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UNIVERSITATEA SPIRU HARET

RODICA TEFAN SANDA MARCOCI

RUXANDRA VASILESCU ELENA BELDEA

COME ALONGCurs practic de limba englez nivel mediu

EDITURA FUNDAIEI ROMNIA DE MINE Bucureti, 2004Universitatea SPIRU HARET

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naionale a Romniei Come along: curs practic de limba englez / tefan Rodica, Vasilescu Ruxandra, Marcoci Sanda, Beldea Elena. Bucureti: Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, 2004 228 p.; 23,5 cm. ISBN 973-582-903-7 I. tefan, Rodica II. Vasilescu, Ruxandra III. Marcoci, Sanda IV. Beldea, Elena 811.111

Cursul se adreseaz studenilor de la facultile cu profil economic

Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, 2004 ISBN 973-582-903-7

Redactor: Janeta LUPU Tehnoredactor: Jeanina DRGAN Bun de tipar: 20.01.2004; Coli tipar: 14,25 Format: 16/70 x 100 Editura i Tipografia Fundaiei Romnia de Mine Splaiul Independenei nr. 313, Bucureti, Sector 6, O.P. 83, Tel./Fax: 410.43.80 www.spiruharet.ro e-mail: [email protected] SPIRU HARET

CUVNT NAINTE

n contextul actual n care procesele economice i culturale tind spre globalizare, cunoaterea unei limbi strine de circulaie internaional, a limbii engleze n special, reprezint nu doar un avantaj, ci o necesitate pentru o bun integrare profesional i social. Ne-am propus n acest scop s oferim studenilor notri (cursuri de zi, cu frecven redus de la facultile economice, dar i de la celelalte specialiti nefilologice) un Curs practic de limba englez, pe care l-am gndit i realizat ca pe un instrument de lucru util innd cont de cerinele i ateptrile lor. Dat fiind aceast larg diversitate tematic, textele i exerciiile au fost special adaptate preocuprilor studenilor, combinnd elemente ale limbii engleze generale cu acelea specifice limbajelor specializate. Ele se adreseaz studenilor care au studiat limba englez n liceu dobndind un bagaj de cunotine gramaticale i lexicale de nivel mediu. Dorim s exprimm mulumiri asist. univ. Despina Chirimbu pentru citirea atent a manuscrisului, pe marginea cruia a fcut observaii pertinente i sugestii preioase, precum i prep. Mihaela Pricope pentru redactarea glosarului.

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CONTENTS

UNIT 1 ENGLISH, MY LOVE (Rodica tefan) . Grammar: (a) General revision (b) Tag questions, Yes/No questions, Wh-questions UNIT 2 SAYING HELLO! (Ruxandra Vasilescu) .. Grammar: (a) Possessives; Personal and reflexive pronouns (b) The Article; Some/Any UNIT 3 COMPANIES (Sanda Marcoci) . Grammar: (a) Present tenses (b) Conjunction structures UNIT 4 GOING TO COLLEGE (Rodica tefan) Grammar: (a) Past simple and present perfect (b) Comparison of adjectives; Irregular adjectives and adverbs UNIT 5 GETTING IN TOUCH (Ruxandra Vasilescu) ... Grammar: (a) Modal verbs STOP AND CHECK UNIT 6 LOOKING AHEAD (Rodica tefan) . Grammar: (a) Future; Prefixes and suffixesUniversitatea SPIRU HARET

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UNIT 7 INTERESTS AND HOBBIES (Sanda Marcoci) 116 Grammar: (a) Past perfect; Gerunds (b) Subjunctive UNIT 8 GOING PLACES (Ruxandra Vasilescu) 139 Grammar: (a) Sequence of tenses (b) Direct and indirect speech UNIT 9 LETS GO SHOPPING! (Elena Beldea) 156 Grammar: (a) Expressing quantity (b) Passive voice UNIT 10 MEDIA/COMMUNICATIONS (Sanda Marcoci) . Grammar: (a) Conditional (b) Phrasal verbs; Adjectival phrase STOP AND CHECK

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LISTA ABREVIERILOR 213 GLOSSARY .. 214

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UNIT 1

ENGLISH, MY LOVE

Comment [L1]:

