alice botez or the memory of ireality. a drd...the...

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    IAȘI - 2016

  • La data de 9 decembrie 2016, orele 11:00, în sala Seminar Al. Dima, drd. Mihaela Țicalo, căs.

    Grădinariu, va susține, în ședință publică, teza de doctorat cu denumirea „Alice Botez sau

    memoria irealității. O monografie” , în vederea obținerii titlului de doctor în domeniul Filologie.

    Comisia de doctorat are următoarea componență:

    Președinte: Prof. Univ. Dr. Magda Jeanrenaud, Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iași

    Conducător Științific: Prof. Univ. Dr. Lăcrămioara Petrescu, Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan

    Cuza” din Iași


    Prof. Univ. Dr. Ștefan Borbely, Universitatea „Babeș-Bolyai” din Cluj-Napoca

    Prof. Univ Dr. Pompiliu Crăciunescu, Universitatea de Vest din Timișoara

    Prof. Univ. Dr. Antonio Patraș, Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iași

  • Having studied the works of literary history and literary criticism published in the

    Romanian space of the last decades, we have noticed that the life and work of writer Alice Botez

    are fairly unknown. The writer fits with great difficulty in the panoply of Romanian literature, as

    she cannot match the generalist patterns hemming and labelling with the help of the ever-

    changing critical works.

    After more than three decades since the death of the author (1985), the studies dedicated

    to her are very few and present only fragments of her literary activity. With few and notable

    exceptions, the literary critics have focused only on the novels (Fimbulwinter, The Forest and

    Three Days.The Scene Alternative, Longing Hemisphere, The Eclipse) and the dramatic poem

    Driopte or Dialogue at the Caucasian Wall. Historic Evocation, while her publicist works, the

    volume of her short stories The White Island and The Book of Fantastic Realities. Journal are

    either treated superficially or completely ignored.

    The paper aims at analysing the main aspects of the biography and work, an investigation

    and systematisation of the information (dispersed and fragmented) regarding the life of Alice

    Botez, as well as the analysis of the corpus of texts signed by the author in order to correctly and

    comprehensively understand her life and writing.

    The monographic perspective of the paper imposes an analytical approach of the entire

    published work, during her lifetime and posthumously, both the writings published in volumes

    (Fimbulwinter, Editura pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1968; The Forest and Three Days. The

    Scene Alternative, Editura Eminescu, Bucharest, 1970; Driopte or Dialogue at the Caucasian

    Wall, Editura Eminescu, Bucharest, 1975; Longing Hemisphere, Editura Eminescu, Bucharest,

    1979; The Eclipse, Editura Cartea Românească, Bucharest, 1979; The White Island, Editura

    Eminescu, Bucharest, 1984; The Book of Fantastic Realities. Journal, under the supervision of

    Fabian Anton, Bucharest, Editura Curtea Veche, 2001), and the witings published in periodicals

    („Vremea”, „Izvoare de filosofie”, „Luceafărul”, „România Literară”).

    In addition to the published volumes and the texts published in magazines, „The

    Documentary Fund Alice Botez” (FDAB) of the Bucharest Metropolitan Library was the basis of

    this research. The fund comprises three files with photos, personal documents, correspondence

  • and a few unpublished manuscripts (work charts, summaries, translations, sketches for short

    stories and sixteen versions of a poem).

    The reasons behind the choice of theme are multiple: the generosity of the theme, the

    very few preoccupations which offer a complete painting of the life and work of a very complex,

    the fascination of the symbols integrated in the literary works.

    The work of Alice Botez must be approached from an integrating cultural perspective,

    retrieving and focusing on less known aspects of her formation by establishing and extending

    links between biography and philosophical and literary preoccupations. Of course, the discussed

    themes are also partially present with other authors, but what distinguishes the creation of Alice

    Botez is the personal mode of approach of the themes.

