going to the
lending department which runs a loan service. You may borrow one or two books
at a time and you may keep them for a week or more. If by the end of this period
you have not finished reading the book, you may renew it.
While reading a book, make not of your thoughts and feelings as you go
Reading is not only a pastime and a mean of education, it can lead you to
a richer understanding of yourself as well as of the life around you.
Jane: I say Allan, can you give me some advice about reading, please?
Allan: As you well know, reading is an essential part of your university life.
Since all knowledge cannot be obtained in the classroom alone much of it must
come from reading textbooks, reference books and other materials. The library of
our Academy is well provided with a large stock of books, both in Romanian and
in foreign languages.
Jane: So, do you think I could find there some specialized books recommended
in the bibliographies to our courses?
Allan: Of course you could, there are latest editions published in our country and
Jane: And what can you recommend me for my spare time, I mean something to
improve my English?
Allan: Try things that don‟t make difficult reading: short-stories, novels, plays,
some modern authors who write in a simple straightforward style. So, start with
Oscar Wilde, then G. Green, S. Maugham.
Jane: Thank you very much. I shall follow your advice.
to borrow – a lua cu împrumut
to look for – a căuta
novel – roman
short-story – nuvelă
periodical – publicaţie periodică
abroad – în străinătate
to lend, lent, lent – a da cu împrumut
to issue – a emite, a publica, (aici) a elibera o legitimaţie
textbook – manual
index card – fişă de cartotecă
card catalogue – cartotecă, fişier
author card – fişier pe autori
title card – fişier pe titluri
subject card – fişier tematic
call number – cota (cărţii)
admission card – legitimaţie de intrare
shelf mark – fişier pe rafturi
lending department – secţie de împrumut
well provided – bine aprovizionat
spare time – timp liber
straightforward style – stil direct
book of reference – îndreptar, carte de consultat
to fill in a slip – a completa un formular
statistical year book – anuar statistic
the book is sold out – cartea este epuizată
GRAMMAR 1. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
( Mai mult ca perfectul)
Mai mult ca perfectul se formează din forma de Past Tense a verbului TO
HAVE şi participiul trecut (forma a treia) a verbului de conjugat: HAD + V3
I had stopped / I‟d stopped
You had stopped
He, she, it had stopped / He‟d stopped
We had stopped
You had stopped / You‟d stopped
They had stopped
I had not stopped / I hadn‟t stopped
You had not stopped
He, she, it had not stopped
We had not stopped
You had not stopped
They had not stopped
Had I stopped?
Had you stopped?
Had he, she, it stopped?
Had we stopped?
Had you stopped?
Had they stopped?
Had I not stopped? / Hadn‟t I stopped?
Had you not stopped?
Had he, she, it not stopped?
Had we not stopped?/ Hadn‟t we
Had you not stopped?
Had they not stopped?
- Exprimă o acţiune trecută, terminată
înaintea unui moment dat din trecut.
- Exprimă o acţiune trecută, terminată,
anterioară altei acţiuni trecute.
- Se foloseşte în propoziţii secundare
temporale pentru a exprima o acţiune
anterioară unui moment viitor (sau
viitor faţă de trecut).
- Exprimă o acţiune începută înaintea
unui moment trecut şi care se continuă
până în acel moment.
By seven o‟clock I had translated the
When she had finished the book, she
returned it to the librarian.
I shall lend you the book after I had
He promised he would lend me the
book when he had read it himself.
She told me that she had been busy
since she came back from school.
2. THE GENITIVE CASE
-se foloseşte cu substantivele care
denumesc lucruri sau noţiuni abstracte.
the colour of the wall.
the city of London.
- se foloseşte cu substantivele care
denumesc fiinţe, persoane.
- cu substantivele care denumesc
noţiuni de timp, de distanţă sau greutate
(şi cu substantive care denumesc zile,
- cu substantivele care denumesc
fenomene naturale, aspecte din natură.
- cu substantive care denumesc
continente, ţări, oraşe şi cu
substantivele: city, country, town.
- cu anumite substantive ca: the sun, the
moon, the earth, car, ship, boat, vessel,
body, mind, science.
- cu câteva substantive comune urmate
- în expresii consecrate.
- substantivele house, shop, store,
office, cathedral sunt adesea omise
după substantive aflate le genitivul
the pupil‟s room
the student‟s library
a minute‟s silence
a two miles‟ walk
the night‟s coolness
the ocean‟s roar
our country‟s natural wealth
the car‟s performance
the sun‟s rays
the ship‟s crew
for goodness‟ sake
for mercy‟s sake
at her heart‟s desire
at one‟s fingers‟ ends
St. Paul‟s (cathedral) was rebuilt by
Sir Christopher Wren.
We buy bread at the baker‟s (shop).
I. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the library meant for? 2. What is a card catalogue? 3. What does a card
catalogue contain? 4. What do you have to do if you want to read a book in a
library? 5. Can we take books for home reading? 6. How long can you keep
them? 7. Describe a reading room in the Faculty of Economic Studies.
II. Supply the Past Perfect of the verbs in brackets:
1. Undergraduates could use the library after they (to register) as readers and (to
get) an admission card. 2. He (to finish) just the books borrowed from the library
when he went to take some new. 3. I read the book after I (to finish) my work. 4.
My friend (not to read) an English book for years. 5. There were plenty of books
that (to be rewritten) in simple language. 6. He told me he preferred to read a
more difficult book that one which (to be made) simpler. 7. I (to finish) reading
the story when he promised me an amusing novel. 8. By that time I already (to go
through) half of the play.
III. Change the following sentences so as to use a negative Past Perfect
instead of the Past Tense. Make all the necessary changes:
Model: I read a very interesting novel last year.
I had never read such an interesting novel before.
1. It was the first time I read an English book. 2. There were many people in the
reading room that day. 3. I often borrowed books from the library as a student. 4.
This was the first dictionary I consulted. 5. While reading, I looked up the
unknown words in the dictionary. 6. The book was first published in 1980. 7. I
renewed the book for another week. 8. The writer signed the book with a
IV. Substitute synthetic genitive forms for prepositional genitive forms:
1. He arrived at the library with a delay of a few minutes. 2. There is nothing like
a holiday of a week in the company of a good book. 3. He promised to leave the
place within a time of six weeks. 4. What is the point of view of the author? 5.
Here is the news in the newspaper of yesterday. 6. You may find him I the office
of the editor-in-chief. 7. I had to borrow the dictionary of Jane to look up some
unknown words. 8. The book dealt with the economic development of Romania.
V. Translate into English:
a) 1. Care este programul zilei? 2. Performanţele maşinii lui sunt într-adevăr
neobişnuite. 3. Cumpăr pâine la brutărie şi carne la măcelărie sau îmi fac toate
cumpărăturile la supermarket. 4. Orice student de limbă engleză ar trebui să aibă
dicţionarul de pronunţie al lui Daniel Jones. 5. L-ai cunoscut pe bunicul Anei şi al
lui Paul, cel care era pasionat după romanele ştiinţifico-fantastice? 6. Sala de
lectură a bibliotecii noastre este o încăpere mare şi luminoasă.
b) 1. Învăţasem deja câte ceva despre felul de viaţă al englezilor când m-am dus
la Londra. 2. Săptămâna trecută am împrumutat o carte de la bibliotecă; nu am
mai împrumutat niciodată o carte până atunci. 3. Când am ajuns în sala de lectură
toate locurile erau deja ocupate. 4. Bibliotecara mi-a spus că împrumutase cartea
cu câteva zile în urmă. 5. Până la începutul anului universitar a făcut rezumatele
tuturor cărţilor citite în timpul vacanţei. 6. La librărie am aflat că manualul fusese
retipărit. 7. Mi-am amintit că am mai citit această carte cu ani în urmă. 8. Cartea
fusese deja tradusă în mai multe limbi când am cumpărat-o.
WHAT‟S YOUR JOB?
Maggie: Jenny, this is my friend Liz Taylor. She‟s my next door neighbour …
Jenny: Is this Taylor or Gaylor?
Liz: Taylor. T A Y L O R. Hello! Nice to meet you.
Jenny: Hello! Pleased to meet you, too. Where are you from?
Liz: I‟m from Scotland. From Edinburgh. What‟s your nationality? Are you
Jenny: No, I „m from Canada, from Toronto. What‟s your job?
Liz: I‟m an art student, a sophomore, but I‟m a sales-assistant in the
holidays. What about you? Are you a student in the University, too? If not,
what‟s your occupation?
Jenny: I‟m studying in London University College. I‟m a fresher.
Liz: I‟m glad to have you as a neighbour. But isn‟t this flat too expensive?
Jenny: Oh, yes, it is. I‟m moving to a hotel.
Liz: I‟m sorry. I like it here. I‟m used to living in a house. In Edinburgh I
live in a small house with my family, in a suburb, at 10 Cherry Tree Lane.
Jenny: What‟s Edinburgh like?
Liz: It is the capital of Scotland, which is part of Great Britain. With half a
million inhabitants, it is situated on the Firth of Forth, in the south-east of the
country, but it is not very big. You can see green hills from its centre. There are
thousands of tourists in Edinburgh every summer, especially during the
International Festival of Music, Drama and the Arts, in August and September. It
is a beautiful and historic city, with large avenues, like Paris. There are lots of
interesting buildings: the Edinburgh Castle is in the centre of the city on a high
hill. From the Castle to Holyrood House (the former residence of Scottish Kings)
there‟s a very old street, the Royal Mile. There are also beautiful parks and
Botanical Gardens. It is also an industrial city and a busy port.
fresher – student în primul an
sophomore – student în anul doi
junior – student în anul trei
senior – student în anul partru (terminal)
Ei sunt numiţi în general “undergraduates” sau “undergraduettes”. După
absolvire ei sunt “Bachelor of Arts (or Science)” – BA sau BS/BSc. Următorul
grad este cel de “Master of Arts (or Science)” – MA/MSc. Cel mai înalt grad este
cel de “Doctor in Philosophy” – PhD, or “Doctor of Science” – DSc.
Other jobs are:
architect – architect
air-hostess – stuardeză
barber – bărbier, frizer
carpenter – tâmplar
clerk – funcţionar
doctor – medic, doctor
dress-maker – croitoreasă
electrician – electrician
hairdresser – coafeză, frizer
journalist – journalist, ziarist
mechanic – mechanic
model – model
pilot – pilot
postman – poştaş
photographer – fotograf
secretary – secretară
shop-keeper – negustor
taxi-driver – taximetrist, şofer de taxi
teacher – învăţător, professor (în învăţământul preuniversitar)
vet – veterinar
waitress – chelnăriţă
waiter - chelner
GRAMMAR THE PAST PERFECT TENSE (Continuous Aspect)
Mai mult ca perfectul (Aspectul continuu)
Este alcătuit din forma de Present Perfect a verbului TO BE urmată de
participiul prezent (-ing) al verbului de conjugat: HAD BEEN + Ving
Affirmative Form Negative Form
I had been working / I‟d been working
You had been working
He, she, it had been working
We had been working
You had been working
They had been working
I had not been working/I hadn‟t been
You had not been working
He, she, it had not been working
We had not been working
You had not been working
They had not been working
Interrogative Form Interrogative-Negative Form
Had I been working?
Had you been working?
Had he, she, it been working?
Had we been working?
Had you been working?
Had they been working?
Had I not been working? Hadn‟t I
Had you not been working?
Had he, she, it not been working?
Had we not been working?
Had you not been working?
Had they not been working?
1. Timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspectul
continuu arată o acţiune începută
înaintea unui moment trecut care
continuă şi în acel moment.
2. O acţiune repetată exprimată prin
timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspect
comun, poate fi uneori exprimată şi
prin timpul mai mult ca perfect-aspect
When you came, I had been writing
letters for an hour.
He had tried five times to get her on
He had been trying to get her on the
I. Complete the answers to the following questions about your job:
1. What‟s your job? / I‟m a(n) … (office-worker / engineer / economist / lawyer /
doctor /secretary /nurse /worker / research worker)
2. Where do you work? / I work in a(n) … (office / factory / research centre /
3. How far is it from your house? / It is a … from my house. (20-minute walk /
car drive / bus ride).
4. How long have you had this job? / I‟ve had this job for…years.
5. What are the working hours? / I work from…a.m. to…p.m. every day.
6. How many weeks‟ holiday do you have? / I have a…holiday every year. (two-
week / three-week / four-week).
7. What training do you have? / I went to the… (Polytechnic / University /
8. What are your prospects? / I can become a…in…years‟ time. (senior clerk/
deputy manager / top executive / general foreman /(chief) supervisor)
II. Now, you formulate the questions necessary to interview someone about
his/her job. Refer to his/her: job, workplace, distance from home, working
hours, holiday, seniority in the job, training, prospects.
III. Read this passage:
My name is Sandra Vlad, I‟m 29, I‟m married and have two children.
I work in an office in a big shoe factory, as a secretary to the deputy factory
manager. It is a half-hour bus ride from my house in the suburbs to the factory
which is situated in the industrial district of the town. I have worked here for the
past five years.
My working hours are 7 a.m. to 3 p.m., five days a week. A ten-hour day is not
unusual when there are important management meetings.
Every day I open the manager‟s letters, take them to him, write down the answers
and then type and send them.
I also answer incoming phone calls, dial some outgoing ones – to other shoe
manufacturers, to raw material suppliers or to important customers - , take
messages when the manager is away and handle routine enquiries.
I greet the visitors and take down notes in shorthand at important executive
I earn quite a good salary and have a two-week holiday every year, as I have not
worked long enough to be entitled to a longer holiday.
I finished a secondary school ten years ago. There I learned shothand and typing
as part of the school‟s programme of vocational training. After graduation I
became a telephonist and did several months‟ training with the Central Post-
Office for which I worked for three years. Then I had a two-year break for
children. I returned to work five years ago, and took the job I‟m still having.
I enjoy my job, although it may be very tiring sometimes. I feel I play a
responsible part in the factory‟s life, I am the first contact anyone has with the
management. I like to be friendly and to meet lots of people.
IV. Write about: Sandra Vlad‟s job; the ideal job.
V. Fill in the blanks with little, a little, few, a few, much, many:
1. I have…pens; I can give you one. 2. I have…pens. I need them. 3. There
are…sheets of carbon paper there; you may take two or three. 4. There
are…sheets of carbon paper there; you may not take any. 5. There isn‟t…time left
before office-hours are over. 6. There are…clerks in our office. 7. …care should
be taken when writing a report. 8. There are…mistakes in this typed letter;
please, re-type it.
VI. Use the verbs in brackets in the Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous
1. When I met him he (work) in the enterprise for 10 years. 2. When I finished
writing the minutes, I realized I (make) some mistakes. 3. When I passed by the
office-building under construction, a man told me they (work) on it for three
months. 4. When he finally arrived at the office, his colleague (wait) for him for
an hour. 5. When you entered my office, I (prepare) my speech for 2 hours. 6.
When the head of the department came in, I (file) papers for an hour. 7. When the
office-hours were over, I (work) for 8 hours. 8. When he finished his speech, we
(listen to) him for half an hour.
VII. Translate into English:
a) 1. Ştiam să bat la maşină şi să stenografiez de 10 ani când am venit în acest
birou. 2. Scriam un referat de 2 ore când a intrat directorul şi mi-a cerut să adaug
o nouă problemă. 3. El lucra de 20 de ani în industrie cân a devenit şeful secţiei.
4. Am încercat să te găsesc la telefon toată dimineaţa înainte ca în sfârşit să-mi
răspunzi. 5. Negocierile au durat 2 săptămâni înainte să se semneze contractul. 6.
Eram obosită când ai venit, pentru că făcusem 4 ore de traducere simultană în
sala de conferinţe. 7. Scrisorile au putut fi expediate pentru că le bătusem la
maşină în ziua aceea.
b) – Cu ce te ocupi Jane?
- Sunt stenodactilografă la o intreprindere de comerţ exterior din Bucureşti.
- Îţi place meseria ta?
- Da, foarte mult. De aceea am urmat cursurile şcolii de stenodactilografie.
Acum, după 5 ani de experienţă, redactez 50 de cuvinte pe minut şi stenografiez
100 de cuvinte pe minut.
- Care este partea cea mai interesantă a muncii tale?
- Faptul că tot ce fac îmi oferă sentimentul răspunderii. Atunci când redactez o
scrisoare comercială, ştiu că orice greşeală poate face o impresie proastă asupra
partenerului străin şi, în consecinţă, fac toate eforturile ca scrisoarea să arate
ireproşabil. Acest lucru este valabil şi pentru celelalte activităţi ale mele:
imaginează-ţi ce s-ar întâmpla dacă aş îndosaria greşit documentele!
- Întrucât eşti atât de conştiincioasă, bănuiesc că eşti apreciată în întreprinderea
- Sper că da!
AT A PUBLIC MEETING
There are different kinds of public meetings.
Members of parliaments and other similar national assemblies are
summoned to sessions and sittings. Delegates of the political party gather for
their regular conferences or congresses. Meetings and conventions are held also
by trade unions, women‟s organizations, artists, journalists, businessmen, etc.
Sometimes men and women come to spontaneous rallies to protest against
armaments drive, deployment of missiles, race barriers, etc, or to express their
solidarity with the peoples fighting colonialism, for peace in the world. Scientists
are convened to national and international symposia.
The meeting can be ruled by its own “standing orders”, unwritten
regulations and customs. These “rules of procedure” have been designed to
enable any official gathering to be effective and legally correct.
Any meeting is presided over by the chair (or the chairman), whose main
duty is to conduct the meeting taking decisions on particular problems of the
proceedings. He announces what the business is, gives members permission to
speak, calls for a vote on a motion, announces the results of a vote and generally
preserves order. All speeches or remarks of those present are addressed to the
The relator (raporteur)‟s duty is to give the required explanation. The
secretary‟s duty is taking minutes.
As soon as a person takes up chairmanship he calls the meeting to order
and asks the secretary to read the minutes of the last meeting. When they have
been read, he asks “Are there any omissions or errors?” If the minutes are correct,
a member moves that they should be adopted. This is seconded by another
member. The chairman puts the motion to a vote. If there is an error or an
omission, a member moves that a correction be made. After the minutes have
been discussed and approved the meeting proceeds then to “Business Arising
From the Minutes”. Members may ask for explanations why certain steps have
not been taken or taken in the wrong way.
The purpose of any public meeting consists in exchanging opinions and
views on the matter discussed and adopting a certain decision. Most resolutions
are voted by a mere show of hands and considered adopted if a bare majority of
members are in favour of it. For more important decisions the so-called
“constitutional majority” is necessary, amounting to two-third of the members of
Speakers are to keep to the point and they must confine themselves to the
time limit established by the meeting at the beginning of its work. Some members
neglect these rules, they take the floor on every item on the agenda and speak
endlessly. In any public meeting system and order are required. The regulations
and rules must be observed. Otherwise there is more confusion than
A: What day is the opening of the Annual Scientific Conference scheduled for?
B: I haven‟t seen the notice yet, but I think they won‟t be able to convene the
participants earlier than tomorrow fortnight.
A: They say the whole conference will be held in plenary sessions.
to take the
B: No, I don‟t think so. It would be impossible with so many papers put for
discussion. Besides plenary meetings there will be sittings of two or three
A: I hear that the papers outlines and summaries have already been published.
B: Yes, they can be consulted next week. I hope that every participant will be
provided with a full set of paper outlines before the proceedings start.
A: I‟m looking forward to this scientific conference, there are so many interesting
topics to be discussed and debated.
to summon – a convoca
convention – convenţie
trade-union – sindicat
to convene – a convoca, a întruni
effective – efficient
to preside – a prezida
chair – (aici) preşedintele unei adunări (amer.); prezidiu
chairman – preşedinte
relator – prezentator; povestitor; narator
proceedings – lucrările unei conferinţe
motion – moţiune, propunere
to move – (aici) a propune
to confine – a se limita
agenda – ordinea de zi
outline – plan, (aici) rezumat
armaments drive – cursa înarmărilor
deployment of missiles – amplasarea de proiectile
standing order – ordine permanentă
standing regulations – regulament în vigoare
to call for a vote – a cere votarea
to take minutes – a face un proces verbal
to call the meeting to order – a chema la ordine; a începe şedinţa
a bare majority – o majoritate neînsemnată, slabă
to take the floor – a lua cuvântul
sitting – şedinţa
committee – comitet
auditing committee – comisia de cenzori
item of the agenda – punct la ordinea de zi
draft resolution – proiect de rezoluţie
to keep the minutes – a păstra protocolul
GRAMMAR THE MODAL VERBS
Verbele modale can – could; may – might; must; ought to – nu primesc s la
persoana III-a singular; sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt, formează negativul cu
not iar interogativul ca şi verbele auxiliare. Formele contrase ale acestor verbe
sunt: can’t, couldn’t; mightn’t; mustn’t. May şi ought se folosesc mai rar în forma
CAN - COULD EXAMPLES
Exprimă capacitate fizică, intelectuală,
morală, etc şi este echivalentul lui to be
Exprimă îndoială, nesiguranţă (în
interogativ sau negativ), posibilitate.
You can read this page right now.
Until a short time ago she could read
It cannot be true.
Can this be your paper?
MAY - MIGHT EXAMPLES
Pentru toate celelalte timpuri se
înlocuieşte cu to be allowed to, to be
La forma negativă exprimă
Exprimă admonestare, sfat, caz în care
se foloseşte might:
Exprimă presupunere, nesiguranţă; se
foloseşte atât may cât şi might. Might
exprimă mai multă nesiguranţă şi este
echivalent cu perhaps sau maybe.
She will be allowed to leave at 12:30.
He had been permitted to wear the
You may take the floor.
You may not switch off the light.
You may catch the bus.
She might leave by 9 o‟clock train.
They might write the application now.
It may rain.
She might play the violin.
He might abstain from voting.
Pentru formarea celorlalte timpuri în
afară de prezent, se folosesc to have to,
to be obliged to, to be compelled to;
Exprimă datoria, obligaţia, necesitatea:
Absenţa necesităţii se redă prin
Exprimă prohibiţia (la negativ):
Exprimă probabilitatea, fiind echivalent
cu probably, evidently:
We shall have to learn this poem.
We had to finish writing our papers.
He must go to school.
Must he buy the book? – No, he
They must not smoke in the meeting
He must be at the sea-side.
The gloves must be your size.
OUGHT TO EXAMPLES
Exprimă o obligaţie, o datorie morală,
un sfat (cu referire la prezent, trecut sau
Exprimă o presupunere, o probabilitate.
They ought to be on time.
He ought to have brought the book he
He ought to be in the session by now.
SHALL (ca verb modal) EXAMPLES
Exprimă o necesitate, o constrângere
sau o obligativitate; se foloseşte cu
persoana a II-a şi a III-a:
Exprimă cererea unui sfat, a unei
sugestii (în propoziţii interogative la
Exprimă o promisiune:
He shall leave by 9 o‟clock train.
They shall not go to the mountains
because it was decided like that.
Shall we open the meeting?
Shall I ask the floor?
He shall get the questions written in
WILL ( ca verb modal) EXAMPLES
Exprimă o dorinţă (voinţă), o
promisiune sau o hotărâre (este folosit
la toate persoanele singular şi plural):
Exprimă o incitaţie, o rugăminte (în
interogativ, în general la persoana a II-
I will buy the book tomorrow.
We will do whatever you say.
Will you write the minutes, please?
Will you take the floor, please?
Exprimă ceva inevitabil:
Exprimă o acţiune obişnuită, repetată:
Exprimă o supoziţie:
Parents will be parents.
I will have my coffee in the morning.
He will be about fifty.
I. Enlarge upon:
1. The duties of the chair (chairman);
2. The kinds of committees elected at large conferences;
3. Kinds of public meetings;
4. Regulations of procedures adopted at meetings.
II. Change the following sentences using modal auxiliaries:
Model: Mister B has permission to leave the room.
Mister B may leave the room.
1. It is advisable for him to go to the meeting. 2. She promises to go this
afternoon to the exhibition. 3. Teachers are obliged to help their students. 4. He
told George that it was possible for him to write the minutes. 5. It is necessary for
all students to have I.D. cards. 6. He asked, “Do you want me to help you with the
report?” 7. I guess she will leave at 3:30. 8. The students are obliged to study
carefully their courses. 9. Perhaps they don‟t always know how to study. 10.
Evidently she is in the hospital.
III. Use the following statements in the past tense and past perfect tense:
1. We must speak for ourselves at the sitting. 2. They must improve the agenda.
3. She can take the floor and address the chair. 4. George can have the meeting
postponed. 5. They may be elected in the chair. 6. She may leave the chair when
the session is adjourned.
IV. Fill in the blanks with can, may, must, have to, will, shall.
1….I borrow your note-book? I am afraid you… 2. He…smoke now, the children
have left the room. 3. …you wait till next week? 4. You…read this report louder.
5. She…attend the meeting this afternoon. 6. I…to be at the station at 5 o‟clock
as my friend is arriving. 7. Accidents…happen. 8. …he turn on the TV set? 9.
…the chairman read the agenda? 10. You…have the book tomorrow. 11. I
promise it…not happen again. 12. Participants in the meeting…enter their names
in the list of the session.
V. Translate into English:
a) 1. Vei fi anunţat de îndată ce vei intra. 2. Să ridic problema în cadrul unei
şedinţe? 3. Să începem discuţiile? 4. Ce să fac după ce voi da citire propunerii? 5.
Să supun propunerea la vot? 6. Vei fi acasă când vom veni? 7. Data viitoare când
vom pleca la munte, o să vii cu noi. 8. E foarte întuneric aici, o să aprind lumina.
9. Trebuie să vezi piesa, e foarte interesantă. 10. Ar trebui să vorbeşti englezeşte
la seminarul de limba engleză. 11. Poate au schimbat programul, trebuia să fie
aici la această oră. 12. Putem fuma aici? 13. S-ar fi putut să plece mai devreme.
14. Trebuie să fie cartea ei. 15. Am auzit că e bolnav. 16. Ar trebui să stea în pat.
17. De obicei mă plimb sâmbătă după masă.
b) 1. Sunt surprins să aflu că George a fost ales membru în comisia de cenzori. 2.
Regret că am lipsit de la şedinţa de lucru. 3. Alegerile s-au făcut prin vot secret şi
s-a procedat în conformitate cu regulamentul în vigoare. 4. George putea fi
contestat pe motivul ineficienţei în rezolvarea problemelor publice. 5. Am aflat că
John a fost recuzat. 6. Luarea lui de cuvânt a creat o impresie bună.
CHAPTER TWO – ENGLISH FOR GEOGRAPHERS AND HISTORIANS
Introducere Capitolul de faţă este menit să pună la dispoziţia studenţilor de la specializarea
Geografie şi Istorie-Geografie care studiază limba engleză, texte cu caracter
general şi special pentru însuşirea termenilor de specialitate. Legarea materialului
didactic cât mai strâns de studiul geografiei şi istoriei este scopul principal al
Cele zece lecţii care alcătuiesc capitolul sunt întocmite în aşa fel încât să acopere
o diversitate de teme şi mai ales să răspundă tuturor problemelor de vocabular şi
de structură gramaticală care trebuie însuşite de studenţii respectivi.
Fiecare lecţie îi familiarizează pe studenţi cu un vocabular de specialitate într-un
context de dificultate medie, tratează una sau două probleme de gramatică, în
continuarea şi completarea celor studiate în capitolul de bază şi se încheie prin
teme de reflecţie şi dialog precum şi cu exerciţii care pun în practică lexicul şi
gramatica studiată în lecţia respectivă.
Obiectivele operaţionale. După parcurgerea integrală a acestui capitol
studenţii vor avea cunoştiinţe pentru a:
recunoaşte şi folosi termeni de specialitate;
face o prezentare succintă Marii Britanii, Statelor Unite ale Americii,
Australiei, României şi a capitalelor lor;
vorbi despre câteva episoade din istoria Marii Britanii, despre viaţa unora
din cei mai cunoscuţi monarhi ai Angliei;
recunoaşte şi folosi viitorul, viitorul perfect;
formula o propoziţie cu ordinea corectă a cuvintelor;
transforma propoziţii de la diateza activă la diateza pasivă;
Capitolul cuprinde: 1. Lesson one – Great Britain............................................................................46
2. Lesson two – London.....................................................................................51
3. Lesson three – The United States of America................................................60
4. Lesson four – American Cities.......................................................................66
5. Lesson five – Australia...................................................................................72
6. Lesson six – Important People in Britain.......................................................76
7. Lesson seven – Famous British Seamen........................................................79
8. Lesson eight – Europe‟s Premodern Heritage................................................81
9. Lesson nine – Bucharest.................................................................................84
10. Lesson ten – Romania...................................................................................89
- Bantaş, Andrei (1991) – Essential English, Ed. Teora Bucureşti
- Galiş, Livia & colaboratorii (1982) – Limba Engleză pentru învăţământul
superior economic, Ed.Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti
- Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana (1993) – Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed.
- Nicolescu, Adrian & colaboratorii (1980) – Culegere de texte pentru cursul
practic de limba engleză pentru secţia geografie-geologie, Tipografia
Universităţii din Bucureşti
- * * * - Speak English Nr. 1, 4, 7/ 1991
Britain consists of the three, formerly separate countries of England,
Scotland and Wales. Since Scotland and England joined in an Act of Union in
1707 (Wales had been incorporated in 1535), the island has been officially known
as Great Britain. Now it is known politically as the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland. Its total area is of 244 130 Km2. The group of
islands forming the British Isles has two main lands. Besides these there are an
infinite number of islets and rocks. Even the mainlands are penetrated by the sea
forming inlets on all the coats, so that no place in the island is more than about 65
miles from the sea, and the greater number of places is much nearer the sea.