SECTION A LEAD-INHere are some words from English which are used in Romanian. Put them in columns under these headings: business, politics, technology, sports, entertainment and various. There are five words in each column. dealer mouse pullover fan leader rating poster VIP second-hand lobby hit software jogging western broker CD player weekend offside summit manager single skateboard meeting penalty rugby job fast-food laser show chip

READING1. Complete the sentences with a word from the box below: 1. Although she was speaking English, her. was so strong we could hardly understand what she was saying. 2. I went to a lawyer but when he started using all the legal .. I got completely lost. 3. Young people use a lot of... . For instance, they could say copper instead of policeman.7

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4. She never studied English but she managed to it by living in America for a couple of years. 5. Even though the language is basically the same, there are several .. . In the south some of the words and structures are different from those in the north. 6. English is Andrews first language. In other words, its his . Andrew is an English native speaker. 7. TURBO PASCAL and JAWA are two computer . 8. A person who speaks two languages fluently is. pick up jargon mother tongue slang dialects bilingual languages accent

2. Read each text quickly and find out who: 1. uses English for work. 2. uses English as an official language. 3. enjoys studying English. 4. studies in English. 5. speaks English as a mother tongue. 6. obviously doesnt like English.

Im Angela Maria Gutierrez from Cartagena in Colombia. I love listening to English pop music which is a great way of learning new words and everyday expressions! It is six years since I started to learn English and still, my biggest problem is pronunciation. My dad is a businessman and he uses English all the time. He speaks it fluently. He managed to pick it up while he was working in the States. He wants me to speak it well enough so that I can join his company. Id rather work in public relations. Im Faryal Ahmed and Im from Pakistan. Ive been studying business administration in Nottingham for the past two years. I felt really homesick to begin with because Id never been away from home. Ive got fairly used to it but I still miss my parents. They brought me up to speak English and I was sent to an English-speaking school. When I got there though, I still had a few problems with peoples accents and the slang that lots of other students used. Some of the lecturers were hard to understand at first and then there were lots of business jargon to pick up too.8

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* Im Gerhard Richter from Frankfurt am Main in Germany. Im a consultant in a large software company. I need English because lots of materials are written in it and I travel a lot. Next month Im going to visit Egypt. I hope Ill be able to make myself understood. Ive found it is often easier to speak English to other foreigners than to the native speakers! One American colleague doesnt speak slowly enough for me to understand him. It is useful to know English but one thing I dont like is the way English expressions have been incorporated into other languages. * Im Abedayo Omere from Nigeria and Im a railway engineer. English is the official language because there are so many different languages and dialects spoken in Nigeria. I have to travel all round the country and often English is the only way to communicate. It is a pity because it used to be the colonial language. However, if we had chosen a tribal language, it would have caused political problems. So we will just have to put up with it! * Good day! My names Nick Andreotti. Im sixteen years old and I come from Sydney in Australia. Im second generation Italian. My parents came over about 20 years ago. Im bilingual because we still speak Italian at home. Dad speaks much better English than Mum. Sometimes her mistakes are really embarrassing and her accent is so strong that some people cant understand her. Im still studying but I always spend my spare time out in the tennis court. Ive won a few local tournaments and Id really like to turn professional. * Hi! My name is Yvonne Binoche and I come from Montral, which is the Frenchspeaking part of Canada. Im a sales manager in a big department store. I deal with foreign customers, so most of the time I have to use English. In Canada everything is supposed to be bilingual but I dont like the way English seems to be taking over. We had a real fight here, you know, to keep hold of our French past and identity. (adapted from 3rd Dimension, Longman)9

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3. What are the countries where English is spoken as: native language? official language? international language? Which language in the world is spoken by most people? How many people are English native speakers? Which language might become the language of the future? 4. Decide whether the following statements are true ( ) or false (). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Nicks parents were born in Australia. Nicks mother doesnt speak English as well as his father. Faryal still feels homesick. Faryals problems with English werent too serious. Gerhard likes everything about English. Yvonne is ashamed of her French origin. Angela hasnt decided about her future career. Abedayo accepts that English was probably the best choice for his country.