    Another reason why we consider our undertaking necessary is the possibility to apply

    modern narratology theories on the literary texts (journal, novels and dramatic poem), especially

    French theories regarding feminine writing, autobiographies, intimate journal, the frontiers of the

    fantastic, the time of memory, the role of stage directions in the dramatic text, historic memory

    and internal memory, conscious otherness, refused otherness.

    As critical approaches to the work of Alice Botez are rare (and the secondary

    bibliography, implicitly), we consider that the research undertaking has as the main gain the

    novelty of the approach, the personal vision in the analysis of literary works.

    By going through and re-evaluating a rich critical bibliography, we have managed to

    circumscribe the themes of the works, to focus the discursive strategies (narrative and dramatic),

    to reach a more profound understanding of temporal dynamics, of the vision of the space as

    fiction generator and to underline the force of the dissimulation of the tragic character of

    personal histories.

    The research respected the requirements of a scientific enterprise of the monographic

    type, starting with the definition of the problem to be researched, followed by the identification

    of the text corpus (published in volume and periodicals), the discovery, transcription, description

    and interpretation of the novel documentary resources (the Documentary Fund Alice Botez) and

    of the secondary bibliographic reference points (in volume, in periodicals or in electronic

  • format). The compilation, interpretation and systematisation of data regarding the life of the

    writer (the historical, political, social, cultural context and strictly biographical elements) based

    on a logical plan, the investigation, study case and comparison have been another important step

    in the reconstruction of the auctorial profile.

    Enlarging the data base regarding the new tendencies of the literary theory and criticism

    and the application of these modern concepts on the text corpus by the analysis (followed by a

    synthetizing vision) of the discursive and dramatic strategies have also been part of the research


    The paper is structured in five chapters, comprising a number of 207 pages. Before them,

    a comprehensive Introduction presents the object of the research, the text corpus used, the

    present stage of the research on the author Alice Botez, the actuality and necessity of the

    research theme, the new ideas followed in the research.

    The thesis also contains Conclusions followed by a Bibliography divided in the sections

    Text Corpus (in volume and in periodicals), Memoirs writings about Alice Botez, Literary

    Histories, Literature dictionaries, Critical texts in volume about Alice Botez, Critical texts in

    periodicals about Alice Botez, General Critical Bibliography, in volume and in electronic format.

    The Annexes contain some letters and novel texts, transcribed from the FDAB folders.

    Chapter I, Biographic Profile, follows the information on Alice Botez, very rare because

    of the loss of a great number of the family documents in time, but especially in two essential

    moments (the demolition of the house in Uranus in 1984 and then the death of the writer’s

    mother in 1985).

    The few known documents, gathered in three very thin files under the name of the

    Documentary Fund Alice Botez (FDAB, inv. No 295/ 2006) are available at the Bucharest

    Metropolitan Library, but unfortunately can only be described and transcribed as the internal

    regulations of the library ban their photocopying and publication in any form.

    This is why the reconstruction of the biography was based on the few articles in the

    literature dictionaries and in literary histories, on journals written by Jeni Acterian, Arşavir

    Acterian and Gena Geamănu, on the memoirs of two writers who crossed paths at various times

  • in their lives (Stefan Agopian and Florin Iaru) and on a few letters, either published as Addenda

    to journals, or valorised from the documentary fund mentioned above.

    The biography, with no particular event line, is followed chronologically, with the most

    important moments of the writer’s life outlined: her studies, the special relationship with

    professor Nae Ionescu, her jobs, then the marriage with artist Constantin Bulat, her debut in

    periodicals and late debut in volume (1968), the interactions with her very few friends. There

    emerges the image of a highly educated personality, fluent and translating from French and

    German, with an opening to the vast spaces of philosophy and an exceptional literary talent, who

    always refused to register with the unwritten laws of a destructive era and found salvation in the

    act of writing.