Great Britain is separated from the continent of Europe by the North Sea
and the English Channel. At the promontory of North Foreland begins a fine line
of limestone cliffs which are quite similar to those of the French coast opposite.
The white cliffs of Dover, the gleaming whiteness of the Kentish shore which
made the Roman invaders who landed at Deal name Britain “Albion” – these are
the striking features of the chalk Country. This part of England is filed with
English history. Here the very ancient and the very modern are side by side, in
such close proximity as perhaps nowhere else in the world. The south coast
presents many indentations, a great number of which are natural harbours,
Portsmouth and Southampton among them. The coast in these parts (Davon and
Cornwall) consists mainly of hard rocks, such as granites. It is deeply indented
and it much resembles the French coast of Britany; so that one is naturally led to
think that Britain may have been at some remote time, one and the same country
as France, from which it was cut off by the subsidence of the ground under the
sea level. There are many other facts which prove this. None of the seas round the
British Isles are very deep; in fact in some parts of the North Sea, there is a depth
of less than six meters. The rounded, flat-topped hills that give character to the
English scenery, have been worn down by slowly-moving sheet of ice that once
covered the whole of Northern Europe. The plants and animals found in Britain
lead one to the same conclusion. The wolf and the bear, neither of which is any
longer found wild in the British Isles, and the fox, all reached the country from
the continent. The forests that once covered the greater part of the country were
made up of common European trees like the oak in the South and the pine in the
The highest mountains are in the central and northern parts of Scotland, in
Wales and in the north-west of England. The mountains and the hills cluster
round the Grampians Range, of which Ben Nevis is the highest peak (1 343 m).
The Cheviot hills running from sea to sea separate England from Scotland. The
Lowland Plain, to the north of the Cheviot Hills is fertile and forms a big contrast
to the barren mountains of the Scottish Highlands. The Pennine Chain, called the
Backbone of England, with its widespread coal – and iron-fields is the
mountainous part in the centre of the country. Where the Pennine Chain ends
there begins the Great Midland Plain reaching from Lincoln and Leichester to the
valley of the Thames. Wales is rich in coal fields in the south and statequarries in
There are many rivers in Britain but none of them are very long. The
Thames on which London is situated, runs through rich agricultural districts in an
easterly direction into the North Sea. The Severn, which flows south-west into
the Irish Sea, is the longest British river. Many rivers have been joined one to
another by means of canals, so that it is quite possible to travel by water from one
part of England to the other.
The climate of the British Isles is a mild climate because it is “insular”.
The heat and cold are moderate. This is due to the proximity of the sea, which
makes the air cooler in summer and warmer in winter, on account of a great warm
sea current, the Gulf Stream, bathing the western coast. As Britain is so near a
large ocean surface, it follows that the climate is very moist, the moister parts
being those lying near the Ocean, that is, the west coast, which is wetter than the
east coast and also the hilly parts, which condense moisture into rain.
Great Britain was originally an agricultural and sheep-farming country.
Today, agriculture, sheep and diary-farming are spread over the southern and
south-eastern part of England, the middle and north of Scotland and the greater
part of Ireland. Large quantities of fruit are grown in the South of England,
especially berry-fruits and apples, cherries, pears and plums. The great wealth of
Britain consists in the abundance of coal often found side by side with iron. In the
north of England, the Newcastle coal field extends along the Tyne. Another large
coal-field lies between the Mersey and the Humber. The most important coal and
iron field, which is situated in Staffordshire and nearest to London, is well known
as the “Black Country” with the two centres of metal industry Wolverhampton
and Birmingham. Its northern part is called the Potteries. The coal fields of Wales
contain a great quantity of anthracite.
An important part in British economy is played by the iron and steel
industry, the non-ferrous metals industry, engineering and ship building. The
main metal processing centres are Birmingham and Sheffield in central England,
then Middlesborough, Glasgow, Cardiff and Swansea.
British machine building specializes in steam-engines, electric motors,
machine-tools, textile equipment, locomotives, motor-cars and airplanes,
produced in London, Birmingham and Sheffield. Glasgow, Newcastle and Belfast
are well known for their ship building yards.
Besides the heavy industry a corresponding light industry has come into
being which produces textiles, glassware, porcelain, chemicals, etc.
formerly (adv.) – altădată, odinioară, cândva
to join – a se uni; a lega, a uni; a alătura, a anexa; a cupla
kingdom – regat
isle – (poetic sau in nume geografice) insulă; insuliţă, ostrov
island – insulă
islet – insuliţă, ostrov
mainland – continent; insulă principală (într-un grup de insule)
rock – stâncă; rocă; cap, promontoriu
inlet – golfuleţ; intrând
channel – albie, matcă, canal (natural)
the English Channel – Canalul Mânecii
limestone – piatră de var, calcar
cliff – faleză, ţărm stâncos; stânca în mare
shore – ţărm, mal, coastă
to land – a debarca
to gleam – a licări, a stăluci (slab)
striking – izbitor, frapant; remarcabil, extaordinar
proximity – apropiere
indentation – indentaţie, zimţuire
harbour – port
to resemble – a semăna/a aduce cu, a semăna cu; a fi asemănător/similar cu
remote – îndepărtat; de departe
to cluster – a forma un grup; a se strânge, a se aduna
subsidence – scădere, descreştere; tasare, denivelare; slăbire, cedare
to cut off – a tăia, a separa, a despărţi
depth – adâncime
flat – plat, întins, neted
top – vârf, parte de sus; creştet; coamă; culme, creastă, pisc
to wear down – a uza, a roade
sheet – strat
to make up – a forma, a alcătui, a compune
wild – sălbatic, nedomesticit
barren – sterp, steril; neroditor; arid
slate – gresie; şist
moist – umed; jilav; ud
moor, moorland – mlaştină; baltă; ţinut cu mlaştini de turbă şi iarbă neagră
loch – lac; braţ de mare
tartan – stofă ecosez; pled scoţian, tartan
bagpipe – cimpoi
steep – abrupt, râpos, prăpăstios
indomitable – de neîmblânzit, (de) nesupus, (de) nestăpânit; refractar, îndărătnic
Scotsman – (s) scoţian
Scotch/Scottish – (adj.) scoţian; (s) the ~ - scoţienii; dialect scoţian
Irishman/Irisher – irlandez, pl. Irishmen – irlandezi
Irish – (adj.) irlandez; (s) irlandezi; limba irlandeză
Irish Sea – Marea Irlandei
Irish Free State, the – Statul liber irlandez
Irish green – verde închis/intens
Welshman, pl. Welshmen – (s) velş, galez, om din Ţara Galilor
Welsh – (adj.) velş, galic, galez, din Ţara Galilor; (s) – limba velşă; the ~ - velşii,
seaport – port maritim
bay – golf
shipyard – şantier naval
wharf , pl. wharves şi wharfs – chei (paralel cu ţărmul), debarcader
castle – castel
fortress – fortăreaţă
mansion – conac
mansion house – curte boierească/seniorală
the Mansion House – primaria (reşedinţa oficială a lordului primar al Londrei)
cottage – casă ţărănească; casă la ţară
lawn – peluză
fog – ceaţă
SENTENCES WITH THE ANTICIPATORY IT
(Propoziţii cu it introductiv)
Când subiectul unei propoziţii este un infinitiv sau un gerund sau o propoziţie
întreagă, acesta se aşează după predicat, iar propoziţia începe cu pronumele it,
care se numeşte it introductiv.
It is good of you to help me
It is no use sulking
It takes an hour to get there
It is dangerous to drive here
It is a great joy to meet such nice people
It is likely that she will come by train
It was difficult to translate that text
It was quite unexpected her returning so soon.
O propoziţie cu it introductiv poate
avea forţă emfatică servind la
accentuarea oricărei părţi a propoziţiei.
It was she whom I met on Monday.
It was yesterday that I saw him.
It is apples that he likes best.
It was three years ago that I first met
I. Speak on:
1. Great Britain‟s two mainlands;
2. The English Channel;
3. Britain‟s forms of relief;
4. Britain‟s natural resources.
II. Say it in one word, choosing from the words below:
barren, moist, remote, iron, cliff, sea, to spread, scenery, join, slate
1. Far apart; far distant in space. 2. The aggregate of features that give character
to a landscape. 3. To extend or be distributed over a considerable area of time. 4.
To bring together or in contact; connect; to bring together in a particular relation
or for a specific purpose, action etc; unite. 5. A ductile, malleable, silver-white
metallic element, used in its crude or impure carbon containing forms for making
tools, implements, machinery, etc. 6. Level or slightly rolling land, usually with a
sandy soil and few trees, and relatively infertile. 7. A fine grained rock that trends
to split along parallel cleavage planes. 8. Moderately or slightly wet; damp. 9.
The high steep face of a rocky mass overlooking a lower area. 10. The salt waters
that cover the greater part of the earth‟s surface.
III. Ask each other questions on the following text: The Great Fire of London
The fire began on the second of September, 1666 at ten o‟clock at night. The
flames first broke out at a baker‟s shop, near London Bridge. It spread and
spread, and burned and burned for three days. The nights were lighter than the
days; in the day time there was an immense cloud of smoke, and in night time
there was a great tower of fire mounting up into the sky, which lighted the whole
country ten miles round. Showers of hot ashes rose into the air and fell on distant
places; flying sparks carried the conflagration to great distances and kindled it in
twenty new spots at a time: church steeples fell down with tremendous crashes;
houses had been intensely hot and dry, the streets were very narrow, and the
houses mostly built of wood and plaster. Nothing could stop the tremendous fire
but the want of more houses to burn; nor did it stop until the whole way from the
Tower of the Temple Bar was a desert composed of the ashes of 13 000 houses
and 89 churches. (Charles Dickens)
IV. Translate into English using the anticipatory it:
1. N-are rost să plângi. 2. Este greu să urci acest munte. 3. E ciudat că el nu a
apărut încă. 4. Ne trebuie două ore să terminăm referatul. 5. Când vom putea (va
fi posibil) afla rezultatele examenului de admitere? 6. Se speră ca el să-şi
îmbunătăţească metodele de studiu. 7. A fost o nesăbuinţă (to be foolish) că te-ai
prezentat la concurs fără o pregătire tmeinică. 8. Are importanţă cine vorbeşte
mai întâi? 9. Este fără însemnătate (immaterial) pentru noi dacă ne vom caza ăntr-
o cameră la parter sau la etaj. 10. S-au gândit (to occur to) că e prea târziu să mai
V. Complete the following sentences:
1. It is a great joy … 2. It was he whom … 3. It is no use … 4. It was quite
unexpected his … 5. It is likely that … 6. It was on Saturday that … 7. It is
grapes that… 8. It was difficult to … 9. It was a friend of John‟s who … 10. It
was foolish his … 11. It was necessary that … 12. It occurred to me that … 13. It
was good of you … 14. When will it be possible for them … 15. It takes her two
hours to …
VI. Translate into English:
Dezvoltarea industrială din ultimul timp a schimbat atât de mult Oxford-ul încât
oraşul Cambridge, un oraş cu o frumoasă arhitectură, este acum mult mai frumos.
Armonia lui a fost puţin alterată de firmele magazinelor, de cinematografe, etc. În
ceea ce priveşte numele de Cambridge, unii oameni de ştiinţă consideră că
originea lui este cuvîntul latinesc Camborium. Se spune că această universitate a
fost creată după instrucţiuni primite din partea mănăstirilor din Paris. La început,
cuvântul Universitas a însemnat un grup de persoane, o corporaţie, apoi o breaslă
a studenţilor sau a profesorilor, nu o clădire în care se audiau cursuri. Istoricii
Oxfordului pretind că în anul 1209 a existat o răzvrătire în oraş şi că mulţi
studenţi au fost nevoiţi să părăsească Oxford-ul; ei s-au dus la Cambridge şi au
format acolo un prototip de Universitate. Fondatorul unui colegiu, în sensul de
astăzi al cuvântului, a fost Walter de Merton din Oxford care în 1264 a redactat
statutul pentru activitatea de fiecare zi a învăţăceilor lui.
London, the capital city of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland is the country‟s largest port, its main industrial, financial,
commercial and cultural centre.
It lies in the South Eastern part of the island, in the London Basin, 51030‟
N latitude, while the prime meridian of 00 passes through the old observatory at
The climate of the London Basin is characterized by heavy rainfalls,
irregular from year to year, (with extremes of 70 – 130%) that range, depending
on the relief, from 813 mm to 635 mm annually.
That is why one gets the impression that it is always raining in London.
The English themselves say that year has 365 days out of which 65 are
good days and 300 rainy.
Temperatures in the area vary little, between 11,70C and 13,1
average being higher in London‟s built-up area because of heat retention by
buildings, smoke cover and artificial heating.
The history of London goes back to Roman times, though finds of pre-
Roman dates indicate that, as elsewhere along the Thames, the area was occupied
by a succession of small prehistoric communities.
Under the Romans, the stronghold of Londinium, one of the nineth
Coloniae of Britain, greatly developed, becoming a flourishing commercial and
military centre with roads radiating from the city to various parts of Britain.
From that time down to the present day, London has been continually
increasing in size and population.
Nowadays, London is about 14 miles (22 km) from East to West and 9
miles (14 km) from North to South being, as far as the number of inhabitants is
concerned, one of the world‟s largest cities.
It lies on both banks of the Thames, “the River” as Londoners call it,
which divides London into two unequal portions and forms, roughly speaking a
capital M as it crosses the city from West to East.
No less than 19 bridges, 6 of them for railways only, cross the Thames.
The finest of them is the Tower Bridge which has two crossings, a footway and a
drawbridge that can be raised for the passage of large vessels.
London is divided into three main parts with different histories and
The City, lying to the North of the River, roughly the London of the
Middle Ages, covers only about a square mile. It is the financial and business
centre of Great Britain, the traditional home of English banking.
Here we can find the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, the Royal
Exchange, the Mansion House as well as the headquarters of many of the
wealthiest companies and corporations in the world.
About half a million people work here and, when the workday is over,
when businessmen and clerks go home, the City becomes deserted, as only a few
thousand people actually live here.
The working class of London is concentrated in the East End, the home
of the poor, a vast area running eastward from the City.
The development of the heavy, clothing and furniture industries
concentrating mainly on the banks of the Thames and its tributaries, needed large
quantities of cheap-sweated labour.
Overcrowding, casual employment and subsistence wages have turned the
East End into an area of great poverty.
It includes all the main dock area, it is heavily industrialized, with miles
of factories, warehouses, dirty-looking little dwellings and slums.
The smell of the Thames and of the cargoes unloaded from the ships hang
over the East End.
The West End is the rich part of London, the fashionable residential area
of the rich.
There are very expensive shops, restaurants and clubs here, theatres,
concert halls and cinemas, public buildings, museums, monuments and parks.
The character of the West End is governmental, professional and cultural.
There are lots of places worth seeing in London, depending on your special
Those who are fond of history, for instance, will find historic monuments
and places reminding of past ages, of London‟s tormented history.
Among them we can mention Trafalgar Square, so named in memory of
the great victory of Trafalgar. Right in the middle of the Square stands the
Column of Nelson, a monument 184 feet high, representing Nelson‟s famous
Worth visiting is also the Tower of London built in 1087 by William the
Conqueror, a royal palace, a fortress and a prison in the past, a museum at
present, sheltering the crown jewels and other treasures.
Another historic building, a fine example of the classic style is St. Paul‟s
Cathedral, the crowning achievement of Britain‟s greatest architect, Sir
Art lovers will be overwhelmed by the unrivalled collections of paintings
and other important works of art to be found in art galleries.
The most famous of them are the National Gallery housing a collection of
the chief European Schools of Painting and Tate Gallery exhibiting British
paintings of all periods, modern foreign painting as well as modern sculpture.
London‟s museums are world-renowned and cover a wide variety of
interests. Thus, among the exhibits of the British Museum, visitors can admire
priceless antiquities: prints, drawings, manuscripts, coins and medals,
ethnography of Egyptian, western Asiatic, oriental, Greek and Roman as well as
of British origin.
The visitors involved in or just fond of literature may visit the British
Museum Library, the country‟s largest library which shelters rare books and old,
valuable manuscripts. This is a copyright library which receives a free copy of
every book printed in the United Kingdom.
The tourists might be also interested in seeing the Poets‟ Corner in
Westminster Abbey, where the most outstanding English poets and writers are
Those visiting London can have a walk along the streets of the city:
Regent Street, Oxford Street, Bond Street with their busy shopping centres, along
Fleet Street with its numerous editorial offices, or along side streets whose names
remind us that this was once the shopping centre of London: Bread Street, Milk
Street, Ironmonger Street, a.s.o.
We can form an idea of the number of London streets, lanes and blind
alleys from the fact that, if laid end to end, they would form a line 5,000 km long.
Tired after having walked so much, the visitor may have a rest in one of
the large parks and gardens of London, “the lungs of London” as they are called,
that stretch in an irregular green belt for nearly three miles between Whitehall
This is a different London where the noise of the town ceased, where
everything is quiet and calm.
VOCABULARY to lie, lay, lain – a sta întins, a zace; a fi situat
find – descoperire
stronghold – fortăreaţă
crossing – loc de trecere, traversare pentru pietoni
footway – alee pentru pietoni; trotuar
drawbridge – pod mobil
headquarters – sediu
actually – de fapt
tributary – afluent
casual – întâmplător, ocazional
subsistence – existenţă; mijloace de trai
warehouse – depozit
slum – mahala
cargo – încărcătură
to unload – a descărca
tormented – chinuit, torturat
to shelter – a adăposti
treasure – comoară
crowning – încununare
to be overwhelmed – a fi copleşit
unrivalled – inegalabil, inegalat
to house – a adăposti
drawing – desen
to be involved in – a fi implicat în…, (aici) a se interesa de…
to be buried – a fi înmormântat
lane – stradă îngustă
lung – plămân
belt – centură, curea
to cease – a înceta
to range from… to – a varia între … şi …; a fi situat între …
roughly speaking – în general vorbind
Stock Exchange – bursa de acţiuni
Royal Exchange – bursa din Londra
Mansion House – reşedinţa lordului primar al Londrei
cheap-sweated labour – mână de lucru prost plătită
to turn into … - a transforma în
places worth seeing – locuri ce merită văzute
crown jewels – bijuteriile Coroanei
crowning achievement – realizarea cea mai de seamă
world-renowned – vestit în întreaga lume
copyright library – bibliotecă cu drepturi de reproducere rezervate
side street – stradă laterală
blind alley – fundatură
căderea Imperiului Roman – the downfall of the Roman Empire
legiune – legion
ţintă – aim
hoardă barbară– wild horde
ţinut – land
a chema în ajutor – to call to one‟s aid
a pune stăpânire pe – to take possession of …
de aici înainte – from that time on …
a cunoaşte o dezvoltare rapidă – to witness a rapid development
plin de mărfuri – loaded with goods
a îndrepta – to straighten
cărămidă – brick
bine poiectat – well-designed
a lua locul – to replace
casă pe jumătate din lemn – half-timbered house
WORD – BUILDING
a) Sufixe pentru
b) Sufixe pentru
A.Sufixe formarea verbelor
c) Sufixe pentru
B. Prefixe formarea subst.
2. Reducerea a) reducerea începutului cuvântului
b) reducerea sfârşitului cuvântului
c) reducerea unei părţi din
d) comprimarea mai multor cuvinte
3. Alternanţe fonetice
II. Schimbarea categoriei
1. fără schimbare de formă
2. cu schimbare de formă
3. cu modificarea accentului
a) sufixe pentru formarea
to achieve achievement
to withdraw withdrawal
to extend extent
to convey conveyance
to exist existence
to mix mixture
to proceed procedure
to conclude conclusion
to permit permission
to deliver delivery
to rob robbery
b) sufixe pentru formarea verbelor:
c) sufixe pentru formarea adjectivelor:
to distribute distribution
to transport transportation
to compete competition
to qualify qualification
to produce producer
to edit editor
to assist assistant
to reside resident
Adjectiv Substantiv weak weakness
drama to dramatize
origin to originate
class to classify
Adjectiv Verb black to blacken
to compare competitive
to perish perishable
to divide divisible
a) prefixe pentru formarea adjectivelor:
- prefixe negative
- alte prefixe (în general de origine
greacă şi latină)
inter - (between)
intra - (within)
multi - (many)
sub - (under, below)
super - (above, over)
trans - (through, across)
pre – (before)
b) prefixe pentru formarea
- prefixe negative
- alte prefixe (în general de origine
greacă şi latină)
co - (together)
ex - (former)
post - (after)
pre - (before, earlier)
pro - (in favour of)
c) prefixe pentru formarea verbelor:
- prefixe negative
- alte prefixe
contra – (against)
ex – (out of)
re – (again)
to agree to disagree
to understand to misunderstand
able to enable
to indicate to contraindicate
port to export
to fill to refill
I. 2. Reducerea
a) reducerea începutului cuvântului
b) reducerea sfârşitului cuvântului
c) reducerea unei părţi din interiorul
d) comprimarea mai multor cuvinte
fourteen nights fortnight
I. 3. Alternanţe fonetice
Verb Substantiv to lose loss
to sing song
to breathe breath
I. 4. Abrevierea
TV - television
G.P.O. – General Post Office
B.A. – Bachelor of Arts
M.A. – Master of Arts
M.P. – Member of Parliament
U.N.O. – United Nations Organization
II. Schimbarea categoriei gramaticale
1. fără schimbare de formă
a) substantivizarea adjectivului
b) substantivizarea adverbului
c) substantivizarea verbului
d) substantivizarea adverbului,
prepoziţiei, conjuncţiei, articolului
2. cu schimbare de formă
(adăugarea semnului pluralului – s) la:
e) prepoziţie, conjuncţie, adverb, etc.
3. cu modificarea accentului
(substantivele sunt accentuate pe prima
good – the good
being – a being
to rest – a rest
inside – the inside of an affair
to dislike dislikes
in, out the ins and outs of a
up, down the ups and downs
Substantiv Verb 'record to re'cord
silabă, iar verbele pe a doua)
'import to im'port
'export to ex'port
'combine to com'bine
a) substantiv + substantiv
b) adjectiv + substantiv
c) pronume + substantiv
d) gerunziu + substantiv
e) verb + substantiv
f) adverb + substantiv
g) majusculă + substantiv
h) substantiv + verb + -er
i) substantiv + gerunziu
j) substantiv + adverb
k) verb + adverb
l) adverb + verb
football, businessman, post office
overshoes, best seller
X-ray, H-bomb, D-Day
passer-by, looker on
I. Enlarge upon: a) London‟s geographical location.
b) The climate in the London Basin.
c) The development of the city since ancient times.
d) The City
e) The East End
f) The West End
g) The main places worth seeing in London:
- historic buildings and monuments;
- art galleries;
- London‟s streets;
- London‟s parks and gardens.
II. Fill in prepositions and adverbs where necessary:
A. Do you live … the hostel … our Institute?
B. Oh, no. I am … Bucharest and live … Magheru Blvd. But why?
A. Well, I wanted to call … a friend … mine who lives … the hostel, but I am not
sure I can find the way there. Is it far … the Institute?
B. No, not very far. It will take you … 25 minutes to get there.
A. How can I get there … here?
B. Take bus 134. It will take you right there.
A. Can‟t I get there … trolley-bus?
B. Yes, you can. But if you go … trolley-bus you‟ll have to change; that‟s why
the best way … you to get there is … bus.
A. And where do I get … ?
B. You have to go as far as x street stop, there you get …, turn … the corner,
walk a short distance … the street and … less than 5 minutes you will find
yourself … the hostel.
A. It‟s perfectly clear.
B. It is quite easy to get there. But … case you lose your way, you may ask it … a
policeman or … any passer-by.
A. Thank you very much. Good-bye.
III. Add noun-forming suffixes to the following verbs: to achieve, to attach, to equip, to establish, to govern, to fulfil, to improve, to
invest, to manage, to state; to betray, to dispose, to renew, to survive, to
withdraw; to conclude, to include, to divide, to provide, to corrode, to revise; to
deliver, to discovery, to recovery, to master; to administer, to alter, to continue, to
form, to occupy, to register; to certify, to clarify, to fortify, to identify, to justify,
IV. Fill in the blanks with words related to the underlined ones:
1. He defined that word for me, and his … was correct. 2. I know Henry is an
acquaintance of yours. Are you … with his brother as well? 3. The final date for
applications has been extended to September 15th
. This … will enable more
students to apply. 4. If our team wins the game, we shall celebrate and we hope
you will come to the … 5. Edmund Hillary ascended Mt. Everest; he made the
first … of the highest mountains of the world. 6. The log walk exhausted him.
We notice his … right away. 7. He exceeded the sped limit. He was driving in …
of the limit. 8. He resembles his father very strongly. The … is really amazing. 9.
I have a lot of camping equipment. I can … you if you want to go camping next
week. 10. Manny new countries have emerged in Africa and their … has
increased the number of members in the U.N. 11. We were amazed to see them
and our … showed in our faces. 12. They wish to facilitate the building of the
dam, and so they are giving the engineers every … 13. Do you know the origin of
that old saying? It‟s a translation of a proverb that … in France. 14. That matter is
of concern to the entire nation. It‟s of … importance. 15. His father was in navy
and he has been always interested in … affairs. 16. He wants to study agriculture
and so he sits for the entrance exam at the Faculty of … Sciences. 17. A certain
part of the town has been set aside for industry. All … buildings must be located
V. Translate into English:
După căderea Imperiului Roman, legiunile romane s-au retras din Britania
care a devenit ţinta unor atacuri puternice din partea unor hoarde barbare.
Neputând rezista atacurilor, locuitorii acestor ţinuturi i-au chemat în ajutor pe
saxoni, care, la rândul lor, cu ajutorul altor triburi au pus stăpânire pe întreaga
ţară care a devenit capitala Regatului Saxon de răsărit.
De aici înainte, oraşul va căpăta o importanţă tot mai mare.
Comerţul a cunoscut o dezvoltare rapidă, portul fiind permanent plin de
mărfuri, iar oraşul a înflorit în special după marele incediu din anul 1666 când a
fost reconstruit în mare parte.
Cu această ocazie s-au făcut multe îmbunătăţiri: străzile au fost lărgite şi
îndreptate, case de cărămidă bine proiectate au luat locul vechilor case pe
jumătate din lemn.
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
The main landmass of the United States lies in central North America
with Canada to the North, Mexico to the South, the Atlantic Ocean to the East
and the Pacific Ocean to the West. The two newest states, Alaska and Hawaii, are
separated from the continental United States; Alaska borders on north-western
Canada and Hawaii lies in the central Pacific.
The diversity of the country stems from the fact it is so large and has so
many kinds of land, climate and people. It stretches 2,575 kilometres from north
to south, 4,500 kilometres from east to west. There are pine forests dotted with
lakes and mountain peaks covered with snow. There are meadows with brooks
and trees, sea cliffs, wide grassy plains, broad spreads of grapevines and sandy
On the Atlantic shore of the United States, much of the northern coast is
rocky and uninviting, but the middle and southern Atlantic coast rises gently from
The Appalachians, which run roughly parallel to the east coast, are old
mountains with many coal-rich valleys between them. To the West of the
Appalachians lie plateaus built up over the centuries from bits of stone that were
washed down from the mountains and then cut into small hills by streams.
Beyond is the great Central Lowland.
North of the Central Lowland, extending for almost 1,600 kilometres are
the five Great Lakes which the United States shares with Canada.
West of the Central Lowland are the Great Plains. They are stopped by
the Rocky Mountains,“the backbone of the continent”. The Rockies are
considered young mountains: of the same age as the Alps in Europe, the
Himalayas in Asia and the Andes in South America. Like these ranges, they are
high, rough and irregular in shape.
One region was formed of material which was washed down from the Rockies
and pressed into rock. This now encompassed the Colorado Plateau, in which the
Grand Canyon of the Colorado River is cut, 1,6 km in depth.
Volcanoes built the Cascade Mountains. The Sierra Nevada range and the
ridges of the Great Basin, on the other hand, were formed when a strained portion
of the earth‟s crust broke into high blocks of rock. At the border of the Pacific
Ocean lie the Coast Ranges, relatively low mountains in a region where
occasional earthquakes show that the process of mountain-building has not yet
In the Northern Hemisphere, the western portions of continents are
especially favoured by the prevailing winds. This is because the western lands
gather the rains as they come off the ocean blown by storms that circle from west
Unfortunately, the Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountains,
so close to the west coast, catch the largest share of the rain of the Pacific Ocean
before it can go further inland. As a result, there is little rain for almost the whole
western half of the United States, which lies in the “rain shadow” of the
The United States is crossed by great rivers. The Mississippi is one of the
world‟s great continental rivers. Its waters are gathered from two-thirds of the
United States and, together with the Missouri, the Mississippi flows some 6,400
km from its northern sources in the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Mexico,
which makes it one of the world‟s longest waterways.
Gulf of Mexico
The Mississippi has been called the “father of waters”. Through all its
lower course, it wanders along, appearing lazy and harmless. But people who
know the river are not deceived by its appearance, for they have had many bitter
struggles with its floods.
The two great rivers of the Pacific side are the Colorado in the south and
the Columbia, which rises in Canada and drains the north. In the dry western
country, both rivers, very different in character, are vital sources of life.
The Rio Grande, about 3,200 km long, in the Southwest, forms a natural
boundary between Mexico and the U.S.
In the U.S. there are all kinds of unexpected differences in climate. For
instance, all along the western coast, the temperature changes little between
winter and summer. In some places, the average difference between July and
January is as little as 100C. But in the north central part of the country, summer
and winter are worlds apart. There, the average difference between July and
January is 360C and more violent extremes are common. In the eastern part of the
United States, the difference between summer and winter is also very distinct, but
not so extreme. Near the south western corner of the country, the climate is mild
and spring-like in winter but in summer the temperature may reach equatorial
intensity. In Alaska, almost continuous daylight in summer makes the short
growing season an intense one.