LANGUAGE WORKWork in pairs and talk about your answers to the following questions: Have you ever spoken English with a native speaker? Where can you read English journals/ magazines/ books outside the classroom in your town? How often do you listen to English on the radio or watch films on TV? Have you ever written in English (to a pen-friend)? Have you ever been to an English-speaking country?

In pairs ask each other questions to find out the missing information in the following: 1. My partner has been learning English for .years. 2. In English he/ she is the best at 10

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1 2 3

3. (grammar/ vocabulary/ speaking/ writing/ reading/ listening/ pronunciation) In English he/ she is not the best at .. because .. . He/ She finds . most difficult to learn. He/ She thinks is most important for him/ her in learning English.

GRAMMAR FOCUS1. Match sentences A-O taken from the text above with the constructions 1-15. A Ive been studying business administration in Nottingham for the past two years. B He managed to pick it up while he was working in the States. C if we had chosen a tribal language, it would have caused political problems. D Im still studying but I E My parents came over about 20 years ago. F he uses English all the time. G I love listening to English pop music H He managed to pick it up I Ive won a few local tournaments. J My biggest problem is pronunciation. K I hope Ill be able to make myself understood. L Dad speaks English much better than Mum. M Id never been away from home before. N I was sent to an English-speaking school. O Next month Im going to visit Egypt. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 present perfect past perfect past verb + gerund future present third conditional passive 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 superlative past continuous verb + infinitive comparative going to future present perfect continuous present continuous

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When do we use the auxiliary verbs be, have, will? Complete the tense charts. Use the verb wait for the active and mend for the passive.ACTIVE Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect They will have been waiting We will wait He was waiting Simple Continuous

PASSIVE Present Past Future Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect

Simple It is mended

Continuous It was being mended

Remember!Use be with verb + ing to make continuous verb forms Use be with the past participle (-ed, V3) to make the passive voice Use have with the past participle to make perfect verb forms Use will with short infinitive to make future forms Youre listening to my explanation. They were admiring the landscape. Ive been studying history for two years. Paper is made of wood. The first books were printed in Germany. The house had been built before 1900. The fax will be sent tomorrow morning. He has worked in several countries. They were upset because they had missed the plane. By the end of the year, hell have moved house. We will know the results tomorrow. At this time next Sunday she will be flying to London.

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SECTION B LEAD-INLook at these statements about English and decide if you agree with them. Work in pairs and compare your answers. You can learn a language outside the classroom. You should always use the dictionary if you dont understand a word. Dont worry about making mistakes; its more important to make yourself understood. Learning about grammar is very useful. Listening, especially to native speakers, is the most difficult skill to develop.

READINGQ: A: Q: A: Q: A: Alice, how many languages do you speak and which ones are they? Well, I can speak two languages besides English: French and Spanish. Quite interesting! How did you learn them? You see, I had to learn French when I was in school. And Spanish I chose to learn later, I thought it would be, you know, useful to learn it. What was the most difficult aspect of learning it? Well, I was very embarrassed when we had to speak French in front of the rest of the class, you know - the terrible pronunciations and things. Also, I think listening comprehension was very difficult because it was always so fast Oh, yes. A common complaint. Now, what is the most useful thing to do? I think the grammatical system is the most useful. Have you had the opportunity to use it since then? Actually, I work in a software company. As a sales manager, I have to deal with our Canadian suppliers. Thats wonderful! Do you find it difficult to understand them? Certainly! Their accent is quite strong but in the end I manage it. (adapted from Reward, Heinemann)13

Q: A: Q: A: Q: A:

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VOCABULARY1. Look at the dictionary entry of the word company. Match the sentences a-h with a definition.

company ('[email protected]) n,[C] pl.-nies 1. A number of people gathered together;assembly. 2. The fact of being with smb.; companionship. 3. A guest or guests. 4. A business enterprise. 5. The members of an enterprise not specifically mentioned in the enterprises title. Abbrev: Co., co. 6. A group of actors. 7. A small unit of troops. 8. The officers and crew on a ship. keep company to accompany (smb.), especially for the sake of companionship part company to go different ways after being together; to cease associating. a b c d e f g h The company marched all day long. Robert enjoys his uncles company. Unfortunately, he has got into bad company lately. The company is going to produce childrens garments. A new play is being staged by the company. What a surprise! We were not expecting company. The company had been sailing for weeks before they reached their destination. Warner & Co. are well known among the film distributors.