    Chapter II, The Works of Alice Botez Published in Periodicals, sets the important

    reference points of the period between the two world wars, characterised by unprecedented

    effervescence, among which there is the periodical “Vremea”, where Alice Botez will publish

    literary chronicles for two months (November – December 1940). We considered that the

    analysis of these chronicles is necessary because they are not very known as they have never

    been compiled and published in a critical edition. Secondly, the chronicles underline a

    profoundly original vision, clear and complete, mostly due to the vast literary, historical and

    philosophical culture and the writer undoubtedly establishes the value of a work, its place in

    relation with other literary works and the elements which ensure the survival of the work in time.

    Chapter III, the Book of Fantastic Realities. Journal, contains a history of the journal and

    its reception, presents general data about the journal of Alice Botez and it analyses the internal

    markers of looking for the self: paradoxical spaces, existential simulacra, antinomy chromatics,

    separation between materiality and essence, the metamorphoses of the self after the war years,

    unveiling and overcoming of the limits of the self. The act of looking for the self is an expression

    of loneliness, and the author lingers in the emotions of the past in order to retrieve the oldest


    As compared to other journals, written in the same period, a period of real opening to the

    real culture, for example the journals of the Criterion friends Mircea Vulcănescu, Mircea Eliade,

    Jeni and Arşavir Acterian, the volume does not respect the conventions of this type of diary

  • writing, but it is a subtle meditation on the possibilities of the human being to fight a permanent

    battle between good and evil, between light and darkness. Thus, the journal presents an

    exceptional destiny at the confluence of two incompatible cultural eras, an ascending way of an

    interiorised loneliness, with a saving reflex of isolation and an instinct for suffering: “I am the

    only desperate person in the universe” (Botez 2001: 128).

    The journal completely lacks the main characteristics of the intimate (Didier 2002):

    material and financial notes, details of the ordinary day-to-day existence, strong impressions of

    intellectual and moral life, reflexes of intimate materiality, accents of corporality, emotional

    compatibilities or incompatibilities, summaries, anniversaries, events which can be integrated

    into the ephemerides category. On the contrary, the text unveils a map of internal worlds, the

    geography of spaces populated by phantasms, dreams, melancholies, fears, despairs, and

    otherness accents.

    The author herself proposes a personal reading key (focusing on the side of the fantastic)

    in the literary chronicle on Emil Botta’s novel The Slug published in the magazine “Vremea”,

    where she distinguishes three recognized directions of the Romanian narrative fiction: epic,

    humoristic, and fantastic.

    Alice Botez constructs an essential lesson, at the forefront of which she fights, in turns,

    the identity renunciation and the blind obedience to motivated vanity. The explicit chromatic is

    aggressive-symbolical, verging antinomy, based on a religious intertext, common to the semiotic

    system of European mythologies and of the subsequent Christianity.

    The temptation to read the Journal in a definitely dual hermeneutical grid, where light

    represents divinity, the victory of the spirit over matter, knowledge, communion with the sacred,

    wisdom and, to the contrary, darkness – chaos, distance from God, limits to knowledge

    (Biedermann 2002: 206-207, Chevalier, Geerbrandt 1995: 236-242, Dictionary 1995: 780-781),

    is great, but an increased requisition, doubled by fine nuances, becomes absolutely necessary in

    order not to fall into the temptation of the easy read. We shall notice that the two primordial

    elements (often replaced by the chromatic pair white/ black) are mutually replaceable or can be

    combined in various proportions, and the result is a definitely internalised world, acquiring

    personality through a revelatory loneliness.

  • Chapter IV, Alice Botez, the playwright, underlines the relationship of Alice Botez with

    the theatre and analyses the dramatic poem Driopte or Dialogue at the Caucasian Wall,

    revealing the obsession of the mirror and investigating the symbolical characters, bearers of

    masks, decrypting the strategies of dramatic discourse (the circular reflecting frame, the oversize

    stage directions, the combination of the visual and audition elements, the introduction of

    sapiential sentences) and the multiple reading keys.