A rich and well-known part of the Unites States is the Middle West, with
the states of Kansas, Missouri, Iowa and Illinois. It comprises about 25% of the
area of the country, about one third of the population and nearly 60% of its
The climate of this region is largely of the continental type, the winters
being severe and the summers long and hot. It is in agriculture that this section
has acquired and holds first place in the United States. The level prairies offer a
fine opportunity for the use of the most improved types of farm machinery.
Because of the climate and the soil, grain is the principal crop of this section, as
are cotton and tobacco in the south.
Winter wheat grows chiefly in Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska and
Missouri. The principal region for corn growing is the belt from central Ohio to
central Kansas and from the Ohio River to Wisconsin.
Another commodity of this region is sugar beet. The cattle and meat-
packing industries play an enormous part in the economic life of the people of
this section. The meat-packing industry has centred in Chicago because of
transportation facilities. In meat production Illinois is first and Iowa – second.
The principal minerals of this region are gold, iron, cooper and coal.
The principal deposits of iron are in northern Michigan. Most of this ore
is smelted in Pennsylvania but a large number of blast-furnaces are located along
the Great Lakes. The iron industry naturally gave rise to much of the iron and
steel manufacturing of this section.
The centre of general manufactures in the United States is a little west of
central Ohio. According to value, about one third of the manufactured products of
the United States come from the central states.
desert – deşert
meadow – pajişte
brook – pârâu
grapevine – vie
rocky – stâncos
uninviting – neîmbietor
roughly – aproximativ
plateau – podiş
strained – presat, apăsat
crust – scoarţă
tilted – înclinat, în pantă
earthquake – cutremur
opportunity – posibilitate
grain – cereale
deposit – zăcământ
to be separated from – a fi separat de
to border on – a se învecina cu
to stem from – a proveni din
dotted with – presărat cu
prevailing winds – vânturi regulate
lower course – curs inferior
upper course – curs superior
downstream – în aval
upstream – în amonte
to become apparent – a deveni evident
natural boundary – frontieră naturală
to be worlds apart – a fi foarte deosebit
tunnel – tunel
bridge – pod
geographic boundary – graniţă geografică
rainfall – precipitaţii
abundant vegetation – vegetaţie luxuriantă
sparse vegetation – vegetaţie sărăcăcioasă
mountain ridge- creasta muntelui
orchard – livadă
pasture – paşune
wilderness – sălbăticie
stretch of land – întindere de pământ
waterway – cale navigabilă
surface soil – solul
subsoil – subsolul
the turn of the century – începutul secolului
capped with snow – acoperit de zăpadă
THE PASSIVE VOICE (Diateza Pasivă)
Diateza este categoria gramaticală specifică verbului care exprimă raportul
dintre verbul predicat, pe de o parte, şi subiectul şi obiectul (complementul
direct) al verbului predicat, pe de altă parte.
Verbul este la diateza pasivă când subiectul gramatical suferă acţiunea
săvârşită de obiect:
This letter (subiect) has been written (predicat) by Lucy (obiect).
Această scrisoare a fost scrisă de Lucy
Timpurile verbului la diateza pasivă se formează din timpul corespunzător
al auxiliarului “to be” şi participiul trecut al verbului de conjugat.
I. Common Aspect
Affirmative Negative Interogative
I am asked
I am not asked
I‟m not asked
Am I (not) asked?
Past Tense I was asked
I was not asked
I wasn‟t asked
Was I (not) asked?
Wasn‟t I asked?
I have been asked
I‟ve been asked
I have not been
I haven‟t been asked
I‟ve not been asked
Have I(not) been
Haven‟t I been
I had been asked
I‟d been asked
I had not been asked
I‟d not been asked
I hadn‟t been asked
Had I (not)been
Hadn‟t I been
I shall be asked
I‟ll be asked
I shall not be asked
I shan‟t be asked
Shall I (not) be
Shan‟t I be asked?
I shall have been
I‟ll have been asked
I shall not have been
I shan‟t have been
Shall I (not) have
Shan‟t I have been
I should be asked
I‟d be asked
I should not be
I shouldn‟t be asked
Should I (not) be
Shouldn‟t I be
I should have been
I‟d have been asked
I should not have
I shouldn‟t have
Should I (not) have
Shouldn‟t I have
II. Continuous Aspect
I am being asked
I‟m being asked
I am not being asked
I‟m not being asked
Past Tense I was being asked I was not being
I wasn‟t being asked
Was I (not) being
Wasn‟t I being
Singurele timpuri care se folosesc la aspectul continuu diateza pasivă sunt
Present Tense şi Past Tense, în locul celorlalte timpuri folosindu-se timpurile
corespunzătoare ale aspectului comun.
The Use of Passive Voice
Diateza pasivă se foloseşte:
a) când nu se cunoaşte subiectul logic
al propoziţiei; când acesta este evident
sau lipsit de importanţă.
Depositors are requested to fill in the
forms in blue ink only.
b) când complementul prezintă mai
mult interes decât subiectul logic.
c) când din anumite motive, vorbitorul
nu vrea să menţioneze subiectul logic.
Mary was sent many telegrams on her
The money has been already sent out
by Money Order
I. Enlarge on:
a) The location of the United States;
b) The diversity of the country‟s forms of relief;
c) The climate of the United States;
d) The main mountain ranges – their characteristics;
e) The main rivers – their economic importance;
f) The Middle West – its relief and climate characteristics;
g) Aspects of economic development in the Middle West.
II. Ask questions on the text and answer them:
The majestic Rocky Mountains stretch all the way from Mexico to the Arctic.
Like the Alps, they are high, sharp and rugged. Compared with the Appalachians
in the East, they are young and their faces of bare rock are capped with snow,
even to the south. In the high valleys, there are remains of glaciers while below
them are clear, icy lakes which the glaciers made. More than 100 million years
ago, the earth was violently folded and compressed where the Rockies now stand,
and the mountains rose and fell and rose again. The Sierras pushed upward. Lava
poured over the land in great floods to build the Columbia Plateau, and the
Colorado River began to cut the Grand Canyon. As the mountains rose for the
last time, the coast ranges near the Pacific broke into pieces, leaving great cracks
along which huge blocks of the earth still shift occasionally.
III. Make the following sentences passive:
1. They built bridges over valleys and rivers. 2. He had to accept the terms of
rebuilding the plant. 3. The variations in temperature affected crop growing. 4.
Wide expanses of forests cover the surface of the United States. 5. Volcanoes
built the Cascade Mountains. 6. Lava poured from inside the earth and created the
high Columbia table land. 7. The Sierra Nevada Mountains catch the largest share
of the rain off the Pacific Ocean. 8. They shall build a big hydro-power station on
the Rio Grande.
IV. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct tense:
1. It is in agriculture that this section (to acquire) first place. 2. Because of the
climate and the soil, grain (to be) the principal crop of this section. 3. Since the
beginning of this century heavy industry (to grow) rapidly. 4. The meat-packing
industry (to centre) in Chicago. 5. They (to decide) to build a modern network of
railways. 6. The ore deposits (to give rise) to an important automobile industry. 7.
A large number of industries (to be located) along the Great Lakes. 8. A severe
winter (to ruin) these years agricultural yield. 9. Cattle raising (to be carried on)
largely in the states farther west. 10. The ore deposits in these regions (to exceed)
those produced in other places.
V. Fill in with prepositions:
The ancient waters that brought soil … these mountain valleys had no way …
reaching the sea, so they spread out ... shallow lakes. As the water slowly
evaporated, minerals remained … the lake beds. Great Salt Lake, … example,
contains an estimated six thousand million tons … salt. Another lake holds
millions … tons … soda. The lakes change size and shape … the rainfall and
sometimes dry up completely … arid weather.
… the land … little water, farming was very difficult – and would have been
impossible … a series … irrigation canals that bring water … the high mountains
streams … the dry valleys below.
VI. Translate into English:
Parcul Naţional ai Munţilor Stâncoşi este un muzeu geologic ce conţine
rămăşiţele unor munţi vechi, canioane, păduri şi gheţari.
Parcul Naţional Zosemite este vestit pentru cascadele sale care au o înălţime de
730 m şi văile împrejmuite de înălţimi de peste 900 m.
Dar poate că nici un peisaj nu este compatibil cu Marele Canion al fluviului
Colorado. Acolo, timp de un milion şi jumătate de ani, marele fluviu a dăltuit în
stânca muntelui. Părţile cele mai impresionante ale canionului se află în interiorul
Parcului Naţional al Marelui Canion.
Mai mult decât orice alte porţiuni din Statele Unite, munţii şi deşerturile continuă
să constituie cele mai mari întinderi ale ţării. Aceste ţinuturi, care odinioară barau
calea călătorilor obosiţi, au devenit în prezent locuri pentru vacanţe de vară şi de
There are many big towns in the United States of America. They can be
counted easily spreading the map. Yet, it is impossible to do the same thing with
the small towns. New York is considered to be the most interesting city of the
United States. Perhaps after New York, Chicago might be called the richest city;
San Francisco – the most beautiful; Cincinnati – the most agreeable and civilized;
Santa Fe – the most original due to the well-preserved traditions; Cleveland and
Buffalo – the smokiest; Los Angeles – cumbersome, disorderly, hot and smoky
and Washington – the most provincial of all the big towns.
I. WASHINGTON, D.C.
The capital of the United States is situated on the Potomac River in the
District of Columbia. The District of Columbia (D.C.) was named in honour of
Columbus, the discoverer of America; it is a piece of land of one hundred square
miles, and it does not belong to any state. The terms Washington and the District
of Columbia are practically synonymous. The nation‟s first president, George
Washington, selected the site for the District and laid the corner-stone of the
Capital Building where Congress meets.
Washington, D.C. has been the capital since 1800. At the beginning of the
century, the new capital was called “Wilderness City” and the “City of
Streets without Houses”.
At the time of its foundation there were few trees and houses. Now
Washington has more trees than any other city. The wide avenues are lined with
old shady trees the branches of which frequently meet in a continuous arch high
above the street.
The plan of the city in which the streets run north and south, east and
west, intersected by avenues laid out diagonally, forms spacious circles and
triangles developing into small parks.
Having combined both the rectangular plan and the wheel-shape plan,
Washington has become one of the most carefully planned cities of the United
States of America.
Broad avenues named after the states radiate like the spokes of a wheel
from centres which are placed within the rectangular pattern of the streets.
The city of Washington is divided by Capitol Street into four quarters.
The centre of the city is the Capitol Building which stands on Capitol Hill, the
highest point in the city. Home of both the Senate and the House of
Representatives, the structure itself contains 430 rooms.
From the Capitol to the Executive Mansion (home and office of the
President better known as the White House) runs broad Pennsylvania Avenue,
about a mile and a half in length and flanked with trees.
The corner-stone of the Executive Mansion, as it was originally known,
date from October 13, 1792.
The British troops that arrived in Washington in 1814, were indirectly
responsible for the name “White House”. Following the burning of the building,
the marks of fire on the sand stone walls concealed by painting the whole
building white. But it remained the “Executive Mansion” until the administration
of Theodore Roosevelt, when “White House” appeared on the President‟s
stationery and the term became official.
In perfect alignment with the Capitol are Union Square, the Washington
Monument, a 555-foot obelisk, and the Lincoln Memorial with its Reflecting
Pool. The Memorial is designed like a Greek Temple, with 36 Doric columns
representing the states in the Union at the time of Lincoln‟s death. The dominant
feature of the building is the magnificent, realistic figure of Lincoln seated in the
centre of the open temple. The statue was carved from marble by sculptor Daniel
One of the most important places of interest in Washington is the
Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 by an act of the United States
Congress with funds bequeathed by James Smithson, an English scientist who
had never visited the United States of America.
The Smithsonian Institution is an independent federal establishment
devoted to public education, basic research and national service in the arts,
science and history. It is the world‟s largest museum complex and an important
centre for research. Its 13 museums and the National Zoo possess more than 70
million objects and specimens. About 1% of the total is on public display, with
the rest used for research.
Another place of interest is John F. Kennedy Centre for the Performing
Arts, a theatrical complex on the Potomac River. It is the sole official memorial
to President Kennedy in the capital, opened in 1971. Financed both by the
government and private funds, the marble building hoses a 2,200-seat Opera Hall,
a 2,700-seat Concert Hall, a 1,100-seat Eisenhower Theatre, The American Film
Institute Theatre and some restaurants.
Driving around the Tidal Basin one may see the Thomas Jeffreson
Memorial designed after the Pantheon in Rome, which Jeffreson admired so
much. This tribute to the third President contains a striking 19-foot bronze statue
of Thomas Jeffreson and panels that quote from his most famous writings
including the Declaration of Independence.
In Arlington National Cemetery, the Virginia side of the Potomac
possesses the nation‟s famous burial ground. Its Tomb of Unknowns, formely
called the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, is guarded day and night by an armed
sentry. The cemetery is also the burial place for two former Presidents, William
H. Taft and John F. Kennedy.
Far from being the largest city of the United States, Washington is, in
political sense, however, the centre of the nation, the law-making city of the
It is also the seat of five universities and of several independent law
colleges, art schools and private schools.
In many respects, Washington, D.C. is a perfect normal American city. Its
rivers are polluted. The air is periodically toxic from exhaust fumes. It has traffic
jams, tasteless office buildings, Parent-Teacher Association (P.T.A.) meetings
and other common hazards of urban life. To 9,000,000 tourists every year, the
only abnormality is what they come to see, the home of the nation – the White
House, the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Lincoln Memorial and the
Smithsonian Institution. Beyond its official buildings, the natives, rise each
morning, crowd into buses and car pools, go to work, return at night, to the naked
eye not different from the inhabitants of any other American city.
But Washington is the queerest of all the cities in America. Behind the
monuments and official buildings lies a palpitating municipality torn between its
role as home of the United States Government and home for over 800,000 human
II. NEW YORK CITY
New York, the biggest industrial, trade, financial and cultural centre of
the United States of America, is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River. It is
not an old city. It appeared approximately 300 years ago. Its territory is about 310
square miles. The five boroughs comprising the city are: the Bronx, Manhattan,
Queens, Brooklyn and Richmond. Four of them are islands. The Bronx is the
only one attached to the American mainland.
It is easy to find your way about in New York as it is laid out regularly.
All streets are regular and planned. The streets running north and south are called
“Avenues” and the streets have numbers instead of names.
New York is a blend of all cities – the most exciting city in the world.
That‟s why the Americans call it the Big Apple.
Manhattan is the name of the island which forms the heart of New York.
The island is 13 miles long, 2 miles wide and lies at the mouth of the Hudson
River. East of it runs the East River. Although fewer than 2 million of the city‟s
eleven million people live on the island it is in essence what the world regards as
“New York City”. Here is the heart of America‟s business and culture; it is the
city of skyscrapers. Looking at the harbour you see the clusters of tall buildings
in the financial district.
To the visitor New York means skyscrapers, the Empire State Building,
Rockefeller Centre, tremendous traffic, dazzling neon advertisements, Central
Park, Times Square, Off-Broadway theatres, Harlem, the avenues and famous
streets – and all these are to be found in Manhattan.
The skyscrapers were built in recent times but you find it hard to believe
that what you see is man-made. Iridescent in the sunlight, the smoky glass walls
of the gigantic buildings ribbed with steel or copper, reflect the neighbouring
buildings, the sky and the clouds.
Looking downtown, to where the tip of Manhattan wedges into the
Atlantic, you now likewise see the gleaming facets of new skyscrapers.
In the newer part of New York the skyscrapers do not press down upon a
man as do the massive buildings of Wall Street. Standing on the corner of Park
Avenue and one of the streets of the Fifties, you get a sense of space. The effect
is achieved by the stepped shape of the skyscrapers. From the pavement you see
only the first step of 15 to 20 stores. Higher, the building seems to recede, leaving
the sky open.
Many New Yorkers are terribly impressed with mere size; to them
“bigger” and “better” seem to mean the same thing. Within a very short stay in
New York, a tourist is told that the Cathedral in New York is the largest “Gothic”
Cathedral in the world; that the finger of the Statue of Liberty in New York
Harbour is 8 feet long and that forty people can stand inside its head; that the
Rockeffeler Centre cost 100 million dollars to build, has 13,000 telephones, and
its hanging gardens are four times the size of the famous hanging gardens of
Babylon that were one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.
It is not necessary to take the subway or any other means of transport to
reach New York‟s anti-world. You need only walk down a few blocks off Fifth
Avenue to land in the kingdom of poverty. The wealthy sections of New York are
but small glittering islands in the dark ocean of this vast city. And it is not only
Negroes and Puerto Ricans who live in the neglected houses. They have as
neighbours many Americans of European origin, whose forefathers once crossed
the ocean in search of the Promised Land on the banks of the Hudson.
This glaring poverty is startling to see in the richest country of the
capitalist world. It fits ill with the widely circulated notion of America as a land
of opportunity for all and its widely vaunted high standard of living.
VOCABULARY shady – umbros
disorderly – neîngrijit
wheel-shape – în formă de roată
spoke – spiţă
marble – marmură
to bequeath – a lăsa prin testament
tribute – omagiu
sentry – santinelă
hazard – (aici) eveniment
queer – ciudat, straniu
borough – sector, comitat
cluster – grup, buchet, mănunchi
dazzling – orbitor
iridescent – irizat
ribbed – striat
to wedge into – (aici) a pătrunde în
facet – faţetă
to recede – a se depărta, a se retrage
subway – metrou
glittering – strălucitor
forefather – strămoş
vaunted – lăudat
to lay the corner-stone – a pune piatra de temelie
law-making city – oraş legislativ
burial place – loc de veci
law college – colegiu de drept
to fit ill – a nu se potrivi
an array of skyscrapers – un şir de zgârie-nori
in search of – în căutarea
piedestal – pedestal
muzeu etnografic – ethnographic museum
rafinărie de petrol – rubber works
a se ridica la – to amount to
1. Washington, George (1765 – 1799) – 1st president of the U.S.A.
2. Jeffreson, Thomas (1743 – 1826) – 3rd
president of the U.S.A.; statesman and
3. Roosevelt, Theodore ( 1858 – 1919) – 26th
president of the U.S.A.
4. French, Daniel Chester (1850 – 1931) – American sculptor, best known works
are “The Minute men of Concord”, the bronze doors of the Boston Public Library
and many fine statues and portrait busts.
5. Smithson, James (1765 – 1826) – British chemist and mineralogist; founded
6. Kennedy, John Fitzgerald (1917 – 1963) – 35th
president of the U.S.A.
7. Lincoln, Abraham (1809 – 1865) – 16th
president of the U.S.A.; called “The
Great Emancipator”: it was during his presidency that the Emancipation
Proclamation which gave freedom to Negro slaves was adopted on January 1st,
THE FUTURE TENSE
Viitorul simplu desemnează un eveniment posterior faţă de momentul
În structura viitorului simplu intă verbul auxiliar shall la persoana I singular şi
plural, will la persoana a II-a şi a III-a singular şi plural şi infinitivul scurt al
verbului de conjugat.
Affirmative Negative Interrogative (-Negative)
I shall bring / I‟ll bring
You will bring/You‟ll
He, she, it will bring
We shall bring
You will bring
They will bring
I shall not bring/I shan‟t
You will not bring
He,she,it will not bring
We shall not bring
You will not bring
They will not bring
Shall I (not) bring?
Will you (not) bring?
Will he,she,it(not) bring?
Shall we (not) bring?
Will you (not) bring?
Will they (not) bring?
The use of the Future Common Tense
Viitorul exprimă o acţiune sau stare
care se va petrece după momentul
vorbirii. Pentru a preciza momentul
viitor în care se va petrece acţiunea se
folosesc adverbe sau expresii
adverbiale de timp: tomorrow; the day
after tomorrow; next month, week,
year; soon; shortly; in a month’s time;
in two months’ time, etc.
I shall join your sport association next
Will he soon come back?
They will shortly celebrate the victory
of our sportsmen.
Will he go to a football match
I. Enlarge on:
a) 1. Characteristic features of some big and small American towns.
2. Location and history of Washington, D.C.
3. Lay-out of the city.
5. Significance of the city nowadays.
6. Places of interest in Washington.
b) 1. Location of New York.
2. Population of New York.
3. New York boroughs.
4. Lay-out of the city.
5. Importance of New York today.
6. Position and significance of Manhattan.
7. Places of interest.
8. New York‟s anti-world.
II. Use the sentences given below in the interrogative form and then in the
1. He will play for our faculty team tomorrow. 2. I shall go training every day
next winter. 3. She will go in for figure skating in a month‟s time. 4. They will set
up new records next year. 5. We shall soon be awarded gold and silver medals. 6.
We shall go nowhere tonight as the weather is bad.
III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs:
a) New Yorkers have always exercised great common sense … naming the city‟s
streets. Canal Street was once, … fact, a canal. Maiden Lane was the site … a
freshwater stream where 17th
century maidens did their laundry. When the
northern city was laid out it was done … convenience … a grid, … numbered
streets (East even, West odd). So it comes as no surprise that the name Wall
Street means just that … the earliest days this was the northern-most barrier,
separating the town … the wilderness and its “hostile Indians” or, more likely …
the British settlers … the coast … New England.
It was a fortified stockade rather than a wall, and now it is a canyon … walls …
skyscrapers that seem all the higher because … the narrowness … one … the
most famous streets … the world. The name itself, Wall Street, is known less as a
thoroughfare than as an entity – the capital … the financial world. However, the
street itself is rich … history, and a walk … it gives a capsule view … early New
York … an easy walking distance.
b) The American suburban houses have no hedges or fences separating them …
the pavement or … each other. There are none … those little shut-off gardens;
generally just a strip … grass … trees … it. The American … his home does not
object … being seen … everyone – he actually likes it. And … the house, instead
… the separate hall, living-room, dining-room so typical … the English and
European house, the American has the “open plan” house, just one large room
where all the family activities go … …, perhaps, a “dining recess” or a “kitchen-
IV. Translate into English:
1. New York, cel mai mare oraş din lume şi cel mai mare centru industrial,
comercial şi financiar al Statelor Unite, nu este un oraş prea vechi. 2. Oraşul New
York este compus din cinci sectoare: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, Richmond şi
Bronx. 3. Toate sunt insule cu excepţia sectorului Bronx, care reprezintă o parte
din continent. 4. Statuia Libertăţii se află pe o mică insulă în largul portului New
York. 5. Statuia a fost dăruită Statelor Unite de către guvernul francez în anul
1884. 6. Statuia împreună cu piedestalul are o înălţime de circa 100 de metri. 7.
Este uşor să te deplasezi prin oraş deoarece a fost construit în formă de
dreptunghi. 8. Cincisprezece bulevarde lungi traversează oraşul de la nord la sud
şi circa 300 de străzi scurte de la est la vest. 9. Populaţia New York-ului
reprezintă un adevărat muzeu etnografic. 10. Se spune că sunt mai mulţi italieni
la New York decât la Roma şi mai mulţi irlandezi decât la Dublin. 11. Populaţia
New York-ului se ridică la peste 19 milioane de oameni. 12. New York este cel
mai mare port maritim al Statelor Unite. 13. Foarte dezvoltată este industria de
echipament electronic, de aparate de precizie şi de instrumente. 14. La periferia
oraşului se găsesc rafinăriile de petrol, uzine de cauciuc, turnătorii de cupru etc.
It is the smallest continent, lying between the Indian and the Pacific
Oceans. It extends from east to west some 3,860 km and from north to south
3,220 km. With the island state of Tasmania to the south, the continent makes up
the Commonwealth of Australia. There are five continental states: Queensland,
New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia, as well as the
Northern territory and the Australian Capital Territory, containing Canberra.
Australia‟s external territories include Norfolk Island, Christmas Island,
the Cocos (Keeling) Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory.
The Australian continent is on the whole exceedingly flat and dry. Less
than 50.8 cm of precipitation falls annually over 70% of the land area.
From the narrow coastal plain in the west the land rises abruptly in a
rough plateau that occupies the western half of the continent.
In the south-west corner of the continent, there is a small moist and fertile
area, but the rest of the western Australia is arid, with a large desert area.
The northern region fronts partly on the Timor Sea, separating Australia
from Indonesia; it also belongs to the plateau, with tropical temperatures and
winter dry seasons. In Eastern Australia, there are the mountains of the Eastern
Highlands which run down the entire east and south-east coasts.
The longest of the Australian rivers, the Murray River and its tributaries,
drains the southern part of the interior basin that lies between the mountains and
the great plateau. The rivers of this area are used extensively for irrigation and
Australia, remote from any other continent, has many distinctive forms of
plant life – as for instance species of giant eucalyptus – and of animal life,
including the kangaroo. It also has many unusual birds.
Most of the rich farmlands are in the east and particularly the south-east.
Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and Adelaide are the leading industrial and
commercial cities. Australia is highly industrialized and manufactured goods
account for about two thirds of the total value of production. The leading
manufactures are iron and steel products, transportation equipment and
machinery. Australia is one of the great trading nations, with one quarter to one
third of its export income derived from the sale of wool, meat and wheat. The
chief buyers are the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States.
Other main exports are iron ore and non-ferrous ore.
The leading imports are metal products, petroleum, machinery and
textiles. They come mainly from Great Britain, the USA and Japan, too, which
makes for a favourable trade balance.
The country is self-sufficient in food and the raising of sheep and cattle
and the production of grain have long been staple occupations. Tropical and
subtropical produce: citrus fruits, sugar cane and tropical fruits are also important
and there are numerous vineyards and diary and tobacco farms. Australia has
valuable mineral resources, including coal, iron, bauxite, uranium and gold.
The country is highly urbanized: about three fifths of the population lives
in the cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants. Since World War II, the
government has been encouraging immigration and permanent arrivals have been
averaging more than 100,000 people annually. The population has increased by
more than 60% in this period.
Canberra is the Federal Capital.
Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, with 2.5 million people, is the
largest city of the country, including one-fifth of the population of the whole
Melbourne, the capital city of the state of Victoria, has 2 million people. It
is the centre of cultural life in Australia. The University of Melbourne is the
institute of higher education in the country, followed by the New Monash
Other big cities are Adelaide, the capital of South Australia and Perth, the
capital of Western Australia.
VOCABULARY rough – aspru, brut; (aici) accidentat, pietros
plateau – platou, podiş; (pl) plateaux, plateaus
moist – umed
to drain – a drena, a usca, a asana; (aici) a primi apele
kangaroo – cangur
to account for – a justifica, a explica
staple – principal
indigenous – băştinaş
aborigenes – băştinaşi, aborigeni
to average – a forma o medie
slaughter – măcel
ranch – fermă, moşie, crescătorie de vite
non-ferrous ores – minereuri neferoase
trade balances – balanţă comercială
the raising of sheep and cattle – creşterea oilor şi vitelor
to become extinct – a dispărea, a se stinge
a dispune – to be endowed with
forţă de muncă – labour
zone urbane – urban areas
sol – soil
fier – iron
cupru – copper
aur – gold
aluminiu – aluminium
rafinarea petrolului – oil distillation
şantier de construcţii navale – shipbuilding yard
petrochimie – petrochemistry
industrie extractivă – extractive industry
industrie prelucrătoare – processing industry
Study and remember
Koala bear – ursul Koala
flying opossum – oposum zburător
ant eater/bear – furnicar
gorges – chei
mountainside, slope – versant
precipice – prăpastie
range of mountains – lanţ de munţi
to slaughter cattle – a tăia vite
reef – recif
shark – rechin
densely populated – cu populaţie densă
shearer – muncitor care tunde oile
drover – văcar, oier
to border on – a se învecina cu
shipping line – linie de navigaţie
coastal shipping – nave de cabotaj, flotă de cabotaj
subsidiary – filială
overseas-controlled – dirijat din stăinătate
gross value – valoare globală
I. Enlarge on:
1. Australia‟s geographical position.
2. Australia‟s relief.
3. Australia‟s trade.
4. Australia‟s cities.
II. Fill in the blanks with articles where necessary:
1. In ... south-west corner of Australia, there is ... small moist and fertile area. 2.
In ... Eastern Australia there are ... mountains of ... Eastern Highlands which run
down ... entire east and south-east coast. 3. ... longest of ... Australian rivers, ...
Murray River and its tributaries, drains ... southern part of ... interior basin that
lies between ... mountains and ... great plateau. 4. Remote from any other
continent, Australia has many forms of ... plant life. 5. Australia is one of ...
world‟s great trading nations. 6. ... main exports are iron ore and non-ferrous ore.
7. ... leading imports are metal products, petroleum, machinery and textiles. 8. ...
country is self-sufficient in ... food and ... raising of sheep and cattle.
III. Complete the following if-clauses:
1. If I had time, ... 2. If Romania had a tropical climate, ... 3. If John had a map of
Australia, ... 4. If you wanted to see a kangaroo, ... 5. If I were interested in
tropical fauna, ... 6. If the climate allowed it, ... 7. If you were here, ... 8. If I were
asked to speak about Australia‟s population, ...
IV. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets:
1. Wild animals (to do) well in Australia. 2. Rabbits brought to Australia in 1788
(to adapt) perfectly until, by the middle of the 19th
century, they (to become) a
distinct menace to sheep raising. 3. In 1907, a fence, 1,610 km long , (to build)
from the north coast to the south to prevent the rabbits from invading Western
Australia. 4. After the agreement (to make) to build Canberra, ten years (to pass)
before much (to do) about it, though a superb site (to select). 5. In 1911, many
architects (to invite) to an international competition to design the city of
Canberra. 6. The first prize (to go) to an American, walter Burley Griffin. Many
of his ideas were retained.