2. Choose the most suitable word or phrase given: 1 2 3 4 514

I succeeded in my job through hard . a) work b) labour c) effort Mark works for a/an . engineering company. a) main b) leading c) outgoing Im thinking to change my job because there are few of promotion. a) prospects b) opportunities c) chances Its not a very interesting work, but at least its a .. job. a) continuous b) firm c) steady In our company I am afraid there is very little to work hard. a) advantage b) gain c) motivation

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LANGUAGE WORK1. Ask questions to the words underlined. Remember that the particle goes to the end of the sentence. Example: I work for a computer company. 1 2 3 4 5 6 I am thinking about my next holiday. He is waiting for his sister. We worked with an important company. They were talking to our major customer. I am interested in their new project. She is proud of her children.

Who do you work for?

2. Make questions with you from the sentences: Example: I come from Wales. (Where?) a b c d e f g h i j k l Where do you come from?

I speak two languages (How many?) I live in a house near the centre of the town. (Where?) Im wearing jeans and a T-shirt. (What?) I was born in Edinburgh in 1981. (Where? When?) Im studying English because Id like to travel. (Why?) Ive been to France and Canada. (Which countries?) I have one brother. (How many?) Ive been learning English for seven years. (How long?) Ill be 20 years old in November. (How old?) Ive got 10 in my pocket. (How much?) I went to the seaside last summer. (Where?) Im going to visit my grandparents next holiday. (Whom?)

3. Make questions about the subject, and the object in each, as shown in the example. Example: Ann likes her new colleagues. Who likes her new colleagues? (Ann) Who does Ann like? (her new colleagues)15

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1 2 3 4 5

The teacher will bring our papers next week. The inspector interviews the candidate. Stress causes headache and pain. The manager invited his partner to visit the company. The president offers Michael a medal. (pay attention!)

4. Write questions for the answers: Example: How many films did you see on holiday? Four. a b c d e f g h i j What .. your father do? He works in a museum. What . the English teacher .. ? Shes checking this exercise. How long . it ... you to go to college? It takes me about twenty minutes. I go by bus. What . you last weekend? I went backpacking in the mountains. What sort of music .. you listening to? I prefer opera and classical music. .. you ever . to Athens? Yes, I have. I went there last year. I really enjoyed it. What schools .. you attend? The high school in my town. What . you . next holiday? I dont know. I havent got any plans yet. .. you a CD player at home? No, I havent. Just a tape recorder. Who you about this college? My best friend.

In pairs, answer the questions about you.

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5. Contradict sentences a-j by giving the right information.

It doesnt boil at 75 C!Example: Water boils at 75 C. a b c d e f g h i j It boils at 100 C. My father has got ten brothers and sisters. I live in the desert. Were learning Portuguese. I had an elephant when I was young. Its snowing today. We went to New Zealand last year. The Pope comes from Italy. Well get to work by helicopter next year. Tourists visit Antarctica. Fish can fly.

6. Match a question in column A with an answer from column B. A 1 What does your sister look like? 2 Whats your aunt like? 3 Hows your mother? 4 Whereabouts do you live? 5 How do you spell your name? 6 What does handsome mean? 7 What did you do that for? 8 Whose file is this? 9 What sort of literature do you like? 10 What kind of car have you got? 11 What time is it? 12 What is the date? 13 How do you do? 14 How do I get to the station? 15 Theres some coffee and tea. Which do you prefer? B a. To get promoted. b. Shes fine, thanks. c. It means good-looking. d. Its mine. e. Its a quarter past ten. f. Poetry. g. Go down and take the first right. h. Ill have some coffee. i. How do you do? j. Its the third of October. k. A sports one. l. Shes generous and caring. m. M-O-R-R-I-S-O-N n. Near Central Park. o. Shes tall, slim, with dark hair.