    The relation of Alice Botez with the theatre is not direct. Of course, among her readings

    on multiple levels must have been classical plays of world literature. She must have definitely

    attended some theatrical representations of the interwar period, classical music concerts, cinema

    opening nights or Criterion conferences together with Jeni Acterian and her group of friends, as

    the former wrote in her diary (Acterian 1991).

    Her husband, Constantin Bulat, wrote a few plays, which remained unpublished and for

    which he drew his own scenography, sketches which Alice Botez must have definitely known,

    given the spiritual relation between the two.

    We doubt, however, that in the after war atmosphere, with its open reflection of the

    problems of the new man, theatrical representations, with their contents distorted by the canons

    of the era, should have been a major interest point for Alice Botez: “There were, undoubtedly,

    especially in the first decades, dark manifestations, some even sinister altogether, sheer

    obtuseness and language violence (ideological …). (…)It was not easy. There were strict themes,

    unavoidable, in the columns of the press and the arena of so many congresses there was a

    dissonant battle cry, with an unbearable Bolshevik air”. (Faifer 2010 b:123)

    The entire cultural landscape was changed, forced to respect the black and white

    paradigm of the class fight, which becomes a literary conflict: “During this historical times, the

    writers’ natural will to assert themselves and to create was counterattacked and slowed down by

    the prohibitive action of the editorial (and even post –editorial) control system and it was

    hijacked through all types of elusions and diversionist techniques (all serving the communist

    ideology, which imposed only one course to literature). Under the pressure of these adverse

    forces, the only possible outcome was a sick landscape …” (Negrici 2008: 140)

  • In this arid field, whose only coordinates are “… the biographical meanders and

    axiological landscape, with possible falsified hierarchies and unavoidable recalibrations, the

    thematic stock and opportunistic crouches, the cliché consumerism and ideological subservience,

    the authorial vanities and negativist acerbities …” (Rachieru 2013:39), the only play written by

    Alice Botez, the dramatic poem Driopte or Dialogue at the Caucasian Wall stands out from the

    pseudo-aesthetic imperatives of the time, rather resonating with Mihail Dragomirescu’s concept

    of the dramatic work: “ … a physical reality, with a precious psychological load, projected into a

    perfect form”. (Faifer 2010 b:81)

    Published in 1975, the play was never performed (mainly because of the subject matter

    which could not be integrated in the theatrical programmes of the times and partly because of the

    extremely complicated scenography) and it is implicitly very little known.

    Chapter V, Alice Botez, the novelist, follows the complex constructions of the novels and

    of the short stories volume, developed with clear lucidity and self-awareness which show the

    maturity of an author who is aware of her own creative powers.

    With the vanity (fully understandable) not to imitate the literary experiences of her

    contemporaries to whom she does not feel any link except the links of the historical times, as she

    does not fit any generation group, avoiding the ever-present controversies of the times and also

    the joining of the group praising “the great achievements”, constantly refusing to alter the

    aesthetic principles she based her entire work on, Alice Botez creates some distance from her

    colleagues and joins the Writers’ Union of the Socialist Republic of Romania only formally.

    From her debut with The assassination in the Forest of Crooked Despair (in “Vremea”,

    year XVI, no 761, August 6th 1944) to her editorial debut with the novel Fimbulwinter (Editura

    pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1968) there were 24 years of silence. No wonder, then, that the

    critical reactions to the her volumes were so few in a historic, ideological and cultural context

    very unfavourable to the reception of texts which did not fit the pseudo-aesthetic norms of the

    period, although the publishing of the novel, in Elvira Sorohan’s opinion, was possible only in a

    moment of weakness of the assault of socialist realism on Romanian literature (Sorohan 2011 c:


  • Even less easy to explain is the quasi-total silence after the opening offered by 1989,

    when these literary creations should have been given their rightful place as fabric texts, as word

    and letter architecture through which “reality is built symbolically, established and transmitted.