V. Change the following sentences using the subjunctive mood:
Model: It is difficult for them to obtain good crops in a dry climate.
It is difficult that good crops should be obtained in a dry climate.
1. It is easy for the geography teacher to give a lecture on Australia. 2. It is easy
for your students to speak about trade between countries. 3. It is easy for John to
go hunting. 4. It is difficult for the European man to adapt to life in Australia. 5.
It is impossible for kangaroos to live in a cold climate. 6. It was impossible for
the indigenous population to live in big cities.7. It is impossible for her to climb a
VI. Ask questions which can be answered by the underlined words:
1. The Australian continent is on the whole flat and dry. 2. The longest of all
Australian rivers is the Murray River and its tributaries. 3. The rivers of this area
are used extensively for irrigation and hydroelectric power. 4. There are many
unusual birds in Australia. 5. Melbourne is a highly industrial and commercial
city. 6. Japan is now Australia‟s largest wool buyer. 7. Australia has valuable
mineral resources including coal, iron, bauxite, uranium and gold. 8. Most of the
aborigines live in reservations. 9. Canberra is the Federal Capital of Australia.
10. Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, has 2.5 million inhabitants.
VII. Translate into English:
Australia dispune de mari resurse naturale, de forţă de muncă puţin numeroasă în
raport cu aceste resurse şi cu întinderea ţării, de un mare număr de locuitori în
zonele urbane; toate acestea fac ca întreaga industrie (atât cea extractivă cât şi cea
prelucrătoare) să fie concentrată în jurul marilor oraşe.
De fapt, marile oraşe au apărut şi s-au dezvoltat numai acolo unde erau condiţii
favorabile de climă, de sol sau resurse naturale uşor expolatabile. Sud-estul
Australiei, statele Victoria, Noua Galie şi sudul Australiei dispun de imense
resurse ale subsolului cu o activă industrie extractivă: fier, cupru, aur, aluminiu.
In ceea ce priveşte industria prelucrătoare, se remarcă trei mari centre în aceleaşi
regiuni: Adelaide (industria construcţiilor de maşini, industria chimică,
prelucrarea lemnului şi industria alimentară), Melbourne (şantiere de construcţii
navale, producţia de aur, de utilaj agricol, rafinarea petrolului şi petrochimia,
producţia de îngrăşăminte, industria alimentară şi textilă – mai ales pe bază de
lână) şi Sydney (siderurgie, şantiere navale, prelucrarea petrolului, industria
textilă şi alimentară).
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN BRITAIN
The British look back with pride on their past and on the many famous
figures who made their contribution to British history.
Two of the most prominent monarchs in British history were Henry VIII
and his daughter Elisabeth I.
Henry VIII (1505 – 1547), scholar, musician, politician, a true
Renaissance ruler, was one of England‟s strongest and most colourful kings. He
was 17 when he came to the throne. Although his beard was red, he was
considered the “Bluebeard” of British history, as he married six times and had
two of his wives executed. He divorced two, one died giving birth to his only son
Edward and the sixth outlived him. There is a rhyme helping children remember
“ Divorced, beheaded, died,
Divorced, beheaded, survived”.
King Henry very much wanted a male heir to follow him to the throne,
but the only living child resulting from his marriage to his first wife, Catherine of
Aragon, was a daughter. So, he wanted a divorce and the freedom to marry again.
In those days it was easier for a king to have someone executed than to get a
divorce. He had to ask permission from the Pope, the Head of the Catholic
Church in Rome. When the Pope refused to allow Henry to divorce his wife and
marry Anne Boleyn, lady-in-waiting to the queen, the king acted drastically: he
broke away from Rome and became “Supreme Head of the Church of England”.
Sir Thomas More, brilliant political and literary figure of the time was executed
for refusing to accept this.
Thus, Henry married Anne Boleyn, ordered the monasteries dissolved and
transferred their wealth and property to the royal coffers. In this way, the power
of the state, centralized in one figure, grew to an unprecedented extent.
Unfortunately, Anne Boleyn was unable to give birth to a son. Just as with
Catherine, her only living child was a daughter and ultimately Henry had Anne
beheaded. This daughter however, was to become one of the greatest rulers to sit
on the throne of England, Queen Elisabeth I.
Elisabeth I (1558 – 1603), the last and greatest of the monarchs belonging
to the Tudor House, is a symbol of national glory. She was 25 when she came to
the throne. As a person she combined a violent temper, great personal magnetism
and a brilliant art of how to lead and manage Englishmen. She said of herself: “I
may have the body of a woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a
king of England too”.
Although Queen Elisabeth herself never traveled outside England, she
encouraged geographical discoveries and colonial expansion. The famous “Sea
Dogs”, such men as Sir Francis Drake who sailed around the world and Sir
Walter Raleigh who settled colonists in Virginia – named for the Virgin Queen
Elisabeth – fought for England‟s supremacy at sea.
After the defeat of the “Invincible Armada” in 1588, as the Spanish fleet
called until then, English traders, explorers and colonizers were able to travel all
over the world, bringing fame and riches to their country.
As a true representative of Renaissance ideals, Queen Elisabeth supported
not only the expansion of geographical boundaries, but also of man‟s thinking. A
great patron of artist, her reign has also been called the “Golden Age of English
Literature”. Prose, poetry and drama flourished in her time. The dominant literary
figure of the period, outshining all the others by his genius, was William
Thus, under Henry VIII England embarked upon a period of progress,
wealth and power, which reached its brilliant climax under Elisabeth I.
VOCABULARY prominent – 1. proeminent; 2. (despre persoane) distins, important
scholar – erudit, savant, om de ştiinţă
male – bărbătesc, masculin, mascul
heir – moştenitor
to behead – a decapita
lady-in-waiting – doamna de onoare
coffer - visterie
ultimately – la sfârşit, la urmă, în fine
defeat – înfrângere
fleet – flotă
boundary – limită, graniţă
to embark upon – (fig.) a începe ceva;
climax – punct culminant
GRAMMAR Compare:King Henry had two of his wives executed.- he ordered and somebody
else did it.
King Henry executed two of his wives. – he did it himself
In English the verb TO HAVE + NOUN + PARTICIPLE = a face pe cineva să
I. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: prominent, scholar,
male, heir, to behead, lady-in-waiting, ultimately, defeat, fleet, boundary, to
embark upon, climax (faceţi schimbările necesare):
1. The Danube forms a natural … between our country and Bulgaria. 2. Queen
Elisabeth never married and died without an … 3. The action reached its … when
the killer kidnapped the little girl. 4. If you don‟t want to upset him, let him win;
he can‟t stand … 5. I hope that in 1991 you … a happier time of your life. 6. In
the Elisabethan theatre the parts of women were acted by… 7. … she agreed that
she had been wrong. 8. Thomas More was one of the greatest Humanists … 9. In
century England had experienced seamen and a powerful … 10. James
Joyce is one of the … figures of modern literature.
11. What do you think is more painful, to be hanged or …? 12. The young prince
fell in love with one of his mother‟s …
II. Answer the following questions:
1. Who was Henry VIII? 2. How many wives had Henry VIII? 3. What happened
to them? 4. Why did King Henry want a divorce from his first wife? 5. Why was
it not easy for him to get a divorce? 6. What did King Henry do? 7. What
happened to the monasteries and their wealth? 8. What was Anne Boleyn‟s fate?
9. Who was Elisabeth I? 10. What kind of person was she? 11. What did she
encourage? 12. Who were Francis Drake and Walter Raleigh? 13. What happened
in 1588? 14. Why has the reign of Queen Elisabeth been called “Golden Age of
III. Correct the following sentences:
1. Henry VIII married twice. 2. He executed all his wives. 3. He divorced his first
wife because he wanted a daughter. 4. The Pope became the head of the English
Church. 5. Queen Elisabeth I was King Henry VIII‟s aunt. 6. In 1588 the Spanish
fleet gained supremacy at sea. 7. The art of gardening flourished in this period.
IV. Turn the following sentences into the Passive:
1. People always admire this picture. 2. Someone has broken two of my plates. 3.
No one has ever beaten Alex at tennis. 4. People speak English all over the world.
5. Did anyone ask any questions about me? 6. They held a reception in his
honour. 7. Somebody left the dog in the garden.
FAMOUS BRITISH SEAMEN
The British are islanders. They speak of their country as “our island
home” and, indeed, no place in Great Britain is farther than 120 km from the
coast. The sea has always been close to the hearts and thoughts of the British. It
has been a favourite subject of their poets and musicians, and many of the famous
figures in British history, men like Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh,
James Cook or Lord Nelson were seamen.
During the reign of Queen Elisabeth I the great era of British exploration,
colonization and naval glory began. With the undeclared support of the Queen,
the British pirates plundered the gold-laden Spanish ships, filling the coffers of
One of these pirates was Francis Drake (1540 – 1596), the famous sailor
who, throughout the ages, has acquired an almost legendary aura.
In 1577 Drake sailed around the world in less than three years and
brought back tremendous riches with him. After his return, Drake the pirate was
knighted by Queen Elisabeth on the deck of his ship, the “Golden Hind”.
In 1588 Sir Francis Drake and his seamen defeated England‟s greatest
rival at sea, the “Invincible Armada” as the Spanish fleet was called, thus gaining
immortality and his country‟s supremacy at sea.
Sir Walter Raleigh (1552 – 1618), seaman, courtier and poet at the same
time, was one of the most brilliant figures at the court of Elisabeth I. With the
approval of the Queen he sailed to North America and settled the first English
colonists on the eastern coast, in place he called Virginia, in honour of Elisabeth,
the Virgin Queen.
Later Raleigh explored South America in the vain hope of finding the legendary
“City of Gold”, El Dorado.
The death of Elisabeth in 1603 meant Raleigh‟s downfall, as King James
I, her successor, distrusted the bold and fiery-tempered courtier. After an unfair
trial Raleigh was sentenced to death for treason and imprisoned in the Tower of
London. For more than 12 years he lived there as a prisoner, studying science and
writing a lengthy “History of the World”. All his efforts to gain the King‟s favour
failed and in 1618 Raleigh died under the executioner‟s ax.
Thus, undaunted and experienced seamen like Drake and Raleigh opened
up horizons of a new World and secured their country‟s supremacy at sea which,
in the centuries to come, enabled Britain to found a huge empire overseas.
VOCABULARY laden (with) – încărcat, împovărat
to aquire – a dobândi, a obţine, a agonisi
tremendous – enorm, puternic, foarte mare
vain – 1. (aici) van, fără valoare, înţeles sau rezultat; 2. înfumurat, îngâmfat,
bold – curajos, îndrăzneţ,
undaunted – neînfricat
to secure – 1.( aici) a obţine, a câştiga; 2. a întări, a consolida
EXERCISES I. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: laden, to acquire,
tremendous, fleet, vain, bold, undaunted, to secure:
supremacy at sea
1. In only one year Paul managed … a fairly good knowledge of French. 2. Ian
McKellen‟s performance of Richard III was a … success. 3. All he can offer you
are … promises. 4. How was the Spanish … called in the 16th
century? 5. His
brilliant speech … him unanimous admiration. 6. Characters in romantic novels
are all handsome and … 7. The trees in the orchard were … with big, juicy
apples. 8. I like his direct and … manner.
II. Choose the correct word for each sentence:
1. Sir Francis Drake was a a) poet
2. Sir Francis Drake sailed a) on Spanish ships
b) to Australia
c) around the world
3. Sir Francis Drake defeated a) the English fleet
b) the Spanish fleet
c) the Italian fleet
4. Sir Walter Raleigh was a a) king
5. Sir Walter Raleigh settled colonists in a) South Africa
c) New Zealand
6. Sir Walter Raleigh died because he a) had malaria
b) was very old
c) was beheaded
EUROPE‟S PREMODERN HERITAGE
Modern Europe was peopled in the wake of Pleistocene‟s most recent
glacial retreat – a gradual withdrawal that caused cold tundra to turn into
deciduous forest and ice-filled valleys into grassy vales. On Mediterranean
shores, Europe witnessed the rise of its first great civilizations – on the islands
and peninsulas of Greece and later in Italy. Greece lay exposed to the influences
radiating from the advanced civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley,
and the intervening eastern Mediterranean was crisscrossed by maritime trade
As the ancient Greeks forged their city-states and intercity leagues, they
also made impressive intellectual achievements (which peaked during the fourth
century BC). Their political science and philosophy have influenced politics and
government ever since, and great accomplishments were also recorded in such
fields as education, literature, architecture and the arts. The fragmentation of
Greece‟s habitat led to local experimentation and success, followed by active
changes of ideas and innovations. But internal discord persisted as well; in the
end this contributed to Greece‟s decline. By 147 BC, the Romans had defeated
the last sovereign Greek intercity league. Nevertheless, what the ancient Greeks
had accomplished was not undone: they had transformed the eastern
Mediterranean into one of the cultural cores of the world, and Greek culture
became a major component of Roman civilization.
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
The center of civilization and power now shifted to the Romans in
present-day Italy. The Greeks never achieved politico-territorial organization on
the scale that Imperial Rome would accomplish. At its greatest expansion (in the
second century AD), the Roman Empire extended from Britain to the Persian
Gulf and from the Black Sea to Egypt. The variety of cultures brought under
Roman control and the resulting exchange of ideas and innovations yielded many
opportunities for regional interaction – particularly in southern and western
Europe. Areas that hitherto supported only subsistence modes of life were drawn
into the greater economic framework of the empire, and suddenly there were
distant markets for products that had never found even local markets before.
Foodstuffs and raw materials now flowed into Rome from most of the
Mediterranean Basin. With a population that at its peak reached perhaps one
million, the city itself was the greatest single marketplace of the empire and the
first metropolitan-scale urban center in Europe.
That urban tradition came to characterize Roman culture throughout the
empire, and many cities and towns founded by the Romans continue to prosper to
this day. Roman urban centers were connected by an unparalleled network of
highway and water routes, facilities that all formed part of an infrastructure
needed to support economic growth and development. (Today, a modern state‟s
infrastructure would include railroads, airports, energy-distribution systems,
telecommunications networks, and the like). More than anything else, however,
the Roman Empire left Europe a legacy of ideas – concepts that long lay dormant
but eventually played their part when Europe unified by acquiescence than it was
under the Romans, and at no time did Europe come closer to obtaining a lingua
franca (common language) than during the age of Rome.
Finally, Europe‟s transformation under Roman rule heavily involved the
geographic principle of areal functional specialization. Before the Romans
brought order and connectivity to their vast domain, much of Europe was
inhabited by tribal peoples who lived at a subsistence level. Many of these groups
lived in virtual isolation, traded little, and fought over territory when outsiders
encroached on it. Peoples under Rome‟s sway, however brought into its
economic as well as political spheres and farmlands, irrigation systems, mines
and workshops appeared. Thus Roman-dominated areas began to take on a
characteristic that has marked Europe ever since: particular peoples and
particular places concentrated on the production of particular goods. Parts of
North Africa became granaries for urbanizing (European) Rome; Elba, a
Mediterranean island, produced iron ore; the Cartagena area of southeastern
Spain mined and exported silver and lead. Many other locales in the Roman
Empire specialized in the production of particular farm commodities,
manufactured goods, or minerals. The Romans knew how to exploit their natural
resources; at the same time, they also learned to use the diversified productive
talents of their subjects.
VOCABULARY to people – a popula
withdrawal – retragere
intervening – (adj.) care s-a petrecut între timp; (subst.) intervenţie, amestec
to forge – (aici) a întări; a forja; a falsifica
league – ligă, alianţă, coaliţie, confederaţie
core – miez, parte centrală, nucleu
to shift – a se muta, a schimba
to yield – a produce, a realize
hitherto – până acum, până în zilele noastre
framework – ramă, cadru, context
foodstuff – aliment
raw material – materie primă
legacy – moştenire
dormant – inactiv, adormit, latent
acquiescence- consimţământ, aprobare
to encroache upon – a încălca
sway – dominaţie, stăpânire
granary – grânar
lead – plumb
commodity – marfă
subject – (aici) cetăţean supus
GRAMMAR THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES
În limba engleză timpul verbului din propoziţia secundară depinde, în
genere, de timpul verbului din principală. Această dependenţă, se numeşte
“concordanţa timpurilor”(The Sequence of Tenses).
Propoziţia principală Propoziţia secundară
1. Prezent; Prezentul perfect
He has thought
She will cross the street
I shall tell her
I shall see
3. Timp trecut
a) acţiuni simultane
b) acţiunea din secundară
c) acţiunea din secundară
→ Orice timp
she is crossing the street
she crosses the street
she crossed the street
she will cross the street
she will have crossed the street by now
→ Orice timp afară de viitor
(if) you allow her.
(what) we have done (did)
(if) she is crossing the street.
→ Past Tense
(that) she crossed the street.
she was crossing the street when I saw
- este anterioară celei din principală
→ Mai mult ca perfect:
(that) she had crossed the street.
she had been crossing the street
yesterday at 2 o‟clock.
- este posterioară celei din principală
a) Viitorul în trecut (Future in the Past)
(that) she would cross the street
she would be crossing the
street when I saw her.
b) Viitorul Perfect în trecut (Future
Perfect in the Past):
she would have crossed the street
by the time the traffic light stopped
EXERCISES I. Enlarge upon:
a) Greek civilization;
b) Roman civilization;
c) Europe‟s transformation under Roman rule.
II. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in parantheses:
Model: Don‟t wait for her if she …(to be) late.
Don‟t wait for her if she is late.
1. If you…(to need) me, give me a ring! 2. Tell her to come if she…(to want) to.
3. It is cold in here if the radiator…(to be) off. 4. You can talk to her if she…(to
be) in. 5. Don‟t read if you…(not to want) to!. 6. Take the book if you…(to like)
it. 7. If you…(to be) lucky you can still find him at the office. 8. You can‟t buy
the typewriter if you…(not to have) enough money. 9. She is not at home if
nobody…(to answer) the door. 10. Ask him to lend me some money if he (can).
11. I shall bring you candies if you…(to behave) well. 12. I will help them with
their exercises if I…(to have) time. 13. Nobody will harm you if you…(to keep)
quiet. 14. You will learn much more easily if you…(to watch) me do it.
Bucharest is the capital of Romania, the most important political,
administrative, economic and cultural centre of the country.
Located in the middle of one of the richest and most populated regions of
Romania, Bucharest occupies an area of 228 sq. km.
The present day area of Bucharest was inhabited from very early times
but the birth certificate of the town is the Charter issued by Vlad the Impaler on
September 1459, mentioning the existence of the “city of Bucharest”.
For 200 years from that moment on, the princes of Wallachia would take
residence either in Târgovişte or in Bucharest, which eventually became the
The city began to develop in the 16th
century during the reign of Mircea
Ciobanul who built on the site of some 14th
century fortification a new princely
court known as “Curtea Veche” (Old Court), the remains of which have survived
to the present day.
“Old” Bucharest (as it exists today) dates from the mid or late 19th
century, a rich dowry of buildings and monuments of which we mention: the
University, C.E.C. (Savings Bank), the Romanian Athenaeum and many other
such genuine pieces of architecture.
In the contemporary years, Bucharest has undergone a new stage of
development. A modern city with broad streets and theatres, concert halls,
cinemas, abundant vegetation, parks and a girdle of lakes, this is what strikes one
as the characteristic features of our capital.
As the political and administrative capital of our homeland, Bucharest is
the headquarters of all ministries and other central governmental bodies and
institutions responsible with the coordination of the political, economic, social,
scientific, educational, cultural and artistic life of the country.
The impetuous development of the city has also turned Bucharest into a
great industrial centre, as it includes in its area all that defines a modern industry,
from iron and steel, metallurgy, machine building, to textiles, food products and
other consumer goods.
In the sphere of cultural, scientific and artistic life, Bucharest has
witnessed essential transformations.
A vast educational network of primary and secondary schools, well
known high schools, as well as higher education institutes – humanistic,
polytechnical, economic, medical and pharmaceutical, artistic and sports, has
The capital has a large number of houses of culture and arts, libraries,
theatres and opera houses, concert halls, well known museums as the History
Museum of Romania, the Art Museum, the “Grigore Antipa” Museum of Natural
Sciences, the Village Museum and of Folk Art, considered as one of the most
interesting and best organized ethnographical museums in the open air
throughout the world, and many such cultural and artistic institutions.
* * Peter: This weekend we are all to explore Bucharest on foot.
Emily: That‟s a bright idea, indeed. What do you say, John?
John: I‟m all for it. There‟s a lot to be seen around Bucharest and so we better
take advantage of Peter‟s offer. Where shall we start?
Emily: Let‟s start with an older part of Bucharest, say, the Parliament Building.
Peter: Good idea, Emily. We shall proceed towards Calea Victoriei, after we
have crossed the Dâmboviţa River, passed by Unirea Market and left behind the
John: I know the itinerary. I hope Calea Victoriei will be less crowded than on
week days. We shall have the chance to admire the graceful buildings of the
History Museum of Romania and of the Savings Bank, the multi-storey
department store “Unirea Shopping Center” and with that we shall practically
find ourselves right in the middle of one of the busiest shopping centers of the
Emily: Enough of this description. I know you are more familiar with the sites of
Bucharest than the rest of us. Rather than choose a strict itinerary, let‟s ramble
about the centre of Bucharest and allow our imagination to guide our steps.
Peter: Agreed. And if any one of us feels tired, especially you Emily, we shall
take refuge in the cool shade of the Cişmigiu Gardens, have refreshments and rest
for as long as we please.
VOCABULARY capital – capitală
area – suprafaţă, arie
reign – domnie
century – secol
site – loc, amplasament
fortification – fortificaţie, loc întărit
court – curte
remains – ruine
to survive – a supravieţui
dowry – zestre
genuine – adevarat, real
girdle – centură
headquarters – sediu
sole – singurul, unic
to exert – a exercita
to witness – a fi martorul
network – reţea
ethnographical – etnografic
multi-storey building – clădire cu multe etaje
to undergo development – a înregistra o dezvoltare
state power – putere de stat
to carry into effect – a traduce în viaţă
home policy – politică internă
foreign policy – politică externă
to turn into – a transforma
iron and steel industry – industrie siderurgică
machine-building industry – industrie constructoare de maşini
food products – produse alimentare
consumer goods – bunuri de larg consum
higher education institute – institute de învăţământ superior
settlement – aşezare
establishment – aşezământ
district – district, cartier
in the neighbourhood – în vecinătate
to surround – a înconjura
stately house – casă impunatoare
to set the foundations of – a pune bazele
unprecedent – fără precedent
picturesque – pitoresc
square – piaţă
civic centre – centru civic
shopping centre – centru commercial
residential district – cartier de locuinţe
Town Hall – primărie
Law Courts – tribunal
Ministry – minister
Prosecutor‟s Office – procuratură
Chamber of Commerce and Industry – Camera de Comerţ şi Industrie
The National Bank of Romania – Banca Naţională a României
The National Theatre – Teatrul Naţional
The Romanian Opera House – Opera Română
preocupare – concern
silvicultură – forestry
a pune accentul pe – to lay emphasize on
intelectualitate – intelligentsia
atelier – workshop
GRAMMAR 1. FOREIGN PLURALS
memorandum – memoranda
datum – data
phenomenon – phenomena
crisis – crises
nucleus – nuclei
terminus – termini
stimulus – stimuli
formula – formulae
index – indices
index – indexes
Words that are frequently used often have an English plural:
memorandum – memorandums
formula – formulas
terminus – terminuses
2. THE FUTURE PERFECT – CONTINUOUS ASPECT
(Viitorul Perfect – Forma Continuă)
Affirmative Form Negative Form Interrogative Form Negative-
I shall have been
You will have
He, she, it will
have been arriving.
I shall have not
You will have
not been arriving.
He, she, it will
have not been
Shall I have been
Will you have
Will he, she ,it
have been arriving?
Shall I have not
Will you have not
Will he, she, it
have not been arriving?
We shall have
You will have
They will have
We shall have
not been arriving.
You will have
not been arriving.
They will have
not been arriving.
Shall we have
Will you have
Will they have
Shall we have not
Will you have not
Will they have
not been arriving?
Contracted Forms (Formele Contrase):
1. I‟ll have been arriving; he‟ll have been arriving; we‟ll have been arriving,
2. I shan‟t have been arriving; you won‟t have been arriving; we shan‟t have
been arriving, etc.
3. Shan‟t I have been arriving? Won‟t he have been arriving? Shan‟t we have
been arriving? etc.
Use of the Future Perfect – Continuous Aspect
Viitorul Perfect la Forma Continuă
denotă o acţiune începută înaintea unui
moment dat în viitor şi care se continuă
în acel moment viitor.
I shall have been working on my paper
for an hour by the time you came back.
By the 1st of October he will have been
finishing his project.
I. Enlarge on:
a) The location of our capital city.
b) Some aspects related to the history of Bucharest.
c) Bucharest – a political and administrative centre.
d) Bucharest – an industrial centre.
e) The cultural, scientific and educational development of Bucharest.
II. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:
1. After World War II, the new edifices … Bucharest harmoniously fit the
scenary of the town. 2. “The People‟s House” is one … the most stately building
… the capital. 3. The Television Building is a real place, meant … spreading art
and culture. 4. The new National Theatre … the University Square is one of the
most important edifices … the country. 5. The Circus, the Exhibition Hall and the
Bucharest International Fair wholly built … concrete and glass rank as the most
original architectural achievements … the city.
III. Make up questions to which the following sentences could be the
1. The Palace of the Republic was built between 1930 and 1937. 2. The
Mogoşoaia Palace has been restored and at present it shelters a Museum of
Brâncovan Art. 3. The Brâncovan art is the consequence of the cultural
development of Wallachian architecture in the 18th
century. 4. The National
Gallery in the Art Museum of Romania contains most valuable works by famous
painters and sculptors.
IV. Replace the infinitives in brackets by the required tenses:
1. They (to meet) in the library every morning. 2. They (to talk) about the city‟s
modern development. 3. They (to visit) the old quarters of the town now. 4.
Every day she (to come) to the Academy at 8 o‟clock. 5. Our friends are in the
reading room. They (to study) for the English seminar. 6. I often (to go) to see a
good exhibition. 7. How you (to feel) after your stay in the mountains? 8.
Somebody (to ask) of you. 9. They (to build) a new modern school in their
district. 10. He (to work) hard to improve his knowledge. 11. If all (to go) well, I
shall finish my diploma paper in two weeks. 12. If you (to get) to the art gallery
before us, wait till we (to come). 13. I hear that you (to give up) the idea of
joining them on their trip. 14. They not yet (to come) from the library. 15. The
rain (to stop) but a cold wind is still blowing. 16. I (to sit) here while listening in
to the radio you (to get) ready with your exercises. 17. When they (to return)
from the trip they (to relate) what they (to see) in North Moldavia. 18. (to be)
surprised what progress she (to make)considering how little English (to know).
19. By the 1st of January they (to fulfill) their production plan.
V Insert the appropriate possessive adjectives and pronouns:
1. Let each of the students take … own pace. 2. I decided to take … share in the
work. 3. … next trip will be better planned. 4. … recent visit of the museum was
very rewarding. 5. I don‟t think that … paper was much better than … 6. …
previous results were highly appreciated. 7. … contribution in working out the
programme was better this year. 8. … knowledge of mathematics is quite
remarkable. 9. Whose project was accepted … or …? 10. I realized it dad not
been … fault but … 11. I am asking you what … speciality is. 12. They decorated
… classroom beautifully for the occasion.
VI. Translate into English:
1. Bucureştiul se dezvoltă ca un mare centru modern al ţării. 2. Învăţământul se
bucură de numeroase facilităţi în vederea formării de specialişti. 3. În fiecare zi la
acestă oră colegii noştri studiază în bibliotecă. 4. Învăţăm pentru a dobândi
cunoştinţe tot mai bune de limbă engleză. 5. Conferinţa începe peste 10 minute.
6. El pleacă în călătorie abia luna viitoare. 7. Este ideea lui nu a ta. 8. Studenţii
grupei noastre se prezintă bine pregătiţi la examene. 9. Stă la masa de scris şi îşi
scrie exerciţiile. 10. Ai obţinut datele necsare proiectului? 11. Am aplicat o serie
de formule matematice la studiul economiei. 12. Experţii au făcut o analiză
profundă a efectelor negative ale crizelor financiară şi monetară. 13. Se vor referi
la principalele tendinţe şi fenomene de pe piaţa materiilor prime.
Romania lies between 43º37´07´´ and 48º15´06´´ latitude north and
29º15´44´´ and 29º41´24´´ longitude east at the crossroads of Central, Southern
and Eastern Europe. North and east Romania borders upon Ukraine and Moldova,
south upon Bulgaria, south-west upon Serbia & Montenegro, and west upon
Hungary. The Black Sea forms part of Romania‟s south-eastern frontier, while
the Danube, the longest part of Romania‟s southern boundary, flows 1,075 km on
Romania, whose total area is 238,391 sq. km ranks 12th
in size among the
The most characteristic feature of Romania‟s relief is its variety of land
forms. Around the central plateau of Transylvania rises the range of the
Carpathian Mountains surrounded by foothills and plateaus, which gradually
slope downwards into the plains stretching at their foot. The average altitude of
the Carpathians is approx. 1,000 m, the highest altitude seldom exceeds 2,500 m
(in the Bucegi, Făgăraş, Parâng, Retezat, and te Rodna Mountains).
The Romanian Carpathians, with craggy but easily-accesible peaks, with
restful landscape, with century-old forests of fir, beech – and oak trees as well as
of other species, with numerous karst phenomena, with hospitable chalets and
picturesque resorts, are among the most beautiful mountains in Europe.