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GRAMMAR FOCUSTAG QUESTIONS 1. Underline the tag questions in the text: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: Dan: Peter: You speak French, dont you? Yes, I do. Actually, I speak French and Russian. Russian? You didnt learn Russian at school, did you? Yes, when I was twelve. I did Russian for a couple of years. Then, say something in Russian, will you? No, Ive almost forgotten it. Its easy to forget a language if you dont practise. And what about your French? You havent forgotten that as well, have you? No, I practised it a lot when I did some interpreting for the tourists in our town. Ive got an idea. Lets go to Paris, shall we? To Paris?! Yes, to Paris, why not? It only takes three hours by train now, doesnt it? Does it? I didnt know that. Arent you worried about the cost? No, itll be good fun. And therell be plenty of opportunities to speak French, wont there?

2. Fill in the blanks with the right positive or negative question tag: Example: Its an interesting film, isnt it? You dont live with your parents, do you? a) b) c) d) e) f) g)18

We are having a meeting today, . ? You finished all your tests in time, .? He isnt quite a nice guy, ....? The train arrives at 6.30 p.m., ? She has found a new job, .? Oh, Im so late, ? You will call me as soon as you arrive, ...?

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h) i) j) k) l) m)

Catherine left on a trip to Rome last summer, .? Lets have one more look at this plan, ..? Im not too intruding, I hope, ..? You arent too enthusiastic about my idea, .? People sometimes overreact in stressing situations, ..? There are lots of students wishing to learn foreign languages, ?

Remember! You form questions in the following ways: Yes/No questions With the auxiliary verb be, have, will Are you coming with us to the library? Have you even been to Italy? Will you come back later? With the modal verb can, may, must Can you understand this rule? May I sit down? Must I do this exercise? With the auxiliary do followed by short infinitive when the verb has no auxiliary Do you look up every new word you come across? The answer is generally short, containing just the personal pronoun and the auxiliary verb. Have you got some paper? Do you like going out? Yes, I have./ No, I havent. Yes, I do./ No, I dont. Wh questions With the question words what, who, which, how, when, where, why, how many, how much, how long, to ask about the object of the sentence. They are followed by the auxiliary or the modal verb. What did you study last year? I studied Economics. ( Economics = object) With the question words who, what to ask about the subject of the sentence. They are not followed by the auxiliary do.19

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What gives you most information, the papers or the radio? The papers give me most information. (The papers = subject) The word order is:Question Auxiliary/ word Modal Is Has Will Can Does did are Why have What Subject the seat Robert it we his father you they you Who Verb taken? written be leave run arrive behaving decided wrote Object, adjective, adverbial, etc. the report yet? fine tomorrow? now? a company? in Berlin? like that? to do now? this fax? Short answers No, it isnt No, he hasnt. No, it wont. Sure you can. Yes, he does. Yesterday. I dont know. Ill see. She did.

Tag questions They turn a statement into a question, containing just the auxiliary verb and the personal pronoun, accordingly. If the statement is affirmative, you use a negative tag. Marion lives in Birmingham, doesnt she? Yes, she does. / No, she doesnt. If the statement is negative, you use an affirmative tag. They dont accept credit cards, do they? Yes. (They dont accept)/ No. (They accept) To ask for real information, you use a rising intonation on the tag. To show you expect agreement, you use a falling intonation on the tag. Lets have some fun! Questions and riddles 1 2 3 4 5 Where does August come before July? Who invented the five-day week? What did the big telephone say to the little telephone? Why was the strawberry so sad? What did one wall say to the other?

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Answers: 1) In the dictionary. 2) Robinson Crusoe he had all his work done by Friday! 3) You are too young to be engaged. 4) Because its mother and father were in a jam. 5) Meet you at the corner. CHECKLIST 1.Name: i) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a mother tongue. ii) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a second official language. iii) 3 countries in which English is spoken as a foreign language. 2. Give two synonyms for the noun COMPANY (~ business entreprise). 3. DO, BE, HAVE, WILL are auxiliaries placed first in an interrogative sentence. Give examples of such interrogative sentences. 4. What intonation do you use in a TAG QUESTION i) to ask for information ? ii) to show you expect agreement? 5. What is the WORD ORDER in an English i) affirmative sentence? ii) interrogative sentence?

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UNIT 2

SAYING HELLO!