    (…) The texts are structured as rites. The rites have, just like the texts, a theme which

    functionally determines the combination of the integral elements, of the integral pieces.”

    (Metzeltin-Thir 2013: 14)

    Closer research will show the fact that Alice Botez’s novels are not just simple epic

    exercises or easy literary games, but complex constructions, developed with clear lucidity and

    self-awareness which show the maturity of an author who has been aware of her own creative

    powers since her early literary chronicles published in “Vremea”.

    In her novels the author positions herself in an uncomfortable exterior, expressly outside

    the reflected world and allows the characters to tell their own existence and thoughts in

    fragments interrupted by others and then resumed at great distance within the text, always as

    consolidation or augmentation. (Sorohan 2011 c: 20)

    The characters are analysed from the perspective of the multiple dissimulated identities,

    provocative and complex, to which the intermediary constructs of subjective realities correspond,

    developing relations of dependency of the human with its space and temporal availabilities or


    The characters lose or regain their identity in certain places, in exterior physical spaces

    (the street, the market, the street junction, the garden) or interior places: the house, certain rooms

    (bedrooms, dining rooms, kitchens, hallways, cellars), or by entering a relation with identity

    bearing objects. The searching unfolds either in an assumed loneliness, desired, demanded, or in

    a forced loneliness, in a reclusion which inevitably leads to an inertial decline of the human


    The present research started from the fact that Romanian literature still has vast spaces

    which are ignored by historians, hermeneutists and literary critics alike. Although today we

    witness a true information boom in various domains and, of course, in the philological sciences,

    and although the text resources (to a large extent) are more accessible than 20 or 30 years ago

  • comprehensive studies to try to present extensively the life and work of an author are, at many

    times, unidirectional and are tributary to the use of methods focusing on only one aspect of the

    subject matter.

    Apart from repeated canonisation, apart from the rules to valorise a literary work changed

    as we go, a re-evaluation of some writers on aesthetic criteria is necessary. These writers were

    either pushed on a temporary ascending orbit, often in opposition with their fragile work, or, on

    the contrary, in spite of building their valuable work, they could not (or even did not want to)

    impose themselves in the forefront of the literary scene, and their work was received

    incompletely or distorted.

    Alice Botez is part of the last category. A writer characterised by a remarkable discretion,

    a writer who in only 16 years (between 1968, the year of her debut in volume, and 1984, the year

    of the last novel published during her lifetime) she managed to reveal a literary work with firm

    internal coherence and personal approaches of the great themes of human existence.

    In this work we have reconstructed the main points of a special biography, developed on

    historic, social, political and cultural contextual levels belonging to very different eras. The

    spiritual profile of Alice Botez, her development at Nae Ionescu’s and Criterion’s school, her

    tendency towards metaphysics, sinuous professional path, the links to important people in the

    interwar period and the undeserved shaded area she entered after WWII until her death, the late

    debut and fragmented reception of her work, these are a few elements of a personality who

    would have been a strong and distinct voice in the concert of the Romanian literature in a

    different context.

    We have tried with our research to keep a dual look, oscillating between inside and

    outside, not fixed in one (single) point of view: “The complete criticism may not be the one

    aiming for totality (as the look from above), nor the one aiming for intimacy (as does the

    identification intuition); it is a look which knows how to ask in turns for over-elevation and

    shyness, knowing beforehand that the truth does not lie in one attempt or the other, but in the

    movement which relentlessly leads from one to the other”. (Starobinski 1985: 44)

  • The independence and intransigence of personal opinions, the particular aesthetic

    awareness, not giving up on her own system of values, built in time, by concentric cultural

    accumulations have all underlined the tendency for isolation which Alice Botez showed starting

    with her university studies.