Most of the rivers in Romania rise from the Carpathians and flow, directly
or through their main tributaries, into the broad bed of the Danube.
Before its flowing into the sea, the Danube crosses Dobrudja, describing
an immense arc of a circle whose end separates into three arms Chilia, Sulina and
Sfântu Gheorghe. The waters of the huge river and those of the sea base created
here the youngest territory of Europe – a wide stretch of lands and waters (4,340
sq.km) – the realm of aquatic plants, a fauna of a matchless richness – the
Owing to the relief, the river network exhibits a radial pattern. The main
rivers springing from the Carpathians are longitudinal in the mountain area,
gentle slope in the hilly and piedmont area and very gentle slopes in the plain. In
Romania there are some 2,300 lakes covering an area of about 2,620 sq.km. The
largest lakes are scattered on the sea coast, and in the Danube flood-land and the
small ones dot the mountain area.
Owing to the country‟s position in relation to the main atmospheric
factors (east-continental, west-oceanic, south-Mediterranean air masses) and to
the complexity of its relief, Romania‟s climate is a blend of the excessive
continental climate of Eastern Europe. The rate and distribution of the rainfall in
Romania has a number of peculiarities. The rainfall is unequally distributed in
time and space, the heaviest rainfall occurs in the highlands and the highest in the
lowest zones, June being the rainiest month in almost all the country, and
February the droughtiest. The high temperatures of summer are counterpoised by
the low temperature of winter.
Owing to the favourable geographic conditions Romania is a rich country
both in respect of the natural resources of the soil and of the subsoil. More than
one quarter of the country‟s total area is covered by forests, with trees belonging
to different species; conifers, oaks, beeches, poplars, willows, etc. The pasture
lands take up almost 12 % of the area of Romania. They have favoured livestock
breeding for many centuries.
The Black Sea
Grain crops have found favourable conditions in Romania. Wheat is
grown on the Danube and the Banat plains and on the Moldavian, Dobrudjan and
Transylvanian plains; maize on the moresheltered of the Carpathian foothills, the
Moldavian plateau and in Transylvania. Barley which occurs most extensively in
Dobrudja, is cultivated mainly as fodder for livestock. Oats do well in the west of
the country in districts with heavy rainfalls. Districts planted to rye, which
requires a colder climate and sandy soil, are to be found in Northern Moldavia
and Western Transylvania. There are also rich crops of textile plants. Flax and
hemp hold an outstanding place among the plants grown in Romania. Other
industrial plants include sunflower, soya, sugar beet, tobacco and medicinal
Apple-, cherry-, apricot-, pear-, plum- and peach-trees cover large areas in
the hilly districts of the country. Vineyards yielding fine grapes cover
considerable areas in the hilly districts, where the slopes are terraced for the vine.
Fauna is also varied and includes apart from hares, foxes, wolves, bears,
stags, red deer, lynxes, wild boar, pheasants, quail, wild geese, pelicans, trout,
herrings, sturgeons which come up into the Danube from the Black Sea, rare
specimens living in reservations such as chamois, aurochs, or the mountain cock.
With a view to protecting and saving from destruction the treasures of
beauty and the riches of nature, certain zones and territories in Romania have
been declared natural reserves protected by law. Among them are the Retezat
National Park, certain parts of the Danube Delta, the Bucegi Reserve, the Piatra
Sources of mineral wealth are numerous and very important. They include
gold and silver which have been mined since antiquity, natural gas, coal, oil,
ferrous ores; manganese deposits, bauxite deposits, salt and building stone, etc.
The land, the fauna, flora and climate form a harmonious whole in which
the Romanian people have lived down the ages and where they are building up a
life of plenty.
VOCABULARY crossroad – drum transversal
boundary – frontieră, hotar, graniţe
feature – trăsătură caracteristică, particularitate
plateau, pl. plateaux – platou, podiş
tableland – podiş, platou
depression – depresiune; şes, câmpie
gorge – trecătoare, defileu, pas
glade – poiană
volcanic zone – zonă vulcanică
volcanic crater – crater vulcanic
marsh – ţinut sau pământ mlăştinos
fresh water lake – lac cu apă dulce
salt water lake – lac cu apă sărată
flow – curgere, flux, curent; curs (al unui râu); debit
to flow – a curge, a se scurge
to surround – a înconjura; a împrejmui; a îngrădi
foothill – înălţime subalpină
slope – pantă, povârniş; versant, coastă
to slope – a fi înclinat; a se înclina; a se povârni, a fi în pantă
to exceed – a depăşi, a întrece
plain – şes, câmpie
to stretch – a(se)întinde, a (se)lungi, a (se)extinde, a fi (situat), a se afla
width – lărgime; lăţime; întindere
to spring, sprang, sprung – a apărea, a răsări, a se ivi; a tâşni, a izvorî
piedmont – piemont
to scatter – a (se)împrăştia, a (se)risipi, a presăra
flood – inundaţie; potop, viitură
to flood – a inunda, a îneca, a potopi; a revărsa, a face să se reverse
to dot – a puncta
blend – amestec, combinaţie; îmbinare
rainfall – (cantitate de) precipitaţii; aversă, ploaie torenţială
to occur – a se petrece, a se întâmpla, a avea loc; a se întâlni, a exista, a fi
drought – secetă; uscăciune
to counterpoise – a contracara; a echilibra
species, pl. species – specie; categorie, speţă, fel, soi, neam
conifer(ous) tree – conifer
oak – stejar
beech – fag
poplar – plop
willow – salcie
acacia – salcâm
ash (tree) – frasin
birch (tree) – mesteacăn
elm (tree) – ulm
fir (tree) – brad
horn beam (tree) – carpen
juniper (tree) – ienupăr
lime (tree) – tei
maple (tree) – arţar
pine (tree) – pin
spruce fir – molid
sycamore maple – paltin
tanner‟s sumach – oţetar
livestock – vite; şeptel
breeding – creştere (animalelor, etc.)
wheat – grâu
maize – porumb, păpuşoi
barley – orz
oats – ovăz
rye – secară
hemp – cânepă
fox – vulpe sau vulpoi
wolf – lup
wild boar – porc sălbatic
stag – cerb
deer, pl. deer – căprioară
bear – urs
badger – bursuc
beaver – castor
marten – jder
squirrel – veveriţă
pheasant – fazan
quail – prepeliţă
trout, pl. trout – păstrăv
sturgeon – sturion; nisetru, morun
white/great sturgeon - morun
bream – plătică
carp – crap
mackerel – scrumbie
perch – biban
pike – ştiucă
pikeperch – şalău
salmon – somn
tench - lin
chamois, pl. chamois – capră neagră / de munte
aurochs – zimbru
coal – cărbune, cărbuni
vineyard – vie, podgorie
craggily – stâncos; abrupt, râpos
chalet – cabană; (în munţi), vilă (în stil elveţian)
resort – staţiune (climaterică, balneară etc.)
medicinal herbs – plante medicinale
to form a harmonious whole – a forma un tot armonios
to build up a life of plenty – a construi o viaţă de belşug
a înlocui – to replace
a depozita – to store
a da dispoziţii – to make the necessary arrangements
a bate la maşină – to type(write)
a reuşi la examenul de admitere – to pass the admission examination
a aproba – to approve
a ţine o prelegere –to deliver a lecture
vrăjit – bewitched / fascinated
armonie – harmony
antic – ancient
Carpaţii Sudici (Meridionali) – the Southern Carpathians
Podişul Transilvaniei – the Transylvanian Tableland
plai – flat mountainous region covered with lawns
venerat – venerated
pulbere – dust
urmaş – descendant
GRAMMAR THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
Modul subjonctiv prezintă acţiunea ca posibilă, când acţiunea este proiectată în
viitor, sau ca virtuală, nerealizată, deci ireală, când acţiunea trebuia să aibă loc în
Subjonctivul I (forma veche a subjonctivului, sau subjonctivul prezent) este
identic în formă cu infinitivul scurt al verbului:
It is necessary that he be here
come in time.
The old form of the subjunctive
To be To have To speak
He, she, it be
He, she, it have
He, she, it speak
1. Această formă se foloseşte cu
referire la orice timp exprimând o stare
de lucruri presupusă sau inexistentă,
It is strange that she be late.
It was strange that she be late.
It will be strange that she be late.
2. Reprezintă o acţiune ca fiind
problematică dar nu contradictorie
realităţii. Se foloseşte pentru a exprima
un ordin, o presupunere, o îndoială, o
temere, o sugestie, o condiţie, o cerere,
I doubt if he be among the tourists
They suggested that the new method be
He will give orders that the new car be
Sprint lest the other runners overtake
you (scop, temere).
3. Se foloseşte în unele exclamaţii
pentru a exprima o dorinţă, o speranţă
sau un protest vehement.
Heaven help us!
Curse this fog!
Expenses be hanged!
4. Se foloseşte în unele expresii. if need be - dacă este nevoie
be that as it may – oricum ar fi
far be it from me to – departe de mine
gândul de a …
come what may – fie ce-o fi
N.B. Anumite verbe sunt urmate de should + construcţii cu infinitivul. Când
infinitivul este to be, should se omite uneori.
He suggested that the plan (should) be drawn up.
Forma veche a subjonctivului se menţine astăzi în stilul official, frazeologie
juridică, limbaj ziaristic şi parlamentar, procese verbale ale şedinţelor, în poezie,
ştiinţă şi tehnică.
I move that an appeal be made to the parts concerned.
Propun să se facă apel la părţile în cauză.
I. Speak on:
1. The most characteristic features of Romania‟s relief;
2. Romania‟s climate;
3. Romania‟s natural resources;
4. The Danube.
II. Say it in one word, choosing from the following words: coal, boundary,
willow, silver, stag, trout, tributary, flow, chalet, counterpoise:
1. To move along in a stream, as water or other liquid. 2. Something that
indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line. 3. A stream contributing
its flow to a larger stream or other body of water. 4. Any of several game fishes
of the genus Salmo, related the Salmo. 5. Adult male deer. 6. A kind of farm
house, low and wide caves, common in Alpine regions; a cottage, a villa, ski
lodge, or the like built in this style. 7. A black or dark-brown combustible mineral
substance consisting of carbonized substance vegetable matter, used as fuel. 8. A
white, ductile metallic element, used for making mirrors, coins, ornaments, table
utensils, etc. 9. To balance by an opposing weight; to counteract or offset by an
opposing force. 10. Any tree or shrub of the genus Salix, many species of which
have tough, pliable twigs or branches used for wickerwork, etc.
III. Read the text and ask questions on each sentence:
A great number of archaeological discoveries dating back to the Paleolithic,
Mesolithic and Neolithic attest to the fact that present-day Romania‟s territory
has been inhabited since time immemorial. The great Indo-European migration
by the end of the third millennium B.C. was accompanied by the penetration and
development of the Bronze and later on by the Iron Civilization. The Thracian
tribes that had settled in the Carpathian-Danubian area formed a unitary
community and built their own fortified centres. The northern Thracian branch –
known as Getae or Dacians – having distinct ethnical and linguistic features,
organized themselves politically under the leadership of Dromichaites in the
Danubian Plain, in 300 B.C. The union of all Geto-Dacians into a strong,
independent and centralized state, whose boundaries stretched from the Black Sea
to the Middle Danube and the Northern Carpathians, was achieved in the first
century B.C. by Burebista (70 – 44 B.C.). The centralized state of the Dacians
was reconstituted by Decebalus (87 – 106 A.D.) and it was under his rule that it
reached the apex of its development. The close relationships with the great
civilization of the time – Greek, Persian and later on Roman – and their influence
contributed to the progress of the Dacians.
IV. Fill in prepositions or adverbs:
a. The Romanian Black Sea shore begins … the place where the Danube flows …
the sea through the Chilia arm (the frontier point between Romania and Ukraine)
and stretches south … a distance of 245 km … Vama Veche (the frontier point …
Romania and Bulgaria). But what is commonly known as “littoral” is only that
part … seashore, 100 km long, where owing … the geographic conditions, resorts
and sightseeing centres have been set …, namely the part stretching south …
Cape Midia as far as south … Mangalia (Vama Veche).
b. Nowadays Dobrudja, one … the most highly-developed regions … our
country, boasts of large-size industrial and economic constructions at Constanţa,
Tulcea, Medgidia, Ovidiu, of its health and climatic resorts … the littoral, …
Mamaia, Eforie, Mangalia with huge hotels that have sprung … on the beaches
attracting, … every passing year, many visitors to enjoy the sunshine, the
foaming waves and the warm sand.
Besides this, the fertilization … the Dobrudjan soil has transformed the old
steppe … a fertile granary. The use … advanced agro-technical methods,
productive areas have led … increased per hectare crops as well as … the
development … a powerful zoo-technical sector.
V. Translate into English using the subjunctive:
1. Au sugerat să se înlocuiască două piese. 2. Vom da dispoziţii ca toate maşinile
să fie bine depozitate. 3. Mă îndoiesc că ele vor fi mâine dimineaţă aici. 4. Dacă
este nevoie putem să aducem oricând alte unelte. 5. Ea a sugerat ca scrisoarea să
fie bătută la maşină. 6. Mă îndoiesc că el s-ar afla printre primii reuşiţi la
examenul de admitere. 7. Ei au propus ca planul să fie aprobat. 8. Să trăiască
mulţi ani! 9. Ce născocire! 10. (Noi) am cerut să se ţină o prelegere despre
problemele care îi interesează.
VI. Complete the following sentences with the appropriate verbs given
to take, to damage, to see to, to break, to submit, to be, to send
1. If he … the regulation, he will be fined. 2. It was necessary that he …
measures immediately. 3. We suggested that she … it without delay. 4. They
demanded that he … the documents. 5. He ordered that the cars … at once. 6. It is
desirable that he … witness in this case. 7. They covered the machines lest they
… by snow.
VII. Translate into English:
Dac-ar putea privi cineva de sus de tot, aşa încât să cuprindă dintr-o dată tot
pământul românesc, ar rămâne vrăjit de armonia şi frumuseţea lui. În mijloc, se
ridică podişul Transilvaniei, nu prea înalt (circa 500 m), înconjurat din toate
părţile de munţi care-i alcătuiesc o uriaşă cunună.
Mărginind coroana munţilor, se intind înălţimi mai domoale, dealurile acoperite
de vii sau livezi de pomi; aceste dealuri formează în unele locuri o zonă mai largă
(de pildă Oltenia), în altele mai strâmtă, ca în răsăritul Munteniei sau în ţara
Crişurilor. Dealurile se isprăvesc, la rândul lor, prin câmpii întinse cât vezi cu
ochii, lăcaşul grânelor. Bărăganul şi Burnazul par că nu se mai termină; la fel
câmpia Tisei. Râuri numeroase izvorăsc din Transilvania care poate fi socotită
drept “casa apelor” pământul românesc şi străbătând brâul de munţi, se îndreaptă
spre Dunăre – fluviul venerat al strămoşilor noştri, daco-geţii,“drumul fără
pulbere”al urmaşilor acestora – şi spre afluenţii ei cei mai mari. Variat şi
armonios alcătuit, pământul românesc cuprinde toate formele de relief: de la
ţărmul neted al mării, formând plaje întinse ce coboară pe nesimţite sub apă –
exemplul tipic e Mamaia – şi de la Delta în continuă construcţie a Dunării până la
plaiurile şi crestele munţilor.
CHAPTER THREE – ENGLISH FOR ECONOMISTS
Introducere Acest capitol se adresează cu precădere studenţilor de la profilul economic şi
conţine în principal elemente practice şi applicative la îndemâna celor care doresc
să-şi însuşească şi să folosească un limbaj economic.
Capitolul conţine lecţii ce tratează teme axate pe principalele aspecte ale vieţii
cotidiene, având drept scop să formeze deprinderi de limbă necesare însuşirii
limbajului legat de problematica economică propriu-zisă. Temele cuprinse în
capitol se referă la activitatea de comercializare a produselor cum sunt: reclama,
organizarea de târguri şi expoziţii, structura comerţului exterior, cooperarea
economică, cât şi teme legate de industria turistică, noua ordine economică.
Fiecare text este însoţit de o temă gramaticală prezentată concis prin structuri,
scheme şi tabele. Schemele gramaticale prezintă probleme de gramatică şi
construcţii mai dificil de înţeles şi mai ales, de folosit. Problematica gramaticală
este urmată de exerciţii lexicale şi gramaticale menite să formeze deprinderi de
limbă celor care studiază limba engleză în cadrul formei de învăţământ la
Obiective operaţionale: Scopul acestui capitol este să:
creeze studenţilor deprinderi de exprimare în termeni economici;
asigure înţelegerea termenilor economici în limba engleză;
urmărească exersarea deprinderilor necesare pentru a putea citi şi vorbi în
engleză despre marketingul contemporan;
rezolve probleme gramaticale întâlnite în expresiile uzuale din limba
poată intocmi o lucrare de specialitate utilizând termenii însuşiţi;
poată purta corespondenţă economică într-o gamă destul de largă de
domenii economice: industrie, agricultură, turism;
Capitolul cuprinde următoarele teme de studiu:
1. Lesson one - Advertising…………………………………………………….97
2. Lesson two – How to stage successful trade fairs and exhibitions…………103
3. Lesson three – Tourist industry and touristic activity………………………107
4. Lesson four – Foreign trade composition-development trends……………..110
5. Lesson five - The International Monetary Fund…………………………….114
6. Lesson six – Economic co-operation………………………………………..119
7. Lesson seven – Marketing – Past and Present………………………………123
Bibiografie selectivă - Bantaş, Andrei (1991) – Essential English, Ed. Teora Bucureşti
- Galiş, Livia & colaboratorii (1982) – Limba Engleză pentru învăţământul
superior economic, Ed.Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti
- Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana (1993) – Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed.
- Hulban, Horia & colab.(1983) – Exerciţii şi teste de limba engleză, Ed.
Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti
- Nicolescu, Adrian & colaboratorii (1980) – Culegere de texte pentru cursul
practic de limba engleză pentru secţia geografie-geologie, Tipografia
Universităţii din Bucureşti
- * * * - Speak English Nr. 1, 2, 3 / 1990
A certain amount of advertising is of an informative kind, the aim simply
being to let consumers know what goods and services are available – “consumer
education” as it is sometimes called. Most advertising, however, is of a
persuasive kind, the aim of which is to persuade people to buy one thing rather
than something else.
No one can seriously pretend to remain unaffected by advertisments. It is
impossible to turn a blind eye to the pressing offers to buy this or that article that
fill our streets, newspapers and magazines. Even inside our living-rooms,
advertisers are waiting to pounce on their prospective buyers as they tune in to
their favourite radio or television programmes. In time, no matter how hard we
resist, clever little tunes and catch-phrases seep into our subconscious mind and
stay there. Though they seem so varied, all the advertisments have one thing in
common: they make strong appeals to our emotions.
So, advertising is meant to give information on certain goods or services
or on enterprises offering them, so as to awaken the interest of the people at large
and determine them to buy the given commodity and make use of the services
Advertising may take many forms. All of them appeal to the prospective
buyer‟s senses (sight and hearing, above all), to his feelings, to his understanding
and reasoning capacity. They should be original, suggestive and convincing.
The forms of the advertising may be divided into three main sections,
namely “placard” advertising, “newspaper” (or periodical) advertising and
“circular” advertising. The first form includes advertisments which appear on
street hoardings, in trains, on buses, etc.; street signs, neon signs, exhibitions and
window-displays; commercials (screen advertisments at cinemas and on
television); “sandwich” boards, and all advertisments which are displayed in
public, whether in or out of doors. The second includes advertisments in all forms
of newspaper or periodical, from ordinary daily paper to theatre programmes.
The third form includes hand-bills, circular lettres, catalogues, leaflets,
descriptive booklets, or free samples and general advertising circulars, all of
which are usually delivered without payment to the persons for whom they are
intended. Each of these forms of advertising has characteristics of its own, the
form often adopted being quite different according to the nature of the appeal.
Placard Advertising. In the case of placard advertising, the chief object of
the appeal is to attract the attention of the general public. Long descriptive or
reasonable statements do not lend themselves to this form of advertisment. The
advertisment should be such that he who runs may read. The attention may be
attracted by a phase or a picture or some piece of mechanism in motion. This type
of advertisment is usually “loud”.
An important means of advertising is the shop window, which not only
informs the public on the assortment and quality of wares on sale, but also
stimulates the taste and raises the the level of buyer‟s exactingness.. The shop
window is the “visiting” card of a commercial unit and contributes, at the same
time, towards the achievements of the working people in the field of commodity
production as well as the steady advance of trade.
The shop window is equipped with stands and shelves, boxes and
geometrical figures, mannequins or mere outlines of human bodies. Artificial
flowers and placards enhance the decorative effect. A harmonious choice of
colours, the use of mobile elements, certain light effects catch the eye too.
Goods are successsfully introduced or popularized in the framework of
exhibitions, arranged by a shop, by a store department, or in special exhibiting
But visual “hooks” are not exclusively brought into play to make
advertising operative, to give a brand a solid build-up. Radio or TV commercials
may make a hit if they are accompanied by entertaining music and if they are not
repeated until the goods they advertise have ceased to answer buyers‟
Newspaper Advertising. The methods of advertising in newspapers are
very similar to those of the placard advertisments, but there is a distinct
difference in many cases.
Usually, a reader of a newspaper has more time to spend in reading the
newspaper than he would care to give to the reading of the advertisments on a
While it is equally necessary to get his attention by some striking picture
or lettering, when that attention is secured there are more opportunities for
descriptive, illustrative, intelligible and literary matter.
In deciding on the form of an advertisment which is to appear in the press,
four considerations are necessary: 1. the particular class of periodical selected; 2.
the position of the advertisment; 3. the subject-matter of the advertisment; 4. the
effective display of the advertising matter.
It is generally considered that the front page or the back page of a
periodical is the best position for an advertisment, that the right-hand pages are
better than the left-hand pages, and that advertisments opposite reading matter are
better placed than those which are inserted among pages containing advertising
The subject-matter is the most important of the advertisment, and the
matter should be so arranged that it attracts the reader‟s attention and leaves a
lasting impression on his mind. If the advertisment is for the purpose of extolling
the virtues of a particular commodity, the impression left on the reader‟s mind
should be such that he will remember the name and some of the advantages of
that commodity. Many advertisments fail because the wording is such that it
advertise an article generally, and does not leave a sufficiently lasting impression
on the mind of the reader to make him think of a particular brand or make of an
article. Careless wording, bad punctuation, poor display, or grammar mistakes
will lessen the value of the advertisment, and, in the estimations of the reader,
lower the standard of the advertising firm and the article advertised.
advertising – activitate de reclamă
to advertise – a face reclamă
advertisment – reclamă, anunţ
persuasive – convingător
to pounce on – a izbucni, a dezlănţui împotriva
catch-phrase – expresie la modă
to seep into – a pătrunde în
placard – placardă; pancartă; afiş
hoarding – panou pentru afişe
hand-bill – mic prospect
booklet – broşură
circular – circulară; reclamă; prospect
sample – mostră
lettering – (manieră de a scrie) literele
subject-matter – obiect, tematică
display – expunere
to be inserted – a fi intercalat
to be worded – a fi redactat, formulat
wording – redactare, formulare
brand – calitate
to turn a blind eye to – a închide ochii la
to tune in to – a prinde (un post de radio)
street sign – firmă
sandwich board – reclamă pe două placarde
to secure one‟s attention – a atrage atenţia cuiva
reading matter – material de citit
left-hand pages – pagini cu soţ
right-hand pages – pagini fără soţ
to extol the virtue of a commodity – a lăuda calitatea mărfii
people at large – păturile largi ale populaţiei
no matter how hard we resist – oricât de mult ne împotrivim
to make strong appeals – a acţiona puternic asupra
to lend oneself to – a se preta la
THE PUNCTUATION MARKS
(Semnele de punctuaţie)
Punctuation Mark Rules Examples
. The “full stop” or “the
Punctul se foloseşte:
a) la sfârşitul unei
propoziţii enunţiative ;
b) după prescurtări
grafice şi lexicale ;
c) pentru separarea aşa-
numitului titlu lateral,
adică a titlului care se
scrie într-un rând cu
Advertising may take
e.g.; i.e.; Mr. X; Dr. Y;
H. Sweet; N.Y.
Placard Advertising. In
case of placard
advertising, the chief
object of the appeal is to
attract the attention of the
! The exclamation mark Semnul exclamării se
foloseşte la sfârşitul unei
care exprimă mirare,
mâhnire, lipsă de
încredere, indignare etc.
What a fine building it is
? The question or
Semnul întrebării se
foloseşte după întrebări
alternative şi disjunctive:
What‟s the aim of
Can you speak about the
forms of advertising?
You‟ve read this letter,
: The colon Două puncte se folosesc:
a) după cuvintele care
introduc un citat sau un
You remember his
“I want to know how
text lung în vorbirea
b) înaintea unei
enumerări sau după unele
cuvinte ca: as, as follows,
the following, thus;
long this state of things
between us is to last.”
We export the following
goods: tinned meat, fish,
vegetables and fruit,
honey, foodstuffs and
; The semi-colon Punctul şi virgula
marchează o pauză mai
mare decât cea redată
prin virgulă. Punctul şi
virgula se folosesc în
fraza compusă prin
The moon went down ;
the stars grew pale ; the
cold day broke.
„ The apostrophe Apostroful se foloseşte
pentru a arăta că o literă
sau două litere au fost
We‟ve read these
- The hyphen Liniuţa de unire sau
cratima se foloseşte
pentru a uni diferite părţi
ale unui cuvînt compus.
– The dash Linia de despărţire se
foloseşte: a) pentru a
separa două propoziţii
coordonate, legate fără
b) în interiorul propoziţiei
sau al frazei, pentru a
delimita cuvintele şi
sau apoziţiile explicative;
c) pentru marcarea
pauzelor lungi în vorbirea
d) înaintea cuvintelor
namely, i.e. după care, de
obicei, se pune virgula;
“She did not replace my
mother – no one could
Other shoe polishes just
clean your shoes – nicely,
cleanly, efficiently – but
E shoe polish lanolizes
“And all this long story
was about – what do you
Securing the problem of
commercials – i.e., the
spoken and sung
advertisments – for the
moment, you find that
there are five ways of
, The comma Virgula se foloseşte:
a) înaintea conjuncţiei
„and” la o enumerare
care depăşeşte două
b) după formule de
introducere şi de
încheiere în scrisori;
c) la date, între lună şi an,
iar la adrese între stradă,
oraş şi stat;
Trees, and bridges, and
houses were swept by the
My dear friend, Dear
Sirs, Yours faithfully,
On the 24th
of May, 1982
20 High Street, London,
numbers of consumers
d) pentru a despărţi
conjuncţiale sau adverbe
ca: however, besides,
moreover, that is, too,
etc. de restul propoziţiei;
e) după interjecţii;
f) după propoziţii
circumstanţiale de loc,
timp sau condiţie;
g) între propoziţii
coordonate de orice fel;
prefer to buy goods that
I noticed another thing,
moreover, which struck
Oh, Mary, my sweet girl!
Well, there are many
things I‟d like to tell you.
If I meet him, I shall tell
him about it.
When the day broke, the
wind blew harder and
It was bitterly cold, so we
did not go out.
“” (Double) quotes,
quotation mark, or
Ghilimelele se pun la
începutul şi la sfârşitul
“Those were his words”,
„‟ Single quotes Ghilimelele simple se
folosesc de obicei atunci
când cuvântul separat
prin ele se află în
cuprinse între ghilimele
Ghilimelele simple se
folosesc uneori şi în locul
celor duble, dacă
cuvintele amintite nu fac
parte din vorbirea directă;
“Look at the „lady in
grey‟, Gran; isn‟t she
The word: „scientific‟ has
a magic effect in the
U.S.A. You may put up a
notice. „Scalp massage‟:
this is quite ineffective.
But if you say: „Scientific
scalp massage‟ – that is a
[ ] Brackets or square
( ) Parantheses or marks
of parantheses or (round)
Parantezele drepte sau
rotunde se folosesc
pentru scoaterea în
evidenţă: (i) a unei părţi
din text, (ii) a indicaţiilor
bibliografice în literatura
tehnică, didactică sau de
informaţie diversă; (iii) în
All forms of advertising
appeal to the prospective
buyer‟s senses (sight and
hearing, above all), to his
feelings, to his
“I don‟t want to write
anybody else‟s articles”
… The dots Punctele de suspensie se
folosesc: a) pentru
indicarea unei idei
neterminate; b) pentru a
marca pauzele lungi pe
care le face vorbitorul,
cuvintele cele mai
potrivite sau lipsa unor
cuvinte sau pasaje întregi
dintr-un text citat.
“You‟re fired …”
He stared at him as he
“How long are you
planning to stay…?”
“When one is young, you
I. Speak about:
a) The aim of advertising.
b) Forms of advertising.
c) The subject-matter of the advertisment.
II. Write some commercials for the following goods: tomato paste,
refrigerators, computers, STIREX glassware, winter wind jackets.
III. Explain the use of all the punctuation marks used in the text given below
and then render its contents:
Advertisments in America fill the newspapers and cover the walls, they are on the
menu cards and in your daily post, on match boxes and on pamphlets, they are
shouted through loud speakers and shown in the cinemas, flashed electrically and
written on the sky by aeroplanes and whispered in front of your window while
you sleep so that you should dream of tooth-paste, shoe polishes and soap flakes.
Leaving the problem of commercials – i.e. the spoken and sung radio
advertisments – for the moment, you find that there are five main ways of making
people particularly unhappy. (…)
The other approach on the same line is to give people statistics. You state, for
instance, that AMALDA floor polish gives 42 per cent more shine to the floor with
37 per cent less effort than any other make. If anybody questions your statement
and declares that its stupidity is too obvious for any child over the age of four,
you smile in a superior way and explain to him that this has been „scientifically‟
proved. If he is still unconvinced, tell him that the real explanation lies in the fact
that any other floor polish just cleans the floor but AMALDA platonizes it.