    The analysis of the depth layers of her work reveals the openness towards the myth,

    towards the intimate fantastic space or, on the contrary, accessible to everybody through

    profound knowledge, the preference for paratopy, for the alternation of external focalisation with

    internal focalisation. The messages transmitted to the narrator are multiply coded through an

    agglomeration of discursive strategies. The significant and abundant details do not act to

    interrupt the narration rhythm, but to create a context favourable to understanding in order to

    counterattack the overwhelming tensions of history.

    The narrator, auto diegetic, hetero-diegetic or homo-diegetic (DSL 2001: 336), models

    the narrative and acts a centraliser (in the first two cases), being a major factor of cohesion and

    bringing around it the space, the time and the other characters.

    The work of Alice Botez is one of weights without relief, of abandonment to total

    dissolution which breaks all ascending surges of identities on the verge of dissolution. The

    apparent contradictions of the text are decoded in the light of the special relation between the

    language and the world (“The language is linked to the world, but not in the way a mirror is

    linked to the image it reflects, but the way the light is to what it makes visible” – Picon 1981:45),

    the world seen as a construct of multiple reflecting surfaces.

    Space-time thus becomes an image or an idea, and the characters are nothing else but the

    actors who combine the mirrors in infinite versions. The narrative chronology derives from the

    endless combination possibilities and loses its linearity.

    Intertextuality is one of the strong characteristics of Alice Botez’s creation, either

    implicit, or by references and insertions, or, in most cases, explicit in oversized notes and

    profound commentaries, all indicating an exhaustive documentation on the subject.

    The discursive, narrative or dramatic strategies give the text an authentic modernity,

    which resists in time, the polygonal structured stories inviting the reader to multiple discoveries.

  • We consider that our undertaking has reached its purpose, the paper reconstructing

    through methods typical for monographic research the biographic and literary profile of a creator

    for whom art “is a mask which offers less than it promises: vague emergence from the locks of

    language, life springs as an indispensable compromise while it dissimulates its reason for being:

    the image of the self, the inaccessible ideal of a perfect autonomy”. (Helbo 1978: 20)



    A. În volum

    1. Alice Botez, Iarna fimbul, Editura pentru Literatură, București, 1968.

    2. Alice Botez, Pădurea şi trei zile. Varianta scenelor, Editura Eminescu, Bucureşti, 1970.

    3. Alice Botez, Dioptrele sau Dialog la zidul caucazian. Poem dramatic, Editura Eminescu,

    Bucureşti, 1975.

    4. Alice Botez, Dan Grigorescu, Radu Ionescu, Constantin Bulat, Repere de Margareta

    Sterian, Muzeul de Artă al Republicii Socialiste România, Bucureşti, 1976.

    5. Alice Botez, Emisfera de dor, Editura Eminescu, București, 1979.

    6. Alice Botez, Eclipsa, Editura Cartea Românească, București, 1979.

    7. Alice Botez, Insula Albă, Editura Eminescu, București, 1984.

    8. Alice Botez, Cartea realităţilor fantastice. Jurnal, Ediţie îngrijită de Fabian Anton,

    Editura Curtea Veche, București, 2001.

    B. În periodice

    9. Alisa Botez, Ionel Teodoreanu: „Tudor Ceaur Alcaz”, în „Vremea”, anul XII, nr. 576, 3

    noiembrie 1940.

    10. Alisa Botez, Constantin Noica: Schiţă pentru istoria lui „Cum e cu putinţă ceva nou”, în

    „Vremea”, anul XII, nr. 577, 10 noiembrie 1940.

  • 11. Alice Botez, Ştefana Velisar-Teodoreanu: Viaţa cea de toate zilele; Ion Pillat: Balcic, în

    „Vremea”, anul XII, nr. 578, 17 noiembrie 1940.

    12. Alisa Botez, Pretext pentru o cronică. Mihail Sadoveanu: „Divanul persian”, în

    „Vremea”, anul XII, nr. 579, 24 noiembrie 1940.