(Abridged from “Advertisments” by G. Mikes)
IV. Punctuate the following sentences:
1 Looking through the New Yorker magazine I met the following description of
cars the car with youthful beauty that surrounds you with silent strength balanced
beauty luxury reflected in every shining inch see its clean length knifing through
clear cool air jewel bright beauty sculptured in steel There s nothing like a new
car and there s never been a new car like this We proudly invite you to inspect it
2 One of the cars has a great deep breathing engine the engine of another is
leanmuscled 3 But the advertisment I like best showed a picture of the car and
underneath you read
If you know the woman who should have this car you must admire her very much
she s gentle strong and intensely feminine If you know this remarkable woman
you d well adviced to marry her quickly If you re lucky you already have
V. Translate into English:
a) 1. Reclama comercială se referă la popularizarea mărfurilor, a magazinelor, a
unor forme speciale de vânzare în scopul stimulării vânzărilor. 2. Reclama se
foloseşte, de asemenea, în activităţile de prestări de servicii, turism, asigurări,
transporturi şi altele. 3. Mijloacele de reclamă sunt variate, în funcţie de locul
unde se organizează, de destinatarul lor. 4. Ca mijloace de reclamă se folosesc:
marca de fabrică si de calitate, vitrina, afişul, anunţuri prin presă, radio,
televiziune, cinematograf şi altele. 5. Reclama este o formă a publicităţii constând
în difuziunea de informaţii privind anumite mărfuri şi servicii către eventuali
cumpărători în scopul influenţării acestora.
HOW TO STAGE SUCCESSFUL TRADE FAIRS AND EXHIBITIONS
Romania‟s staging and participation in international trade fairs and
exhibitions are ways of getting acquainted with the world technical progress, of
stimulating the commercial activity of the foreign trade organizations, of
extending business contracts, of gaining outlets, of getting directly aquainted with
the markets and take advantage of the condition of the market, of adjusting
Romanian-made goods to the foreign markets technical quality, display and
packaging requirements to be in a position to sell directly to the end-user.
In Romania there is a specialized enterprise – ITE, The Entreprise for
Fairs and Exhibition, that stages every international and national fair and
exhibition that take place in the Exhibition Complex of Bucharest. It also
organizes Romania‟s official participation in fairs and exhibitions abroad,
national and jubilee exhibitions, exhibitions in big department-stores abroad.
The enterprise can also stage “turn key” exhibitions and fairs held
elsewhere, granting technical assistance, carrying out the design, execution,
assembling and dismantling jobs.
The enterprise renders the following services for the fairs and exhibitions
staged in Bucharest:
- hires display areas in modern and spacious halls and open air platforms;
- designs, builds and arranges panels;
- secures the electric power for illumination purposes, for machinery and
equipment on show;
- carries out plumbing and electric installations, fits telex panels and telephone
- provides interpreters, skilled and unskilled workers;
- hires publicity panels, organizes national days, receptions, cocktail parties and
ensures guarded car parking areas.
Any company wishing to participate in a fair or exhibition is interested in
most favourable location of its stand, customs facilities, free visas, reduction of
transport charges, decoration elements insurance, medical assistance and
In order to make the staging or participating in a trade fair or exhibition be
a success, certain principles can be carefully followed.
A starting point is to establish realistic and precise objectives for
participating in fairs and exhibitions.
Companies go to fairs and exhibitions to launch new products, promote
the existing ones, to meet the press for advertising purposes, and finally to sell
the exibits or leave them on consignment or lease. Sometimes, firms simply
participate to maintain competitive presence. But once the reasons of exhibiting
have been defined the staff should work toward them.
After the objectives have been settled next step is to choose the most
appropriate exhibition or fair. Romanian experts in trade fairs and exhibitions
advise companies to begin by identifying a number of likely trade fairs. The
exhibitor should check which of the fairs are most suitable in terms of product
themes, location and timing. To check if the organizer can provide audited data
which give attendance records and visitor profiles. To contact companies that
have exhibited before at the same show.
Once a choise of exhibition has been made, every endeavour should be
made to secure a good location where there is likely to be a steady flow of
visitors. It is well to get the stand where is a major entrance, near a major
exhibitor who is bound to attract a large number of visitors and not at the end of a
blind alley, well away from the main focus of attention of the exhibition.
Another principle of good exhibiting is to begin planning as far a year in
advance, to avoid too much expense. Simple designs, tastefully furnished can be
a success for sure. Not to make hasty changes to design that would work against
the main theme of the message the company wants to put across.
Another factor is to design the stand so that interviews can take place
easily. If the potential customers stood about and were jostled instead of sitting
and chatting calmly with the stand staff, they would soon got tired and no orders
could be placed with. Since the stand staff are first people the trickle of visitors
meet they must match the company‟s image, they should know everything about
the product and be able to answer questions concerning the commercial
agreements for its supply. Any exhibition or fair should strive for lower
exhibiting costs, for economy of message and show quickly what the benefits to
the customers are.
to stage – a organiza
outlet – debuşeu
to adjust – (aici) a adapta
display – prezentare, expunere
to grant – a acorda
assembling – asamblare
dismantling – demontare
to hire – a închiria, a angaja
appropriate – corespunzător, adecvat
spacious – spaţios
to plumb – a instala apă / gaze
skilled – calificat
location – amplasare
to launch – a lansa
to promote – a promova
consignment – consignaţie
lease – închiriere
to jostle – a împinge de colo până colo
insurance – asigurare
to get acquainted with – a se familiariza cu
to take advantage of – a profita de
“turn-key” exhibition – expoziţie la cheie
to render a service – a face un serviciu
customs facilities – avantaje vamale
audited data – date de revizie contabilă
attendance records – date referitoare la participarea la expoziţii
to make every endeavour – a face toate eforturile
to put across – a prezenta
the trickle of visitors – şir neîntrerupt de vizitatori
to match the company‟s image – a se armoniza cu profilul companiei
exhibitor – expozant
floor space / platform floor – spaţiu acoperit
world fair – târg internaţional
leasing of premises – închiriere a localului
IF – CLAUSES
( Propoziţii condiţionale)
Propoziţiile condiţionale se introduc prin următoarele cuvinte: if, if only, in case,
on condition (that), provided (that), suppose (that), unless, as long as, whether …
I. Propoziţii condiţionale care exprimă
o acţiune reală.
Când verbul din propoziţia condiţională
exprimă o acţiune reală sau probabilă,
modurile întrebuinţate sunt: indicativul
în subordonată, indicativul sau
imperativul în principală;
Cu excepţia viitorului care nu se
foloseşte în propoziţia condiţională,
verbul predicativ poate fi la orice timp
cerut de înţeles.
II. Propoziţii condiţionale care exprimă
o acţiune ireală.
Modurile întrebuinţate sunt
condiţionalul în principală şi
subjonctivul în secundară.
Condiţionalul prezent (principală) →
Condiţionalul perfect (principală) →
Întâlnim de multe ori should şi would în
propoziţii secundare condiţionale. În
aceste cazuri should şi would sunt
verbe modale, nu auxiliare folosite la
- If you go to the exhibition, I can give
you a lift.
- If he isn’t here, he must be ill.
- If you speak English, please translate
this title for me.
- If he enjoys appreciation, he earned it
by hard work. (Present + Past)
- If he didn’t answer my letter, how can
I know about him? (Past – Present)
- If he comes, I shall know it. (Present -
- I should visit the fair if I could.
subjonctiv prezent (secundară)
subjonctiv perfect (secundară)
You would accept it at once if you
knew about it.
You would have accepted it at once if
you had known about it.
If you would call me, I should be
obliged to you.
I should tell him the truth if I should
The tenses in IF-CLAUSES Examples
Întrebuinţarea timpurilor în propoziţia
condiţională este aceeaşi în limba
engleză ca şi în limba română, cu
lb. română lb. engleză
dacă voi fi If I am
dacă voi fi fost If I have been
dacă aş fi If I were
dacă aş fi fost If I had been
I should go if I am invited.
I should stay if she has finished her
I should go if I were invited.
I should have gone if I had been
Inversiunea în propoziţia condiţională se poate face când condiţionala secundară
introdusă de if conţine unul dintre verbele to be, to have, could sau should.
IF-CLAUSES IF OMITTED
If he were here, he would help us.
If I had time, I should go there.
If he had come yesterday, I should have
asked him about it.
If he should come tomorrow she would
know about it.
Were he here, he would help us.
Had I time, I should go there.
Had he come yesterday, I should have
asked him about it.
Should he come tomorrow, she would
know about it.
I. Enlarge on:
a) The advantage of staging and participating in international fairs and
b) The ITE‟s rendering services for the fairs and exhibitions staged in Bucharest;
c) The principles which make staging and participating in fairs and exhibitions be
a success for sure.
II. Build up sentences after the model below:
Model: If the fair (to be) a success they (to get) orders placed with them.
If the fair were a succes they would get orders placed with them.
If the fair had been a success they would have got orders placed with
1. If products of several economic branches (to be) on display, the fairs and
exhibitions (to be) general. 2. If a certain branch of science, technique, agriculture
(to be represented) exclusively, the fairs and exhibitions (to be) specialized. 3. If
the exhibition (to last) longer, we (can get acquainted with) the technological
flow of these machinery. 4 If they (to carry out) proper studies in advance, we
(can leave) the exhibits on consignment or lease. 5. If the company (to reach)
previously an agreement with the acency on the range of exhibits, they (can set
up) a successful stand.
III. Change the conditional sentences omitting “if”:
1. If you should decide to stage a specialized exhibition with us we will
endeavour to give you full satisfaction. 2. If they had inquired about the audit
data, they wouldn‟t have experienced such troubles. 3. If they were to participate
in the fair, they would have to arrange with the agency for the range of exhibits.
4. If business should result, we can let you have first class references. 5. If they
had asked for information, we should have let them have it.
IV. Fill in the blanks with the required tense:
1. They (to reach) the top of the mountain before the dark if they (to start) earlier.
2. I (to come) and see you off if I (not to live) so far away. 3. If we (to have) no
luggage, we (to walk) home. 4. I (to meet) you if I (to know) of your arrival. 5.
Everything (to be) all right, if she (to be) here tomorrow. 6. If it (to stop) raining,
you (can) go for a walk. 7. We (to ship) the goods yesterday if we (to receive) the
telegram. 8. They (to reach) the town earlier if they (to walk) faster.
TOURIST INDUSTRY AND TOURISTIC ACTIVITY
Foreign tourism is one of the most profitable forms of economic
relations.Development of international tourism like the expansion of world trade,
as a whole, has been extremely uneven. Tourism appears to be growing at
roughly the same rate as economic activity. The developed industrial countries
are roughly divided into tourist exporting countries such as West European
countries, Great Britain, France and Germany and also the United States and
Canada and tourist importing countries such as Italy, Spain, Greece, Switzerland
Foreign tourism and domestic tourism clearly can and for many countries
have already become a substantial source of national budget revenue, an industry.
The tourist industry may, like any other industries, be measured from the
point of view of inputs and / or outputs. The key inputs to the tourist industry are
considered to be public goods characterized by external effects to their use such
as transportation and land. Anything purchased by a tourist qua tourist may be
considered as part of this industry. The market basket of such tourist purchases
(and therefore the factors of production demanded in producing the goods and
services involved) varies among countries, within countries by income level and
over time. Changes in the mix of the tourist “market basket” and the markedly
different composition of this basket between countries and groups of persons
compound the problem of choosing a tourist industry yardstick.
Such a yardstick can be the international tourist that has been defined as
any person visiting a country, other than that in which he usually resides for a
period of at least 24 hours. Those persons visiting a foreign country for less than
24 hours have been defined “excursionists”. Tourists together with excursionists
comprise visitors – word that describes any person visiting a country other than
that in which he resides, for any other reason than following an occupation
remunerated from within the country visited. But the definition can be extended
to all tourists both domestic and international, by defining a tourist as anyone
who is away at least overnight from his residential place for any other reason
than that following an occupation remunerated from within the area visited.
On this basis, tourist nights spent in lodging accomodation would be a
measure of the quantity of tourist production. It would be reasonable to assume
that tourists who purchase lodging output are tourist production importers and the
countries that make available such lodging output are tourist production
Accommodation output may be used as the best available yardstick for the
tourist industry. Accommodation output includes: a) hotels and similar
establishments(boarding, houses, inns and motels) and b) supplementary means
of tourist accommodation (youth hotels, recreation cetres for children, holiday
centres, camping sites, mountain huts and shelters, sanatoria and convalescent
homes, rented rooms and apartments).
The demand for tourism by nationals of each country can be thought of as
composed of a demand for tourism services within the country (domestic
tourism) and of tourism services provided to the nationals of the country by other
countries (international tourism).
The tourist sector is characterized by exceptionally strong mutual
relationships between formally independent enterprises. In a tourist resort or
centre there is a need for the presence in appropriate quantity and quality of
transport, hotel, catering and entertainment enterprises, tourist attractions like
beaches, ski slopes, historical sites, museums, auxiliary services and shopping
Tourism is a potential economic factor influencing the development of
international trade. It is a tertiary industry which creates prosperity through the
development of communications, transportation, accommodation, catering and
other consumer services. The expansion of foreign tourist travel is of a
considerable importance for the economic development of any country and it is a
way of consolodating contacts and a better understanding among nations.
roughly – în mare
revenue – venit (al statului)
qua – (prep)., ca
purchase – cumpărătură
yardstick – etalon
resort – staţiune
shelter – adăpost (aici) la munte
hut – colibă, cabană
lodging accommodation – cazare în hoteluri, motele
demand for tourism – cerere turistică
boarding houses – pensiune
camping site – loc de parcare
historical site – loc istoric
amenajări – arrangements, improvements
care se bazează – looking back on
instalaţii de traducere simultană – language monitoring equipment
GRAMMAR THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF PURPOSE
(Propoziţia finală sau de scop)
Propoziţia finală sau de scop răspunde la întrebările why = (what for?), for what
purpose (= în ce scop?). Verbul în general este la subjonctiv dar se preferă
constucţiile cu infinitivul.
I. Se introduce prin următoarele
b) so that
c) in order that
e) for fear
I get up early that I may be in time at
Close the window so that it will be
They travel a lot in order that they
might see the world.
They wear an umbrella lest the clothes
should be spoiled.
They wouldn‟t let us climb the
mountain without a guide, for fear we
should get lost.
II. De cele mai multe ori propoziţiile se
introduc în limba engleză prin:
b) in order to
c) for…+ infinitive
I get up early to be in time at the office.
She left early in order to keep her
They changed the train for the travel to
III. With a view to + -ing Our country‟s new hotels have been
built with a view to extending tourist
EXERCISES I. Enlarge on:
a) Tourism in the world – exporters of tourists, importers of tourists;
b) Foreign and domestic tourism as source of budget revenue;
c) Tourist industry measurement;
d) Tourist output;
e) Demand for tourism – its important factors;
f) Tourism as a potential economic factor in the development of international
II. Fill in the blanks, expressing a purpose, after the model below:
Model: They called them up…their friends not to be surprised at their arrival.
They called them up lest their friends should be surprised at their arrival.
They called them up in order that their friends might not be surprised at their
They called them up so that their friends would not be surprised at their arrival.
1. They organized two trips in the mountains…they (not to be dissatisfied). 2. I
didn‟t send you my notes…you (not to read) them. 3. The fatherrang up his son…
he(not to forget) to buy theatre tickets. 4. He sent them a telegram… they (not to
be away) when they arrived.
Model: Put on your coat…
Put on your coat that you should not catch cold.
Put on your coat in order that you should not catch cold.
Put on your coat lest you should catch cold.
1. Let me know about the meeting... 2. Don‟t speak so loud... 3. Be careful while
packing this beautiful vase... 4. Hurry up... 5. Spell this word again... 6. When
setting off on a journey tourists never take much luggage... 7. I put the flowers
into a vase...
III. Translate into English:
1. S-au construit şi se construiesc hotele noi şi moderne pentru a asigura o bază
corespunzătoare unei industrii turistice moderne. 2. În vederea redeschiderii
sezonului turistic de iarnă se fac din ce în ce mai multe amenajări. 3. Noi unităţi
comerciale se vor da în funcţiune în apropierea hotelului pentru ca turiştii să-şi
facă cumpărăturile în zona hotelului. 4. Cazarea este considerată etalonul cel mai
eficient în vederea măsurării producţiei turistice. 5. A învăţat suficientă engleză
ca să poată citi cărţi în original. 6. S-au urcat pe tarasa hotelului ca să vadă plaja.
7. Ar fi bine să notezi aceste lucruri ca să nu le uiţi. 8. Filmul era atât de plicticos
încât am plecat printre primii.
FOREIGN TRADE COMPOSITION – DEVELOPMENT TRENDS
The physical composition of foreign trade, i.e. its structure by groups of
products, is a qualitative expression of Romania‟s participation in the
international economic collaboration. The evolution of the physical structure of
Romanian foreign trade has been brought about by the deep changes wrought in
the national economy.
Industrialization, technological progress, modernization of the production
pattern, are factors which had their impact on the mutations characteristic of
Romanian foreign trade. These mutations bear their stamp particularly on the
growing volume and share of exports of the mechanical engineering, chemical
and light industries.
These three branches are the most dynamic both in the world output and
in the world trade, their dynamism being confirmed by the Romanian economy.
At present, the group which prevails in Romanian exports is that of
machinery, equipment and means of conveyance, as a result of the achievements
scored in the industrialization and modernization of production.
High quotas have been held by a series of machinery and equipment
whose production has been developed not only to cover domestic needs, but also
to leave availabilities for export and which have faced the competition in the
It should be noted that Romania is a famous producer of oilfield
equipment and a good exporter of tractors. Moreover, the export product
coverage includes electronic computation techniques, precision engineering
telecommunication equipment and a large range of products of high technological
performances such as: universal lathes, automated and vertical lathes, sequential
programme machine tools, specialized machine tools, aggregate lines etc.
It is likewise highlighted the very speedy dynamics of chemicals,
fertilizers and rubber which triggered off a growing share of this group within
total exports. Within this group the pride of place is taken by the export of
fertilizers, soda ash, synthetic resins, black carbon, detergents, lacquers and
paints, carbide, synthetic rubber, medical drugs etc.
As for industrial consumer goods, they held an overwhelming share within total
exports. The range covers furniture, textile, glassware, fine household ceramics,
footwear and leather goods.
Agricultural products and foodstuffs hold a lower share within Romanian
exports than that of industrial products. From among this product coverage one
can mention meat and meat preparations, oil, vegetables, fruit, wine, dairy
products, honey etc.
Last but not least, fuels, mineral raw materials and metals make up a
group which continues to hold an important place within exports. It should be
noted that as a result of the development of the processing industry and given the
limited character of natural resources, Romania has made great investments and
efforts to locate and turn to account these resources. Romania imports crude oil
but exports oil products and the second place within the exports of this group is
taken by nonferrous rolled goods and pipes.
As far as the physical composition of imports is concerned, machinery
and equipment, fuel, raw materials and metals are to be considered. Despite the
fact that the mechanical engineering industry ensures a large share of the required
machinery and equipment it cannot cover nor it would be efficient to do so
because of the technological and scientific explosion, of the high rate
industrialization drive, and of the greater participation of our country in the
international labour division.
Fuels, raw materials and metals account for a bigger share within
Romanian imports. This is a consequence of the shortage of certain natural
resources and of the necessity to develop specialization and co-operation in
production of non-ferrous rolled goods and pipes. We import crude oil, coke,
coking coal, iron ore, non-ferrous metals (cooper, nickel, tin etc.)
On the whole, reviewing the composition of Romanian exports and
imports it is obvious that Romanian foreign trade has undergone progressive
changes in its physical structure.
composition – (aici) structură
wrought – past şi part. de la work (inv. sau poetic) a-şi face loc cu greu (aici)
pattern – structură
impact – influenţă, înrâurire
mutation – mutaţie, schimbare
share – cotă
to prevail – a predomina
conveyance – transport
availability – disponibilitate
performance – randament
lathe – strung
sequential – secvenţial
to highlight – a scoate în relief
lacquer – lac
overwhelming – copleşitor
leather – piele, pielărie
fuel – combustibil
to devise - inventa, a descoperi
changes wrought – schimbări care au avut loc
to bear the stamp on – a purta amprenta
product coverage – gamă de produse
to trigger off – a declanşa, a impulsiona, a activiza
the pride of place is taken by – un loc de frunte este deţinut de
soda ash – sodă calcinată
black carbon – negru de fum
to account for – a justifica, a reprezenta
processing industry – industrie prelucratoare
to undergo changes – a suferi schimbări
rolled goods – produse laminate
ore – minereu
THE CAUSATIVE VERBS
Causative Verbs Examples
a) HAVE – se foloseşte când altcineva
decât subiectul propoziţiei face
b) MAKE – exprimă folosirea forţei
They had the mechanic repair the
We made them check these optical
fizice sau determinarea cuiva să facă
c) GET – exprimă o convingere
They got the company representative to
export the goods.
N.B. Verbul TO LET cu sens de to allow / permit (a permite) se poate folosi cu
aceeaşi structură ca aceea a verbelor to have şi to make deşi nu este verb cauzativ.
Verbul TO HELP cu sensul de to assist (ajuta) poate înlocui structurile
cauzative ale verbelor to have şi to make.
THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF CAUSE
(Propoziţia circumstanţială de cauză)
Propoziţia cauzală se introduce prin:
b) for the reason that;
He borrowed her case because he
didn’t have one of his.
He failed to ring me up for the reason
that he was really angry with me.
Since they had no trucks they had to
As it is already late, you had better go.
I. Enlarge upon:
1. The physical composition of the Romanian foreign trade. 2. The quotas held by
a series of machinery and equipment in Romania‟s exports. 3. The physical
composition of Romania‟s imports.
II. Supply with prepositions:
1. … the whole, reviewing the composition … Romanian exports and imports it
is obvious that Romanian foreign trade has undergone progressive changes … its
physical structure. 2. … the Research Programme there is a steady concern … …
expanding the country‟s own stock … raw materials; … devising new
technologies … reducing consumption. 3. Romania should become self-contained
… terms … energy and fuel.
III. Change because to because of in the following sentences. Make any other
We don‟t feel like working at night because we are tired. 2. We don‟t feel like
working now because our assignments are difficult. 3. They didn‟t make any
efforts to process these materials because they were already reprocessed. 4. These
goods didn‟t hold a high quota in the exports because they were produced in a
limited range. 5. They didn‟t buy coking coal because the price was too high. 6.
They didn‟t manufacture the equipment because it wasn‟t efficient.
IV. Fill in the blanks with as, because, since, whereas, considering that; seeing
that; on the ground that:
1. I didn‟t go to the machine-tools exhibition … I was tired. 2. … their efforts
have not been successful yet, we shall persist. 3. … he never takes part in
negotiations, how can be give a good answer in writing? 4. … they are late we
left for the station. 5. They rejected the goods … the quality was inferior to that
ordered. 6. … the technological and scientific explosion the machinery designing
changes very swiftly. 7. We didn‟t say anything … they were too tired.
V. Translate into English:
1. L-am determinat să participe la simpozionul ştiinţific. 2. Văzând că expoziţia
s-a închis, am vizitat muzeul de istorie. 3. M-a ajutat să-mi verific maşina. 4. I-au
angajat să repare maşinile. 5. I-au pus să ambaleze piesele de schimb pentru
strungurile cele noi. 6. Deoarece nevoile interne pentru cărbune au fost
satisfăcute, s-a putut îndeplini planul la export. 7. Deoarece sunt foarte ocupat, nu
te voi putea însoţi la expoziţie. 8. Dat fiind că şi-a amânat concediul, va putea
participa la şedinţă.
THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
The International Monetary Fund is an organization of countries that
seeks to promote international monetary co-operation and to facilitate the
expansion of trade, and thus to contribute to increased employment and improved
economic conditions in all member countries.
To achieve its purpose the Fund has a code of economic behaviour for its
members, makes financing available to members in balance of payments
difficulties, and provides them with technical assistance to improve their
economic management. Romania adhered to the International Monetary Fund on
the 12 th
of December, 1972. Member countries undertake to collaborate with the
Fund and with each other to ensure orderly exchange arrangements and a stable
system of exchange rates, together with a multilateral system of payments that is
free from restrictions and thus promotes balance in the payments among
countries. Members are free to choose the form of exchange arrangements that
they intend to apply, subject to their obligations to the Fund and to its
surveillance of their exchange rate policies.
The Fund maintains a large pool of financial resources that it makes
available to member countries – temporarily and subject to conditions – to enable
them to carry out programmes to remedy their payments deficits without
resorting to restrictive measures that would adversely affect national and
international prosperity. Members make repayments to the Fund so that its
resources are used on a revolving basis and are continuously available to
countries facing payments difficulties. The policy adjustments that countries
make in connection with the use of Fund resources support their credit-
worthiness and thus facilitate their access to credit from other official sources and
from private financial markets.
Both the regulatory and the financing features of the Fund‟s policies
contribute to the promotion of adjustment of inbalances in members‟
international payments. These policies evolve in response to changing world
economic conditions and the needs of the Fund members. They apply equally to
all member countries, whether industrial or developing, whether their payments
are in deficit or surplus, and regardless of their economic system.
Membership in the Fund is a prerequisite to membership in the World
Bank (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development), and close
working relationships exist between the two organizations as well as between the
Fund and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The Fund is a specialized
agency within the United Nations system, co-operating with the U.N. on matters
of mutual interest.
The work of the Fund is carried out through a Board of Governors, an
Executive Board, a Managing Director, and a staff. Each member country is
represented by a Governor and an Alternate Governor on the Board of Governors,
which is the Fund‟s highest authority and which meets annually.
The Fund conducts a consultation with each member country – in
principle annually – to appraise the member‟s economic and financial situation
and policies. Consultations are primary means through which the Fund fulfils its
obligations to exercise surveillance of members‟ exchange rate policies. They
also help to keep the Fund in a position to deal promptly with members‟ requests
to use the Fund‟s resources and with proposed changes in exchange practices that
are subject to approval by the Fund. Members also provide the Fund with a
steady flow of information on their economies.
The financial resources of the Fund are available under a variety of
permanent and temporary facilities to help members meet balance of payments
Purposes of the Fund
1. To promote international monetary co-operation through a permanent
institution which provides the machinery for consultation and collaboration on
the international monetary problems.
2. To facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade, and to
contribute thereby to the promotion and maintenance of high levels of
employment are real income and to the development of the productive resources
of all members as primary objectives of economic policy.
3. To promote exchange stability, to maintain orderly exchange arrangements
among members, and to avoid competitive exchange depreciation.
4. To assist in the establishment of a multilateral system of payments in respect of
current transactions between members and in the elimination of foreign exchange
restrictions which hamper the growth of world trade.
5. To give confidence to members by making the general resources of the Fund
temporarily available to them under adequate safeguards, thus providing them
with opportunity to correct maladjustments in their balance of payments without
resorting to measures destructive of national or international prosperity.
6. In accordance with the above, to shorten the duration and lessen the degree of
disequilibrium in the international balances of payments of members.
VOCABULARY to trade – a face comerţ
employment – angajare
behaviour – comportament
to adhere – a adera
to undertake – a se angaja, a-şi asuma răspunderea
payment – plată
surveillance – supraveghere
pool – (aici) fond comun
adversely – nefavorabil
adjustment – adaptare, ajustare
creditworthiness – solvabilitate
promotion – promovare
to draft – a redacta
to amend – a revizui
membership – caliatea de membru
to oversee – a supraveghea
to appraise – a evalua, a estima
subscription – cotizaţie
to hamper – a împiedica
safeguard – garanţie
balance of payments – balanţa de plăţi
free from – fără, scutit de
subject to –în baza
to carry out – a duce la îndeplinire, a traduce în viaţă
on a revolving basis – prin rotaţie
to face payment difficulties – a fi confruntat cu dificultăţi financiare
to resort to – a recurge la
in response to – ca urmare a
Board of Governors – Consiliul Guvernatorilor
Managing Director _ Director Administrativ
Alternate Governor – Guvernator Supleant
Executive Board – Consiliul Executiv
effective operation – administrare efectivă
flow of information – flux de informaţii
exchange depreciation – deprecierea ratei de schimb
in respect of – cu privire la
foreign exchange – devize
share – acţiune
bonds – obligaţiuni, titluri
stocks – obligaţiuni, hârtii de valoare, acţiuni
net proceed – venit net
national income – venit naţional
per capita income – venit pe locuitor
asset – activ, bun, profit
liability - pasiv
GRAMMAR THE AUXILIARY VERBS
Verbul TO BE :
I. ca verb noţional înseamnă:
1. to exist
2. to take place, to happen
3. to go (to visit, to attend) numai
cu timpurile perfecte
II. ca semi-auxiliar se foloseşte:
1. ca verb de legătură
2. ca parte a unui predicat verbal
pentru a exprima :
a) un aranjament reciproc
b) un ordin indirect (în vorbirea
c) ceva palnificat pentru viitor
d) ceva considerat de neînlăturat, posibil
III. ca verb auxiliar se foloseşte
pentru a forma :
1. aspectul continuu
2. forma pasivă
3. ca răspuns la întrebări
4. întrebări disjunctive
There are some good libraries in our
That seminar was last week.
I have been to see the exhibition.
It was already late by the time we
reached the camp.
Do not forget that we are to meet a
few minutes before we start on the trip
The teacher says that you are to learn
all these lessons for the written paper.
A new book on the subject is to
appear by the end of the month.