    13. Alisa Botez, Pretexte. Cărţi şi oameni, în „Vremea”, anul XII, nr. 580, 1 decembrie 1940.

    14. Alisa Botez, Pretexte. Emil Botta: „Trântorul”, în „Vremea”, anul XII, nr. 581, 8

    decembrie 1940.

    15. Alisa Botez, Pretexte. „Le mal de la souffrance”: Louis Lavelle, în „Vremea”, anul XII,

    nr. 582, 15 decembrie 1940.

    16. Alice Botez, Despre structură, în „Izvoare de filosofie”, Culegere de studii și texte,

    îngrijită de Const. Floru, Const. Noica și Mircea Vulcănescu, Tipografia „Bucovina” I. E

    Torouțiu, vol. I, Bucureşti.

    17. Alice Botez, Constantin Micu: „Finalitatea ideală a existenţei umane” (Încercare de

    explicare a originei şi sensului culturii), Casa Şcoalelor, 1943, în „Symposion”, seria II,

    anul III, nr. 2, 1 octombrie 1943.

    18. Alisa Botez, Asasinatul din Pădurea Strâmbei. Disperări, în „Vremea”, anul XVI, nr.

    761, 6 august 1944.

    19. Alice Botez, Metaforă şi cunoaştere în proza Hortensiei Papadat-Bengescu, în

    „Luceafărul”, anul XII, nr. 47, 22 noiembrie 1969.

    20. Alice Botez, Mesagerul, în „România literară”, anul XIII, nr. 31, 30 iulie 1970.

    21. Alice Botez, Căderea în sublim, în „România literară”, anul XIV, nr. 16, 15 aprilie 1982.

    22. Alice Botez, Mnemosyne (I), în „Luceafărul”, anul XXVIII, nr. 45, 9 noiembrie 1985.


    23. Arşavir Acterian, Privilegiaţi şi năpăstuiţi, Editura Institutul European, Iași, 1992.

    24. Arșavir Acterian, Jurnal, 1929-1945 / 1958-1990, Cuvinte de întâmpinare de Bedros

    Horasangian și Florin Faifer, Editura Humanitas, București, 2008.

    25. Jeni Acterian, Jurnalul unei fiinţe greu de mulţumit, 1932-1949, Text ales și note

    biografice de Arșavir Acterian, Ediție îngrijită, traducere, note bibliografice și postfață de

    Doina Uricariu, Editura Humanitas, București, 1991.

  • 26. Ștefan Agopian, Scriitor în comunism (niște amintiri), Editura Polirom, Iași, 2013.

    27. Petru Comarnescu, Jurnal. 1931-1937. Texte de frontieră, Editura Institutul European,

    Iași, 1994.

    28. Mircea Eliade, Jurnal, vol. I-II, Ediţie îngrijită de Mircea Handoca, Editura Humanitas,

    București, 1993.

    29. Mircea Eliade, Memorii. Recoltele solstițiului, volumul II (1937-1960), Ediţie îngrijită de

    Mircea Handoca, Editura Humanitas, București, 1991.

    30. Gena Geamănu, Spovedanie neterminată, Editura Bizantină, București, 2000.

    31. Florin Iaru, Fraier de Bucureşti, Editura Polirom, Iași, 2011.

    32. Interviu cu Florin Iaru, publicat la data de 18 septembrie 2014, pe pagina oficială

    AGERPRES, disponibil la adresa


    fost-casa-11-07-31, 2014.


    33. Dicţionarul esenţial al literaturii române, Coordonatori Mircea Zaciu, Marian Papahagi,

    Aurel Sasu, Editura Albatros, București, 2000.

    34. Dicţionarul general al literaturii române, vol. I, A/B, Editura Univers Enciclopedic,

    București, 2004.

    35. Dicţionarul scriitorilor români, vol. I (A-C), Coordonatori Mircea Zaciu, Marian

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