The rules are to be obeyed.
The days are getting shorter and
They are taught two foreign
Is she here? Yes, she is.
He is not a student of this faculty, is
Verbul TO HAVE
I. ca verb noţional înseamnă:
1. to posses
2. to hold
3. to eperience
II. ca verb semi-auxiliar se foloseşte :
1. în expresiile : to have a look, to
have a swim, to have a smoke,
2. ca parte a unui predicat verbal
pt. a exprima datoria sau
III. ca auxiliar se foloseşte pentru a
- timpurile perfecte
She has a good knowledge of English
He had a book in his hand.
I had difficulties in solving all those
Let me have a look at your exercise.
We had a long walk together.
You have to finish your work sooner.
She had to look after an old friend of
He told us he had seen the play.
Verbul TO DO
I. ca verb noţional înseamnă :
1. a face, a executa, a îndeplini, a
2. a conveni, a fi de ajuns
3. a termina, în timpurile perfecte sau
II. ca verb auxiliar se foloseşte la :
1. construirea formei interogative şi
interogativ-negative a verbelor
2. accentuează ideea exprimată de
She did that at a record time.
This will do for a day‟s work.
I have done with her.
Do they often come to see you?
Does he not speak French too?
He does assist them with their work.
Verbul TO LET
I. ca verb noţional înseamnă:
1. a lăsa, a permite
2. a închiria
II. ca verb auxiliar se foloseşte pentru
a forma :
Let me have a look at your work.
They are looking for an apartment to
Let them come with you!
I. Enlarge on:
a) The purpose of establishing the International Monetary Fund;
b) The means employed by the Fund to achieve its purposes;
c) The member countries‟ obligations to the Fund;
d) The Fund‟s responsibility to ensure the effective operation of the international
II. Ask questions to which the following sentences would be the answer: 1. The Fund maintains a large pool of financial resources temporarily and subject
to conditions. 2. Members make repayments to the Fund so that its resources are
used on a revolving basis. 3. Both the regulatory and the financing features of the
Fund‟s policies contribute to the promotion of adjustment of inbalances. 4.
Membership in the Fund is a prerequisite to membership in the World Bank.
5. The Fund has the responsibility to ensure the effective operation of the
international monetary system. 6. The Fund‟s system of quotas is one of its
III. Fill in the blanks with the necessary auxiliary verb: to be, to have, to do,
1. They…receive a prize. 2. You translated better than she…3. What…you…if
they tell you to leave now? 4….you attend yesterday‟s demonstration? 5. I…to
finish my summary. 6. We…to meet either today in the afternoon or tomorrow
morning. 7. You…not careful enough. 8. I enjoyed translating the text through
I…to look up so many words in the dictionary. 9…them go if they want to. 10.
The I.M.F…an organization that seeks to promote international monetary co-
operation. 11. To achieve its purpose the Fund …a code of economic behaviour.
12. The Fund…based on an international treaty. 13. They…insist on facilitating
the expansion of international trade.
IV. Translate into English:
1. Am fost să ascult prelegerea. 2. Era timpul să hotărâm cumpărarea
materialului. 3. Urmează să ne întâlnim către seară. 4. Vor fi colaboratorii noştri
timp de mai multe luni. 5. Lucrează la acest material de aproape o lună. 6. Este
expert în probleme economice. 7. Li s-au dat toate datele. 8. Are întrebările
pregătite. 9. Te rog nu te supăra! 10. La început am avut greutăţi pe care am
crezut că nu le voi putea depăşi. 11. În curând va trebui să-mi aleg subiectul
lucrării de diplomă. 12. Mi-a spus că a participat la adunare. 13. Vă convine să ne
întâlnim mâine? 14. Odată lucrarea făcută voi putea să-mi iau câteva zile de
concediu. 15. Nu vin prea des pe la noi. 16. Să nu permiţi nimănui să ne
deranjeze. 17. Lasă-i să plece, au terminat ce aveau de lucru.
Romania is a strong advocate of international co-operation in the
economic, technical, scientific and cultural fields.
In full consensus with her foreign policy, Romania takes an active part in
the world economic flow, considering trade and the economic, technological and
scientific collaboration as factors of the development of each country and of the
progress of the whole world, as a material support for a peaceful collaboration
among countries and peoples, for the establishment of a new international
Romania is continuously enlarging its links with the neighbouring
countries, with all the other states. Acting in the spirit of peaceful coexistence,
Romania is also enlarging its co-operation with the developed and developing
capitalist countries, with all the sates of the world, regardless of social system,
actively participating in the world exchange of values.
The diversity of these relations is exemplified by Romania‟s participation
in GATT, in the IMF and in the World Bank and by the signature of a great
number of agreements covering various forms of co-operation. All forms of co-
operation aim at developing raw material and energy supplies, at offering access
to advanced technology and at stimulating our country‟s exports of goods and
Romania has entered partnerships abroad in the construction of industrial
units, provision of Romanian equipment and know-how in geologic exploration,
provision of turn-key projects, establishment of joint ventures and also in the
field of technical assistance.
The construction of industrial plants abroad is an important instrument of
export promotion for machinery and equipment. In the last years, Romania has
taken part in the construction of industrial units connected to be chemical
industry, petroleum, wood procesing and building materials, mechanical and
Romania‟s participation in joint ventures abroad have various purposes.
Some of them are related to production, others to promoting the export of
These forms lay a solid and steadfast basis of the foreign economic
relations, allow for technology transfers, for technical assistance, and favour
inflows of capital and credits.
Production-oriented joint ventures deal with mining, agroindustries, the
exploitation of tropical hardwood, light industry, machine buildind, construction
materials, rubber, transports. Some companies are related to servicing and
Commercial joint-ventures serve mainly marketing objectives. They are
important for establishing Romania‟s permanent presence in foreign markets.
Participation in commercial firms abroad enables Romanian products to be sold
through the already existing distribution networks, to keep adequate stocks of
spare parts and to perform essential servicing jobs. Romania has also increased its
exports and technical and consultancy services, particularly in chemicals, power
and petroleum refinery.
International economic and technical co-operation, within Romania has
also developed. Several joint ventures have been established operating in the
production and marketing of chemical fibres, electro-medical equipment,
feedstuff, passenger cars and others. Operating in the areas of advanced
technological requirements, the companies will contribute to increasing
Romania‟s export potential by providing new production lines and by upgrading
existing ones. Training programmes in these plants are to contribute to the
dissemination of technical and organizational know-how.
Romania places its relations with all states on the firm basis of the
principles of fully equal rights, respect for national independence – principles
widely acknowledged in the world as the only ones on the basis of which one can
develop fruitful collaboration among states, and a climate of international peace
advocate – susţinător
agreement – contract, înţelegere, acord
feedstuff – furaje
to upgrade – a îmbunătăţi, a ridica pe o treaptă superioară
dissemination – răspândire
to enter partnerships with – a se asocia cu
turn-key project – proiect predat la cheie
joint venture – companie mixtă
joint – în comun
distribution network – reţea de distribuţie
spare parts – piese de schimb
third markets – terţe pieţe
working meeting – întâlnire de lucru
Conjuncţiile sunt cuvinte de legătură care nu au înţeles independent şi se
folosesc pentru a lega cuvinte, grupuri de cuvinte sau propoziţii într-o frază.
Conjuncţiile sunt invariabile.
I. Din punct de vedere al formei conjuncţiile pot fi:
1. simple: and, or, if, when, that, since,
why, but, etc.
I know that you will do what you are
I came earlier since you needed me.
2. compuse: although, otherwise,
however, therefore, notwithstanding,
You have been there therefore you
can give us all the details.
3. complexe: as if, as though, as soon as,
as long as, so that, even if, as well as,
I shall join the party as soon as I
finish my work.
4. locuţiuni conjunctivale: in case that,
on condition that, provided that, in order
that, no matter how, etc.
He had to study for the exams, that is
why he could not go to the
5. corelative: either…or, neither…nor,
both…and, no sooner…than, not…but,
not so…as, not…neither, not only…but
also, as…as, whether…or, though…yet,
The day was both cold and wet.
This summer we shall go either to the
mountains or to the seaside, we didn‟t
II. Din punct de vedere al funcţiei lor conjuncţiile pot fi:
1. conjuncţii coordonatoare:
a) copulative: and, besides, as well as,
both…and, no less than, neither…nor,
nor…either, not either, not only…but
b) adversative: but, but then, whereas,
while, however, still, etc
c) disjunctive: either…or, or, otherwise,
else, or else, etc.
d) cauzal-consecutive: for, therefore,
accordingly, consequently, that is why
I had a very busy day, besides I didn‟t
know you had bought the tickets for
The trip was both interesting and
He tried to explain but I didn‟t
The speech will be delivered in either
French or English.
It was getting late so she decided to
2. conjuncţii subordonatoare:
a) de timp: when, after, till, until, while,
all the time, whenever, as soon as, so
b) de loc: wherever, where, whence,
whether, as far as, etc.
c) de mod: as, as if, as though, so far as,
d) de cauză: for, because, as, since, etc.
e) de scop: so that, in order that, for
fear, lest, so as, etc.
f) comparative: than, as if, as…as, not
g) concesive: although, in spite of,
notwithstanding that, even if, etc.
h) consecutive: so that, such…that, that,
i) condiţionale: if, neither,
unless, on condition that,
provided, supposing, in case,
ii) subiective: that, as, whether,
k) predicative: that, if, whether, as if, etc.
l) completive: that, if, whether, where,
when, why, etc.
m) atributive: that, as if, etc.
I shall let you know as soon as I am
It was still daylight when we reached
Wait for the holidays and you can go
wherever you like.
They behave as if they never heard of
I couldn‟t go to the theatre because I
was too tired.
We didn‟t take that road for fear we
could have difficulties with our car.
I think the concert was not so good as
We continued our walk although we
She enjoyed staying there so much
that she decided to go there every
Unless you stop speaking I can‟t
concentrate on my work.
I cannot say now whether I shall
accept the assignment or not.
The problem is whether they shall
have the time to rehearse or not.
He told me where I could fiind all the
He nodded as if he understood what
was all about.
I. Enlarge upon:
1. Romania‟s position as regards economic co-operation.
2. The purpose of production – oriented joint ventures.
3. The purpose of commercial joint ventures.
II. Join the following simple statements into one sentence using the joining
words in brackets:
1. Romania was one of the founding members of the Council for Mutual
Economic Assistance. It shares intensely in the work of this organization (not
only…but also). 2. Romania insists on fully equal rights. It insists on respect for
national independence (both…and). 3. Romania does not accept unequal rights. It
does not accept non-observance of national independence (neither…nor). 4.
Romania participates in joint ventures abroad. It participates in joint ventures
inside the country (both…and).
III. Place the adverb of indefinite time in brackets in the right place:
1. Romania has entered partnerships abroad (often). 2. Romania has been an
advocate of international co-operation (always). 3. Romania has been an advocate
of war (never).
4. Co-operation on equal terms is profitable for both parties (always). 5. Non-
interference in domestic affairs is spoken (often). 6. Renunciation of the use and
threat of force is not accepted by some countries (always). 7. Romania has upheld
its principles (often).
IV. Show the difference in meaning between the sentences in pairs:
1. Only the chairman objected to the last proposal. The chairman objected only to
the last proposal. 2. I don‟t particularly want to go there now. I particularly don‟t
want to go there now. 3. He said finally he hoped to bring the negotiations to a
satisfactory conclusion. He said he hoped finally to bring the negotiations to a
satisfactory conclusion. 4. As we had anticipated, the scheme didn‟t work out in
practice. The scheme didn‟t work out in practice as we had anticipated. 5. The
committee as a whole considered the situation wad good. The committee
considered the situation as a whole was good.
V. Supply suitable conjunctions:
1. We shall leave…by the 8 o‟clock train…in the afternoon. 2. …soon…she felt
better she resumed her work. 3. She…reads English…speaks it well. 4. …we
approached the town it grew darker…darker. 5. You did not tell me…I could find
the book. 6. I don‟t know…he will be able to come or not. 7. She behaves…she
didn‟t know what to do. 8. …I were you I should take advantage of their
knowledge of English. 9. She didn‟t come…she promised. 10. Do not
promise…you are prepared to help. 11. It is difficult…I never did such a work
before. 12. She speaks…she had been there. 13. I am not interested in the
show…I am very busy now. 14. Don‟t come…I call you. 15. I shall ring you
up…soon…I arrive in town.16. I shall come…there is something else to keep me.
VI. Supply if or unless:
1. You won‟t reach the railway station in time…you start now. 2. …I am
mistaken he was a professor of English. 3. …you decide to go you should let us
know. 4. You will not be able to finish your work in time…you work at least one
hour every day. 5. I should not have found out…you had not told me. 6. She will
fail…she asks a teacher to help her. 7. They will not come…you insist. 8. …I
were not sure I should not advise you.
MARKETING – PAST AND PRESENT
Before you read (Înainte de a citi):
Try to answer these questions (încercaţi să răspundeţi la aceste întrebări):
1. What is marketing?
2. How did it develop?
3. What is the modern concept of marketing?
Try to define these terms as they are used in marketing (încercaţi să definiţi aceşti
termeni aşa cum sunt ei folosiţi în marketing): produce, producer, product,
production; consume, consumer, consumption; ultimate consumer; services;
distribution; transfer of ownership; medium of exchange; production oriented;
seller’s market (buyer’s market); consumer good; industrial good; target market;
channeling strategy; promotion strategy; pricing strategy.
All of this terms are used in the following reading (toţi aceşti termini sunt folosiţi
în textul care urmează).
As you read (În timp ce citiţi)
Read as quickly and smoothly as you can.
Read the main ideas, not details.
Do not stop to translate.
Do not stop to look up new words.
The history of marketing may be nearly as long as the history of man on
earth. In its earliest form, the “market” may have consisted of only two people.
Each knew that the other had something that he wanted at that time: some grain,
an animal, or a tool. The two people simply exchanged their goods. In order to
have a fair exchange, they both had to agree on the value of utility of what they
were offering to trade. But barter had its problems. If one man exchanged a cow
for 200 fish, he might not be able to use all 200 fish, and so he would loose both
his cow and the value of the fish he could not use. People then began to accept
certain objects in exchange for any product. They had to agree on the value of
these objects, which became the first money. So people began to specialize in the
production of goods for others‟ consumption, and others began to offer services.
An increasing complex marketing system was born.
As a society‟s total economy becomes more complex, so does the
function of marketing. Production becomes more highly specialized. Producers
and consumers become more widely separated, and so do the centres of
production and consumption. It is not very likely now that two people will meet
face to face for an exchange of goods. A huge distribution network is necessary
to move goods to consumers. Marketing, which had been defined as “the
performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from
producer to consumer or user”, thus is crucial to all phases of business.
Marketing, even among the most highly industrialized nations, still has
characteristics that it had in the most primitive economy. It still involves having
the right goods (or services) at the right place at the right time for the right price
(“right”, here means “according to the needs or desires of the person who wants
the goods or service”). There must still be agreement on the value or utility of the
goods or services. For goods, there is still a transfer of ownership, which utilizes
a medium of exchange: money, or even a piece of paper that records the
transaction. There is, however, a major change in emphasis. In the 1920‟s, Henry
Ford could say about his automobiles “The customers can have any colour they
want, as long as it is black”. This was an appropriate statement in a production-
oriented economy, or a seller‟s market. But today, the buyer‟s or consumer‟s
desires must be satisfied. The entire concept of marketing has changed in recent
years. The following chart contrasts the old and new concepts:
The old concepts of marketing The new concepts of marketing
technological research market research
creating a market identifying a market
the product the consumer
a narrow line of products a broad range of products
product performance customer needs and desires
selling as the majority activity selling all marketing activities as
parts of a system
sales profits customer satisfaction
goods as products goods, services, and ideas as
Marketing today is everywhere. The producer, or the consumer, may be a
person, a group, a firm, an institution, an organization, a government. The
product may be a consumer good, a head of lettuce, a pencil, a washing machine
– anything bought by the ultimate consumer for his own use. It may be an
industrial good, bought by a government or institution; to be resold; or to be used
in the production of other goods. A typewriter bought by a government agency, a
bed bought by a hospital, and raw cotton bought by a factory to make clothing are
industrial goods. The product could be a service, such as cutting hair, performing
a marriage, providing insurance or a hotel room. It may be an idea: “Don‟t drive
after drinking”, “Protect wild-life”, “Elect me president”.
Because this text is brief, it concentrates upon the marketing of consumer
goods. But similar principles are used in the marketing of industrial goods,
services, and ideas. The marketing environment is the same for all. For all, it is
necessary to gather market information, choose target markets, study consumer
behaviour, and develop strategies for production channeling, promotion and
pricing. All of these activities are parts of a single process that really begins and
ends with the consumer. Successful modern marketing begins with his needs and
desires, and it ends with his satisfaction, as he buys goods, uses services, or
VOCABULARY smoothly – cursiv
fair – right, just. If both people are happy in an exchange of goods, they feel that
the exchange is fair – corect, cinstit
barter – trade, exchange. In barter, goods change hands, but not money – troc
distribution network – reţea de distribuire
flow of goods – flux de mărfuri
pricing – stabilire a preţului
chart – schemă, diagramă, tabel, grafic
to emphasize – a accentua, a sublinia, a reliefa
a broad range – a gamă largă
target market – piaţa ţintă
brief – scurt
chanelling – the action of conducting something (or somebody) in one direction
I. Go back to Before you read.
Answer the questions and define the terms (reveniţi la “Before you read”.
Răspundeţi la întrebări şi definiţi termenii).
II. Which of these statements are true, according to the reading? Mark them
with X (Try to answer without looking back at the reading. Then check your
answers there). (Care dintre aceste afirmaţii este corectă potrivit textului?
Marcaţi-le cu X. Încercaţi să răspundeţi fără să vă mai uitaţi pe text. Apoi
verificaţi-vă răspunsurile uitându-vă pe text).
1. A market can consists of only two people.
2. A government can be a consumer.
3. Money is a medium of exchange.
4. The old idea of marketing emphasized customer satisfaction.
5. There is no marketing in an undeveloped economy.
6. A car can be a consumer good or an industrial good.
7. Ideas cannot be marketed.
8. The new concept of marketing emphasizes a broad product line.
9. Goods bought for resale are industrial goods.
10. In the 1920‟s, there was a buyer‟s market.
III. Answer these questions briefly (răspundeţi pe scurt la aceste întrebări):
1. How has marketing become more complex?
2. How is marketing similar in all kinds of economy?
3. Why isn‟t Henry Ford‟s statement apt today?
4. What are the differences between the old and new concepts of marketing?
5. How can the same article be either a consumer good or an industrial good?
6. How can a service be a product?
IV. The words listed here are from the reading (cuvintele reprezentate în
continuare sunt din text): value, system, network, crucial, characteristics,
primitive, appropriate, concept, firm, brief, principles, behaviour.
Choose a word from the list for each space in the sentences below. A
synonym (a word that has a similar meaning) is given in parentheses before
each blank. (Alegeţi un cuvânt din listă pentru fiecare din spaţiile goale din
propoziţiile de mai jos. Un sinonim apare în paranteză înaintea fiecărui spaţiu
1. A company should offer (wide) broad range of products.
2. The (company‟s)…„s (way of acting)…was contrary to (guiding ideas)…of
3. It‟s (absolutely vital)…for a marketer to have a (whole idea)…of the (worth,
importance)…of developing market strategy.
4. Goods follow a (complex path)…or…from producer to consumer.
5. (Qualities)…of a (beginning, undeveloped)…economy include the use of
6. The manager‟s (short)…statement to his salesmen was (apt, suitable)…; it
helped them correct their mistakes.
CHAPTER FOUR – SUPLEMENTARY READINGS ENGLISH AND AMERICAN HOLIDAYS, LITERATURE AND
Introducere Acest ultim capitol, „Lecturi suplimentare”,destinat tuturor studenţilor anilor I şi
II indiferent de specializare, vine să susţină ceea ce spuneam în cuvântul de
început care prefaţează această lucrare şi anume că limba engleză se poate învăţa
cu plăcere. Este un fel de bonus pentru cei conştiincioşi şi dornici să afle cât mai
multe despre civilizaţia engleză, fie că este britanică sau americană.
În acest capitol se găsesc cele mai importante sărbători din lumea anglo-saxonă,
unele dintre ele importate şi celebrate şi la noi: Hallowe‟en, Sfântul Valentin;
altele sărbătorite de toţi creştinii: Crăciunul, Paştele sau sărbătorite doar de
americani – Ziua Recunoştiinţei.
De asemenea, consider că învăţarea unei limbi străine nu se poate reduce doar la
aspectul strict pragmatic al acesteia, ci că trebuie să ne preocupe şi cunoaşterea
celor mai importanţi scriitori precum W. Shakespeare, care au marcat literatura
Celui mai cunoscut şi răspândit obicei britanic – ceaiul de la ora cinci – i s-a
acordat importanţa meritată. Şi nu în ultimul rând i s-a acrdat spaţiu uneia dintre
cele mai marcante figuri ale poporului american, preşedintele Thomas Jefferson.
Am speranţa că cele câteva aspecte selectate şi prezentate în acest capitol, vor
deschide dorinţa celor care le citesc, să cunoască şi alte aspecte ale civilizaţiei
britanice şi americane. Dacă da, atunci scopul acestui capitol a fost atins!
Obiectivele operaţionale ale acestui capitol sunt:
studenţii să ia cunoştiinţă cu viaţa şi opera a unuia dintre cei mai de
marcă reprezentanţi ai literaturii britanice şi universale, W. Shakespeare;
să cunoască originea unor sărbători americane binecunoscute;
să se familiarizeze cu unele obiceiuri britanice sau americane;
să afle cum celebrează englezii şi americanii cele două mari sărbători
creştine Naşterea şi Învierea Domnului;
să-şi însuşească terminologia folosită;
să creeze deprinderi de comunicare;
Capitolul patru este alcătuit din următoarele teme: 1. Hallowe‟en......................................................................................................127
2. Thanksgiving Day...........................................................................................129
4. St. Valentine‟s Day.........................................................................................134
6. William Shakespeare.......................................................................................141
7 American Literature.........................................................................................144
8. Habits and ways – Tea....................................................................................146
Bibliografie selectivă: - Bantaş, Andrei (1991) – Essential English, Ed. Teora Bucureşti
- Gălăţeanu-Fârnoagă, Georgiana (1993) – Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed.
- Hulban Horia & co.(1983) – Competenţă şi Performanţă-Exerciţii şi teste de
limba engleză, Ed. Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică, Bucureşti
- * * * - Speak English Nr. 4,5,6,7 / 1990; 2,3,5,6 / 1991
Are you afraid of witches and ghosts? If you are you had better stay
indoors on the night of October 31st. It is Hallowe‟en or the eve of All Saints‟
Day, supposed to be a night for witches and ghosts.
“From ghouls and ghosts
And long-legged beasts
And things that go bump in the night
Good Lord, deliver me”
Today Hallowe‟en is particularly popular among American children. They
dress up as witches and ghosts, put on frightening masks and carry pumpkin
lanterns in their hands. To make these they cut a lid, take out the inside of the
pumpkin, cut eyes, nose and mouth in one side and put a lighted candle in it.
Then they go out and knock on people‟s doors. When somebody opens the door
they say: “Trick or treat!” This means, “either you give us some sweets or we
play a trick on you”. The trick might be letting the air out of the tyres of the
person‟s car, or putting soap on the windows of the house. People usually say
“Treat” of course and give them sweets or a cake.
In England Hallowe‟en is not celebrated very much nowadays, although
some people have Hallowe‟en parties. English people also make lanterns from
pumpkins. They often play “Apple Bobbing” at these parties. It goes like this:
you put an apple in a bucket of water and then try eating the apple without using
your hands. It‟s extremely funny. Try it and you‟ll see!
hallow – (usually passive-hallowed) make regard as sacred
Hallowe‟en – 31st October, Eve of All Saints‟ Day
witch – vrajitoare
ghost - fantoma
ghoul – vampir, vârcolac
to deliver – 1. take letters, parcels etc. to houses, to the persons to whom they are
addressed, here 2. save (from)
to dress up – put on special clothes for a play, a fancy dress ball
pumpkin – dovleac
tyre – band of rubber around a wheel
nowadays – at the present time
to bob (-bb) – move up and down
Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: hallow, Hallowe’en, witch,
ghost, ghoul, deliver, dress up, pumpkin, tyre, nowadays, bob.
1. ….. people live much longer than they used to.
2. Do you like to eat ….. pie?
3. May God ….. you from all evil.
4. Little children are fond of stories with ….. and dragons.
5. Do you believe in ….. ?
6. Both brothers ….. themselves ….. as pirates.
7. After watching a movie with graveyards and ….. little Tom was afraid to
8. Your front ….. seem very used. You should buy new ones.
9. ….. is a most exciting evening for American children.
10. The heads of the swimmers were ….. on the water.
11. “Our Father which art in heaven, ….. be thy name”
REMEMBER: had better is used to express advice and would rather to express
preference! Here are some additional examples:
It‟s starting to rain. You had (you‟d) better take your umbrella.
Sally had better mind her own business.
She would (she‟d) rather go to the movies than to the theatre.
“Will you join us for a drink?” “Thank you, but I‟d rather go to bed, I‟m awfully
GRAMMAR In English some Conjunctions are used in pairs and called Correlative
Conjunctions: either … or…: Either you give us some sweets or we play a trick
neither … nor…: Neither Paul nor Ned has come yet.
REMEMBER that either … or, neither …nor take a singular verb! But if one
subject is singular and another one is plural, the verb agrees with the nearest
subject. E.g. Neither Amy nor her parents are at home.
both … and : Both Brenda and her brother are fair-haired.
not only … but also : She is not only beautiful but also very kind. ( not only
may be used at the beginning of the sentence followed by inversion, for
emphasis: Not only is she beautiful but also very kind.)
Fill in the blanks with either … or, neither … nor, both … and, not only … but
1. … Linda … her sister looked lovely at the party.
2. I was so excited that I could … eat … sleep.
3. … was it dark outside … terribly cold.
4. … Bob … his brother is to blame.
5. They are … in the mountains … at the seaside.
6. Jane can … skate … ski very well.
7. A fur coat is … smart … soft and warm.
8. … your result … mine is wrong.
Thanksgiving Day is one of the most important national and religious
American holidays. It is celebrated every year on the last Thursday of November.
The first Thanksgiving day was in 1621.
In 1620 about one hundred Englishmen, who wanted to seek their fortune
in the “New World”, sailed to America in a ship called the “Mayflowers”, who
were English Puritans.
After a two months‟ journey they landed on the east coast of North
America near Cape Cod, on a cold November day. There they founded the colony
of Plymouth, Massachusetts. Their life was hard, food was scarce and they
hunted wild turkeys and other animals in the woods. About fifty of the first
settlers died of hunger and illness during the first winter.
Next spring nature sprang to life again and so did the hopes of the settlers.
They started working the land, growing corn and pumpkins.
Their first harvest was a good one and the Englishmen decided to thank
God for it. That was the first Thanksgiving Day.
Nowadays Thanksgiving is a day of family reunion on which members of
a family come together from wherever they live to share a festive dinner. The
traditional Thanksgiving dish is turkey with cranberry sauce and vegetables, to
remind people of the wild turkeys the first settlers hunted. After that they often
have pumpkin pie. The table is beautiful decorated with apples, nuts, autumn
flowers and leaves.
In this merry mood of family reunion people remember the celebration of
the of the first Thanksgiving Day almost three hundred and eighty-five years ago.
Here is an English prayer said before meals: “For what we are about to receive/ O
Lord make us truly thankful.”
I. VOCABULARY thanksgiving – expression of gratitude, especially to God
to seek-sought-sought – to look for, to try to find (often abstract things-seek a
quarrel, seek one‟s fortune)
to land – to go, put on land (from a ship. Plane, helicopter etc.)
pilgrim – person who travels to a sacred place as an act of religious devotion
puritan – 1. Puritan (16th
centuries in England) member of a division of
the Protestant church which wanted simpler forms of church ceremony. 2. person
who is strict in morals, religion, way of dressing, who considers some kinds of
fun and pleasure as breaking God‟s law
scarce – not existing in sufficient quantity (scarcely = almost not)
settler – colonist
harvest – cutting and gathering of cereals, vegetables, grass and fruit
dish – 1. (pl. the dishes) plates, bowls, cups, saucers used for a meal. 2. food
brought to table in or on a dish
cranberry – small, black berry
EXERCISE: Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: thanksgiving,
to seek, to land, pilgrim, puritan, scarce, settler, harvest, dish, cranberry (make
the necessary changes):
1. Yesterday I red an article about the early … in New Zealand.
2. During the Middle Ages … traveled to Canterbury to the tomb of
Thomas A. Becket.
3. Animals have become … in this region.
4. Although there was a storm the pilot … the plane safely.
5. His favourite …is steak and French fries.
6. In many Christian countries there is a church service of … after the …
has been gathered.
7. The reason I don‟t like him is because he is always … a quarrel.
8. Mother prepares a delicious … tart.
9. During Oliver Cromwell‟s time the … closed down the theatres.
Make the difference between to remind (somebody to do something;
somebody of something) – to cause somebody to remember to do something;
cause somebody to think of something, which is a transitive verb. E.g. Remind
me to post these letters, please. Jeff reminds me of his father.
and to remember – to have or keep in one‟s memory, which is both
transitive and intransitive; the antonym is to forget. E.g. I remembered to post
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of to remind or to remember:
1. I always … to congratulate my friends on their birthday.
2. His face … me of a Greek statue.
3. I … she was wearing a pink dress the first time we met.
4. He often … the smallest details.
5. this song always … me of our first dance.
6. Please, … me to take these shirts to the cleaner‟s.
II. GRAMMAR Members of a family come together from wherever they live …
who, what, which, when, where, how + ever are all written as single
words (whoever, whatever etc.) and have two main uses in modern
1. with the meaning of it doesn‟t matter who, which etc. E.g.
Whoever says that is a liar.
2. parenthethically (suggesting ignorance or indifference) E.g. I‟ll
come at 10 or 10.30, or whenever I can.
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate ever form:
1. He comes from Uagadugu, … that may be.
2. Buy … dress you like best.
3. … says that is wrong.
4. You are certainly right, … others may say.
5. I‟ll tell you about it … you like.
6. He‟ll never succeed, … hard he tries.
7. Keep calm, … happens.
8. Take this bag, basket or … it is, and hang it up … you want.
1.After a three months‟ journey they landed…
Remember that the possessive form of the Genitive („s Genitive) is used mainly
with the names of human beings and some big animals: E.g. Jane‟s boyfriend, the
lion‟s mane etc.
But there are some exceptions to the rule in the case of certain accepted idioms,
mostly of time or measure. E.g. He went on a three day‟s holiday. Here is
today‟s broadcast. I live a stone‟s throw from here. I‟m at my wits‟ end. (not to
know what to do or say). She took the children out of harm‟s way. One may
admire it to one‟s heart‟s content.
th is Christmas Eve, when Christians throughout the world
celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ in a stable, in far-off Bethlehem. Long before
this date streets and shop windows are brightly decorated, people send Christmas
cards and buy Christmas presents.
In England Christmas is a dearly cherished holiday, possibly the most
important holiday of the year, an occasion for family reunion and rejoicing.
At Christmas, busy London streets like Oxford Street offer a fairy-tale
like, breathtaking show: about two miles of Christmas gifts attractively displayed
in shop windows, dazzling garlands of electric lighting, bright red holly and
cotton-wool snow. Not far from the two main streets, in Trafalgar Square, near
Admiral Nelson‟s statue passers-by stop to admire a huge Christmas tree ablaze
with coloured lights and decorations. It is an annual gift from the Norwegian
people and it seems that they try to make each year‟s gift a foot higher than its
Christmas Eve is a busy day for all the members of the family, a day of
preparation. The Christmas tree must be trimmed with tinsel, candles, crackers,
coloured lamps and balls. The house must also be decorated with branches of
holly and mistletoe – remember that you may kiss anyone standing under the
mistletoe! After helping decorate the house and the tree, children go out with
their friends to sing carols in the neighbourhood. The carol-singers receive
money and sweets and then, happy and contented, they go home. Before they go
to bed, children hang up their stockings for Father Christmas – or Santa Claus as
he is also called – to fill with with presents when he comes down the chimney
during the night. Some people go to church in the evening.
is Christmas Day. Although they don‟t have to go to
school, children wake up earlier than usual to see what Father Christmas has
brought them. Adults also exchange presents, in some families after breakfast, in
others they open their gifts round the Christmas tree later in the day. Some people
also go to church in the morning.
After the excitement caused by the presents has calmed down a little,
everybody looks forward to the next big event: the Christmas dinner. Some
English families have the traditional Christmas dinner at mid-day, others in the
evening. It usually consists of roast turkey with potatoes and vegetables, mince
pies, fruit, nuts and, most important of all, Christmas pudding. The latter contains
a lot of dried fruit, a little flour, sugar, lemon peel, spices and eggs. It is served
hot, usually alight with brandy and with a rich sauce made of butter, brandy and
sugar. It is traditional to put a few silver coins into the pudding. Those who find
one of the coins in their piece of pudding are supposed to have a lucky year.
is Boxing Day. According to custom it is the day of
presents given to people like postmen, delivery boys, servants etc., to express
thanks for service rendered throughout the year. Mainly it is another day to
celebrate and have fun with relatives and friends.
Although the days are short and cold, there is an atmosphere of
togetherness, warmth and cheerfulness in the air, so that everyone agrees to the
words of the old rhyme: “Christmas comes but once a year / And when it comes
it brings good cheer.”
to cherish – 1. care for tenderly; 2. keep alive (hope, feelings, ambition) in one‟s
to display – to show; place so that there is no difficulty in seeing (goods in shop
dazzling – blinding (because of to much light, brilliance)
garland – circle of flowers or leaves, also of light bulbs used for ornament or
holly – evergreen plant with shiny, hard, dark-green leaves and, in winter, red
ablaze – 1. on fire, in a blaze; 2. (fig.) shining, bright
to trim-trimmed-trimmed – decorate, ornament (with) – a decora
tinsel – shining, metallic substance made in strips and threads used for ornament -
mistletoe – parasite evergreen plant growing on fruit and another trees, with
white, sticky berries; it is used as Christmas decoration – vâsc
carol – song of joy or praise, especially a Christmas hymn - colind
to mince – cut meat into pieces (with a knife or a special machine) – a toca
mince pie – pie containing minced meat – plăcintă cu carne tocată
alight – on fire; (fig.) bright; cheerful
togetherness – feeling of unity, of intimacy
TO CELEBRATE CHRISTMAS: NO HOMEWORK; NO GRAMMAR; JUST
FUN AND MERRYMAKING! (Some jokes and carols)
Silent Night, Holy Night
Silent night! Holy night!
All is calm, all is bright;
Round you Virgin Mother and Child,
Holy Infant so tender and mild,
Sleep in heavenly peace,
Sleep in heavenly peace.
Silent night! Holy night!
Shepherds quail at the sight;
Glories stream from heaven afar,
Heav‟nly hosts sing Alleluia!
Christ the savior is born,
Christ the savior is born.
Silent night! Holy night!
Son of God, love‟s pure light;
Radiant beams Thy holy face
With the dawn of saving grace.
Jesus, Lord, at Thy birth,
Jesus, Lord, at Thy birth.
HERE ARE SOME FORMULAS TO WRITE ON CHRISTMAS CARDS:
“Hearty greetings for Christmas and good wishes for the coming year!”
“A joyous Christmas and peaceful New Year!”
“With Christmas greetings and all Good Wishes for the New Year!”
“Greetings of the season and best wishes for the New Year!”
“Merry Christmas and lots of joy in the New Year!”
“Hope Christmas is extra special- just like you!”
To those we love and see each day,
And other loved ones far away,
To all good friends
whose friendship means so much
And those with whom
we‟re somehow out of touch.”
“Christmas is that beautiful time when hearts are warmed by love and goodwill.
May your heart be touched with love and joy at this special time of year.
“May your Christmas dreams come true!”
ST. VALENTINE‟S DAY
St. Valentine‟s Day, the 14th
of February, is lovers‟ day. People give
presents to the persons they love and send Valentine cards to them. This is a very
romantic custom. The cards have a tender message, a short love poem, or simply
“Will you be my Valentine?” printed on them. Usually, a Valentine card is not
signed. So, if you are shy and do not have any courage to tell a person that you
love him or her, you can send a card and let it disclose your feelings for you.
Hopefully, the other person will know who sent it and will do something to show
you that the feeling is mutual. On the other hand, he or she may not share your
love and give you the cold shoulder to make you understand it. Although it hurts,
at least you do not go on nourishing vain hopes and you can try to find someone
who will be thrilled to receive your Valentine cards.
Apparently, no one knows for certain where the custom of celebrating St.
Valentine‟s Day comes from, or when it actually started. It is believed that it was
brought to Britain by the Romans. Anyway, it was certainly celebrated in early
century England, as Shakespeare‟s Ophelia, dazed with grief and madness
signs about it:
“Tomorrow is Saint Valentine’s day
All in the morning betimes,
And I a maid at your window,
To be your Valentine.”
“Hamlet”, Act IV, Scene 5
The custom was probably taken to America by the English settlers, as St.
Valentine‟s Day is very popular there as well.
The custom of sending Valentine cards is also mentioned by the Beatles
in one of their famous songs:
“When I grow older, losing my hair
many years from now,
Will you still be sending me a Valentine,
Birthday presents, bottle of wine?”
“When I‟m 64”
Why not send a Valentine card to the person you love this year? Here are
some examples of the kinds of poems usually printed on Valentine‟s cards:
“Honest to goodness,
Just betcha it’s true
No Valentine ever
Was nicer than you!” or
Roses are red
Violets are blue,
I am so happy
Because I love you.”
Of course you may select your Valentine text from any literary piece
which you find suitable. You may also use the lyrics of a song, old or new. What
can express more than this single line does “Nothing compares to you…”
Certainly, the selection of the writer or of the song will make it easier for the
person to guess your identity, but this may be exactly what you want.
So, it is up to you!
VOCABULARY 1. custom = generally accepted and established behaviour among members of
a social group (either small or large, e.g. a nation); compare to habit =
something that an individual does regularly; (pl) customs = taxes paid to the
government for goods imported into a country
to disclose = permit to be seen, make known
mutual = (of love, friendship, respect, etc.) shared, exchanged equally
to give somebody the cold shoulder = to be unfriendly by taking no notice of
nourish = 1. keep (somebody) alive and well with food; make well and
strong; 2. have or encourage (feelings)
vain = 1. without use, value or result; 2. having too high an opinion of one‟s
to thrill = to make someone experience an excited feeling (to be thrilled with
dazed = unable to think clearly
grief = deep or violent sorrow
betimes = early, in good time
betcha = colloquial for I bet you
Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: custom(s), disclose,
mutual, nourish, vain, thrill, dazed, grief (make the necessary changes):
1. She was driven almost mad with … by the death of her father.
2. The stranger refused to … his name and address.
3. You mustn‟t … such hatred for him. Try to understand and forgive!
4. She … with joy when the handsome pop singer kissed her.
5. It is a … for English people to drink tea at 5 o‟clock.
6. Their love is … and they are extremely happy together.
7. Don‟t believe Paul! He always makes … promises.
8. The last time when we arrived at the airport the … officials were very
9. For a long time after the accident she felt …
2. To give somebody the cold shoulder = to be unfriendly with
Here are some additional idioms with shoulder: to lay the blame on the right
shoulders = to blame the person who deserves it; to rub shoulders with = to
mix with; to put one’s shoulder on the wheel = to make a big effort; to have a
chip on one’s shoulder = to be annoyed at something and to be looking for a
quarrel; shoulder to shoulder = united
Fill in the blanks with one of the “shoulder” idioms:
1. Keep away from Roy; he …
2. I can‟t stand Bob; whenever I meet him I …
3. They worked … and managed to finish in time.
4. Don‟t try to blame me; find the person responsible and …
5. He likes … famous people.
6. At least from time to time you could …
GRAMMAR a) It was brought to Britain by the Romans.
b) The Romans brought it to Britain. c) The custom … is also mentioned by
the Beatles. d) The Beatles also mention the custom.
Sentences a) is the PASSIVE of sentence b) and sentence c) is the PASSIVE
of sentence d).
Let us mention some general rules to turn the ACTIVE into the PASSIVE:
1. The OBJECT in the Active sentence becomes SUBJECT in the Passive
2. The SUBJECT of the Active sentence becomes OBJECT + BY in the
3. PREDICATE of the Passive sentence = verb TO BE in the tense of the
Active sentence verb + PAST PARTICIPLE (third form of the verb)
Turn into the Passive:
1. An unseen hand opened the window.
2. Peter drinks coffee every day.
3. He took Betty to hospital an hour ago.
4. Daddy always watches TV in the evening.
5. He often eats bananas.
I am very happy today. Tomorrow is Easter and we are having guests. My
mother is busy in the kitchen. She is preparing the food and making a cake.
I go shopping with a long shopping list. The first shop I am going into is
the baker‟s. I usually buy bread and pastry from him, but today I am also buying
some buns and some biscuits. The bread is not very fresh, so I don‟t want to buy
any. Next, I go to the butcher‟s. We usually have lamb for Easter, so my mother
wants me to buy some. My mother doesn‟t have any flour and any coffee, so I get
some from the grocer‟s. They also sell butter, milk, cocoa, tea, sugar, cheese,
honey, jam and many other things, but I do not buy any because my mother still
has some at home. At the end, I am ready to go home. But what about some eggs?
They are very important, especially for Easter. I am buying some right now.
My mother is very pleased with my shopping and she is giving me some
cake to thank me for my effort. HAPPY EASTER!
1. Some şi Any se traduc în româneşte cu nişte, ceva şi înseamnă un
anumit număr sau o anumită cantitate. Ele se folosesc înaintea substantivelor la
plural sau a celor care nu se numără, deci nu au plural. Când se folosesc cu
substantive la plural, some îl poate înlocui pe a, articolul nehotărât, care nu apare
niciodată la plural.
E.g. I have a biscuit. I am buying some biscuits.
2. Some se foloseşte, de obicei, în propoziţiile affirmative, iar any în cele
interrogative şi negative. Există, desigur şi excepţii, pe care le vom învăţa în altă
E.g. I want some butter and some jam.
Do you have any butter in your fridge?
No, I don‟t have any butter, but we have some margarine.
3. Aţi observat că în lecţie apar nişte cuvinte, urmate de un apostrof şi de
litera s, the baker‟s, the butcher‟s, the grocer‟s, care se traduc în româneşte cu
brutărie, măcelărie, băcănie. Forma respectivă este un genitiv şi arată că
prăvălia îi aparţine brutarului, măcelarului etc.
1. Put some or any as required.
I want ... milk. Have you ... butter? I don‟t want to buy ... sugar. Do you want
... coffee? I have ... very good friends. Are ... of them here now? No, but ... of
them are coming tomorrow.
2. Turn the following sentences a) into the negative, b) into the
interrogative: I have some friends in England. He has some money in the bank. There are
some dogs in the street. She has some work to do. We know some very pretty
girls in town. In the morning I have some breakfast. For lunch, I have some
soup and some meat and potatoes.
3. Fill in the blanks:
We buy bread at the ... I go to the ... every day to buy some apples. You find
sugar and coffee at the ... My mother always buys good meat from the ...
When I have a cold, my brother buys me medicine from the ...
4. Answer the following questions:
What do you usually have for Easter? Where does your mother buy bread?
Do you like apples? Are there any in your house now? Where do you buy
apples? Where do you usually find aspirine? What do you usually have for
breakfast? Is there any tea in the teapot?
5. Translate into English:
Mâine e ziua de Paşti. Mama găteşte în bucătărie. Ea face o prăjitură. Eu
merg la cumpărături. Vreau să cumpăr nişte unt şi nişte lapte. La băcănie nu
este unt şi nici lapte. Ei au ceva zahăr şi făină. De la aprozar vreau să cumpăr
nişte mere şi nişte banane. Sunt mere dar nu sunt banane. De la brutărie
cumpăr pâine şi nişte biscuiţi.
6. Translate into Romanian:
A Day On The Farm
Farmer Brown and his family live on a little farm in the country. Every
morning when the sun comes up, Farmer Brown goes out to the barn. He
milks the cows. He feeds hay to the horses. He scatters grain to the hungry
7. Answer the questions:
Where do Farmer Brown and his family live? Where is the farm? When does
Farmer Brown go to the barn? What does he milk? What does he feed the
horses? What do the hungry chickens eat? Who scatters grain to them
OUR HOLIDAY IN SPRING
On Easter, Christians throughout the world celebrate the resurrection of
Jesus Christ. The symbolism itself inspires people with hope, confidence and the
wish to be better, making of Easter one of the most important and widely
celebrated church holidays.
Some time before Easter, and connected with it, there are four religious holidays:
Ash Wednesday, Quadragesima, Palm Sunday and Good Friday. As you may
come across them in various texts and literary works – „Ash Wednesday” is the
title of one of the poems written by T.S. Eliot, one of the most proeminent figures
in modern British literature - , it may be useful to know their significance. In
English, the period of fourty days before Easter is called Lent. During the
weekdays of Lent, religious persons observe a period of fasting and penitence.
Lent lily is another word for daffodil, the yellow spring flower you can see
growing in all British parks and gardens. Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent,
Quadragesima is the first Sunday of Lent, Palm Sunday is the Sunday before
Easter and Good Friday is the Friday before Easter, the anniversary of the
crucifixion of Christ. On Good Friday people in England eat hot cross buns,
small, round cakes with spices in them and a cross marked on the top.
Easter is so very popular also because it marks the end of winter and the
beginning of spring. After the cold and dull winter days, nature springs to life
again at Easter time. Except for those who are fond of skiing and, even in April,
still look for snow on high mountain slopes, everybody is happy to be rid of
another dreary winter. Life is bright and coloured again, trees are in blossom and
flowers are in bloom. We feel more cheerful, fresher, vibrant with life and
warmth and we smile for no reason at all.
The things we usually associate the celebration of Easter with are the
Easter Bunny, Santa Clause‟s younger colleague, and eggs. There is a profusion
of them at Easter: real eggs dyed brightly and sometimes with amusing stickers
on them, wooden eggs, beautifully painted or carved and, best of all, sugar or
At Easterwe send greeting cards to people we care and think about.
We may simply write „Happy Easter”, „A Special Wish at Easter”, or
„An Easter Wish For You”.
HAPPY EASTER !
I. VOCABULARY to observe = 1. see and notice; watch carefully
2. (here) pay attention to (rules, etc.)
to fast = go without food, or without certain kinds of food
(depending on the religion), especially as a religious duty
fasting = period of going without food
spice = substance used to give a special, aromatic taste to food
dull = 1. not clear or bright (color, sound, day, sky)
2. slow in understanding
3. uninteresting, not exciting
4. not sharp (knife)
to be/get rid of = be/become rid of
dreary = not clear or bright, depressing
profusion = abundance
to dye = colour, usually by putting into a liquid
to carve = 1. form something by cutting a piece of wood or stone
2. inscribe by cutting on a surface
1. Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: to observe, to fast, spice,
dull, to get rid of, dreary, profusion, to dye, to carve (make the necessary
1. I hope this ... rain doesn‟t go on for days.
2. Aren‟t you permitted to eat any meat at all while ...?
3. I want to ... my white dress red.
4. The little boy is really talented. He ... a beautiful toy horse out of
5. Traffic rules should be strictly ...
6. There was a ... of white and red roses growing in front of her
7. It‟s such a ... day. One should just lie in bed and sleep.
8. Orientals use a lot of ... in their food.
9. How on earth can we ... of Peter? He is so terribly boring.
2.„ As you may come across them in various texts and literary works ...”
Come across = find or meet by chance. Here are some other meanings of
COME + various prepositions : COME ABOUT = happen; COME OFF =
become detached or separated from; COME ROUND = 1. pay an informal
visit to; 2. regain consciousness; COME TROUGH = 1. recover from serious
illness, from risk of injury; 2. arrive (by telephone, radio etc.); COME TO =
Fill in the blanks with COME + the correct preposition:
1. A button has ... my coat.
2. „Has the patient ... yet, nurse?” asked the doctor.
3. It was a terrible accident, but we ... with only minor injuries.
4. I ... this old brooch in one of mother‟s drawers; isn‟t it lovely?
5. „Uncle John has left his wife and has run away with a
policewoman.” „How extraordinary! How did that ...?”
6. Throw some cold water over her. That will soon make her...
BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO HIS LIFE AND WORK
It is impossible to refer to William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616) without
using superlatives. He is not only the most prominent figure in Elizabethan
literature, but also the greatest playwright and poet in English, and possibly in
Shakespeare enjoyed wide popularity in his lifetime and has been praised
ever since. Ben Jonson, his contemporary, calls him “sweet swan of Avon” and
considers him “not of an age, but for all time”. And Shakespeare‟s literary work
has indeed defied both time and geographical boundaries. His deep understanding
of human nature, his unimpaired art of breathing life into historical and imaginary
characters, his reflections upon life and the exquisite poetry of expression have
appealed to generation after generation of readers and theatre – goers throughout
Yet for all his glory and despite the effort of generations of scholars,
Shakespeare‟s life is still shrouded in mystery.
We know beyond doubt that a man named William Shakespeare existed.
He was born in a small English town, Stratford upon Avon, on April 23rd
the son of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. His parents were prominent figures
in Stratford and in time his family was granted a coat of arms.
The house Shakespeare was born in still stands today and it is visited by
tourists from all over the world. Shakespeare attended the local grammar - school
and at the age of 18 married Anne Hathaway, then 26. After the birth of their
three children, Susanna and the twins Hamnet and Judith, he went up to London
alone, to seek his fortune. There he became a Jack-of-all-trades, working as
stage-boy, prompter, actor, play-mender and finally as dramatist in his own right.
After over twenty years he returned to Stratford, to live the quiet life of an
apparently wealthy squire. There he died in 1616, on the day of his birth, April
. He is buried in the church of his native town and on his tomb there is an
epitaph supposedly written by Shakespeare himself:
“Good friend, for Jesus‟ sake forbear
To dig the dust enclosed here.
Blessed be the man that spares these stones,
And cursed be he that moves my bones.”
The inscription seems to have had the desired effect on the generations to
come, as it has prevented the removal of his remains from this quiet place to
London, to the somewhat more crowded “Poet‟s Corner” in Westminster Abbey,
where most prominent literary figures are buried.
Thus, all these evidences in Stratford make of William Shakespeare a
person in flesh and blood. In London however, where he spent most of his life
and created his work, there are so few records about him that he seems almost
like a myth.
After his death, his friends collected and published his plays in 1623, in
what is known as “The First Folio”
Shakespeare‟s name is now given to five long poems, 154 sonnets and 37
plays. His literary work can be roughly divided into three periods.
1. The First Period (1589 – 1600) is pervaded by an air of cheerfulness and
exuberance. It includes the poems, the sonnets, romantic and light-hearted
comedies: “The Taming of the Shrew”, “A Midsummer Night‟s Dream”,
“Much Ado about Nothing”, “As You Like It”, “Twelfth Night”; the
romantic tragedy “Romeo and Juliet”, which begins in a lively, merry
mood that only gradually darkens to tragedy: and the historical or
chronological plays: “Richard III”, “King John”, “Richard II”, “Henry
IV”, “Henry V”, to mention only some.
2. About the year 1601 the mood of Shakespeare‟s dramatic work darkens
considerably. The plays of the Second Period are marked by gloom,
depression and violence, voicing the disillusionment of the Renaissance
humanists. Among them are the great tragedies “Hamlet”, “Othello”,
“King Lear”, “Macbeth”, and a comedy “Measure for Measure”, in which,
however, laughter is sarcastic and cynical, never light-hearted.
3. In the Third Period (1608 – 1612) the stress and turmoil of Shakespeare‟s
inner spirit seems to have calmed down. It includes plays of warmth,
serenity and reconciliation, in which old wrongs are righted in the end:
“The winter‟s Tale”, “The Tempest”. The exuberant laughter of his early
comedies has turned into an indulgent, thoughtful, almost detached smile.
Shakespeare is and will continue to be the enchanter who keeps our
imagination and our hearts under his spell.
VOCABULARY to defy = 1. resist openly
2. refuse to obey or show respect to
exquisite = of great excellence
to appeal to = 1. (somebody for something) make a serious request
2. attract, move the feelings of
to shroud = cover, hide
to grant = consent to give (favour, permission)
coat of arms = blazon
to go up to = enter a university or travel to a town, especially the capital
Jack-of-all-trades = workman knowing something of many trades
to forbear = refrain from
to spare = 1. refrain from hurting, destroying
2. (something for somebody) be able to give (time, money)
to remove = (somebody/something from) take off or away from the place
occupied; take to another place
to pervade = spread through every part of
gloom = 1. semi-darkness, obscurity
2. feeling of sadness and hopelessness
turmoil = trouble, agitation
spell = 1. words used as a charm, supposed to have magic power
2. attraction, fascination
Fill in the blanks with one of the following words: to defy, to shroud, to
appeal to, exquisite, to spare, to remove, to pervade, gloom, turmoil, spell
(make the necessary changes)
1. The news of the doctor‟s death filled us with …
2. We were all under the … of Chopin‟s music.
3. During the elections the town was in a terrible …
4. Roy will get into trouble one of these days; he keeps … his superiors.
5. They always serve … food in this restaurant.
6. Do these modern paintings … you?
7. The house was almost completely … in darkness.
8. … your dirty hands from my paining at once!
Romeo and Juliet
9. The general decided to … the lives of the prisoners.
10. The poem is … by melancholy and sadness.
GRAMMAR PASSIVE VOICE The house Shakespeare was born in ; Prepositions and
adverb particles must not be left out in the Passive.
ACTIVE: They will look after you well.
PASSIVE: You will be well looked after.
Turn the following sentences into the Passive:
1. People must work for success.
2. Someone reads to the old lady every evening.
3. No one has slept in this room.
4. The manager has to look into this matter.
5. People will laugh at you if you wear that silly hat.
6. Peter has drunk out of his glass.
7. My friends speak well of Mark.
8. They will look for you everywhere.
Without ignoring the earliest literary activities of the colonies, the first
consequential works in American literature were, in a broader sense, The
Declaration of Independence and The Constitution. Minor in all the “main”
genres, American literature before and during the revolution excels in journalism
and essay-writing. All these (para-)literary production evince a firm clarity and
directness of expression, the ability to circumscribe truth with the utmost brevity
and austerity that betray a practical disposition of the mind and that still define
most of the greater literature America has produced up to now.
THOMAS JEFFRESON (1743 – 1826)
Jeffreson may be the most influential and persistent personality in the
American tradition. The governor of Virginia, an American minister, the first
American secretary of state and the third American president, Jeffreson published
eight titles (of which only one is what we usually call book), but he signed many
state papers, a few treaties, was the main contributor to The Declaration of
Independence and wrote an incredible 25,000 letters. Exploring and
experimenting in many diverse fields of knowledge, Jeffreson strained to gain an
understanding which he employed in the development of a new democracy in a
land of plenty. His words best voice the unaltered truth of his life: “I have sworn
upon the altar of God, eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the
mind of man” THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE – In Congress, July
4, 1776 THE UNANIMOUS DECLARATION of the thirteen united STATES
When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people
to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to
assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the
Laws of Nature and of Nature‟s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions
of mankind require that they should declare the causes that impel them to the
- We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they
are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these
are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
- That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed.
- That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government, laying its foundations on such principles and organizing its powers
in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments along established
should be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience
has shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable,
than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same
Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right,
it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for
their future security.
- Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the
necessity which constrains them to alter their former System of Government. The
history of the present King of Great Britain1 is a history of repeated injuries and
usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny
over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to candid world.
- He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained
- He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly
firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. /…/
- He has made Judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices,
and the amount and payment of their salaries.
- He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers
to harass our people and eat out their substance /…/.
- He has affected to render the Military independent of an superior to the Civil
- He is at this Time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to
compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with
circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous
ages, and totally unworthy of the Head of a civilized nation /…/.
- A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a
Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have we been wanting in
attentions to our British brethern2. /…/ They too have been deaf to the voice of
justice and consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which
denounces3 our Separation, and hold them, as we hold all mankind, Enemies in
War, in Peace Friends.
We, THEREFORE, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA in General Congress Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of
the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name of the good People
of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are,
and of Right ought to be FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES; that they are
Absolved from Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection
between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved;
and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War,
conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and do all other Acts
and Things which Independent States may of right do.
- And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection
of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes
and our sacred Honour.
HABITS AND WAYS
The most popular beverage in the English speaking world has always
been and continues to be the TEA, even if the British like it very hot, while the
Americans prefer it iced.
The owner of a coffee – house in the City of London started serving tea
by the cup in the year 1657 and ever since the British have been “in love” with it.
The origins of the tea are lost in the remote history of oriental antiquity. One
legend speaks of the first cup of tea at 2037 B.C. when several tea leaves fell off
a tree into a pot of water which a Chinese emperor was boiling for drinking
In Britain, tea drinking spread quickly. By less than fifty years after it was
introduced, it was the drink of aristocracy, literary men and soldiers. Tea drinking
became somewhat of a cult. In Queen Victoria‟s time, tea was part of the British
diet, the recognized beverage for church meetings as well as society parties. Since
then, the British and tea have become addicted to one another. There is a steady
rise in British tea consumption which is currently estimated at 2,000 cups per
year for everyone including little babies.
Like the Chinese and many other tea-drinking peoples, the British make a
kind of ritual of tea. The method of brewing is as rigorously hewed to as the
language of the marriage ceremony. The warmed pot is always brought to the
kettle, not vice versa. The freshly boiling water is pored on the leaves, one
spoonful for each person and one for the pot. Dissent arises over the use of milk
(not cream, not boiled). Some add milk to tea, others add tea to milk.
The British violently disagree with the American‟s tea-drinking habits. At
issue, of course, is the tea bag and the drinking of iced tea. The British regard the
American custom of suspending tea bags in water as near sacrilege. No real
Englishman would think of using tea bags except for camping or picnicking.
For millions of Americans, summertime is iced-tea time. Ironically, this
typically American beverage was invented by an Englishman. He has been trying
unsuccessfully to sell hot tea at the St. Louis World‟s Fair in 1904. When he iced
it people bought.
The natural affinity for tea of the British is at the origin of many proverbs,
sayings and set phrases. Here are some of them:
- Many estates are spent in the getting, since women, for TEA, forsook spinning
and knitting; and men, for PUNCH, forsook hewing and splitting.
- To take Tea in the kitchen (to pour tea from the cup into the saucer, and drink it
- it is not my cup of tea = it‟s not the sort of thing I like
- a storm in a tea-cup = a lot of fuss about something trivial
- to tell somebody‟s fortune from the tea-leaves in her cup
- tea-table conversation
To sum it all up, here is a quote of a Chinese mystic of the Tang Dynasty
who wrote: “The first cup of tea moistens my lips and throat. The second shatters
my loneliness. The third causes the wrongs of life to fade gently from my
recollection. The fourth purifies my soul. The fifth lifts me to the realms of the
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