SECTION A LEAD-INMeeting someone, when do we say: Its nice to meet you? while we shake hands? before we shake hands? after we have shaken hands? What would you discuss the first thing after introductions: the weather business Mr. Xs trip?

READINGINTRODUCTIONS Robert Black comes to the office of Sigma Computers. Mrs. Albu comes down to the reception area and introduces herself. Albu: Black: Albu: Black:22

Mr. Black? Yes, thats right. Let me introduce myself. Im Sanda Albu. I work for Mr. Pop. Mrs. Albu. How do you do? Ive been looking forward to meeting you. (They shake hands.)

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Albu:

Its nice to meet you, Mr. Black. Youve come a very long way on this trip, so I hope things are going well. Welcome to Bucharest!

NOTE: We use different expressions to greet people. Study the table below:INTRODUCING SOMEONE Id like to introduce you to Dr. Johnson (formal) May I introduce you to Mrs. Samson (formal) Mr. Brown, this is Ms. Attkinson (formal) Id like you to meet Stephen Cox. (formal/ informal) Have you met Dan? (informal) Sue, this is Mike. (informal) RESPONDING TO AN INTRODUCTION How do you do? (formal) Pleased to meet you. (formal) Nice to meet you. (formal/ informal) INTRODUCING YOURSELF Let me introduce myself. (formal) Allow me to introduce myself. (formal) How do you do? (formal)

GREETING SOMEONE Hello! Its good to see you. (formal) Hi! How are you? (formal) Hi, how are things? (informal)

RESPONDING TO GREETING Not bad, thanks. What about you? (formal) Fine, thanks and you? (informal)

Ms. Rotaru, who is organizing Mr. Tanakas stay at central office, is greeting him and explaining his programme. Read the dialogue and put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: Hello, Mr. Tanaka. Welcome back to Spiro Chemicals. Its nice to see you again. Mr. Tanaka: Hello, Ms Rotaru. Im delighted to be back. Ms. Rotaru: (have) you a good trip? Ms. Rotaru:23

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Mr. Tanaka: Yes, it (be) long, but it (be) fine, thanks. Ms. Rotaru: How many hours is it from Tokyo? Mr. Tanaka: I (come not) from Tokyo. I (come) from Singapore. I (leave) Tokyo six days ago. I (have) appointments in Hong Kong and Singapore on the way. Ms. Rotaru: I see. But its still a long flight. You must be exhausted. When (get) you in? Mr. Tanaka: Last night at half past eight. Ms. Rotaru: So (have) you a good nights sleep? Mr. Tanaka: Yes, I (sleep) very well, thanks.

LANGUAGE WORKROLE-PLAY Work in groups of three. Take turns role-playing parts A, B and C below. Part A You are Mr. Blake. You had a good time with B yesterday, and you are looking forward to meeting C. Part B You are Mr. Rosu. Introduce C to A, and act as the host. You have made reservations for lunch. Part C You are Mr. Voicu. Welcome A to Bucharest and ask questions about As trip.

1. Introduce the following people to each other: a. NAME POSITION COMPANY NAME POSITION COMPANY Dr. Malkovitch Human Resources Manager Delta Enterprises Ms. Shields Purchasing Officer TEXACO Mr. Simu Training Manager Caf de Colombia Mrs. Coman Sales Manager PECO

b.

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2. Complete the dialogue, using the phrases from the box:Im sorry to hear that How are you Pleased to meet you ... nice to meet you Id like you to meet Unfortunately How do you do Id like to keep in touch I really have to go How do you do I certainly will May I introduce you to Im afraid Im not Fine, thanks

Brown: Goldberg:

Oh, hi, Bob! ________________________ today? ________________________________Charles. ______________ our Vice-President, Elisabeth Powers. Elisabeth, ______________ Charles Brown from Sumitomo Company Ltd.

Powers: Brown: Powers:

_________________________________, Mr. Brown. ___________________________, Ms. Powers. Bob tells me that you would like to see our plant while you are in New York, wouldnt you? Thats very kind of you. _____________________, my schedule is booked up all next week. _________________________. Well, _________________ I may be in London next month. I see. Please give me a call then. _________________. It was _________________________. _________________________, too. ___________________. May I have your business phone number? Of course. Here is my business card. Thank you. And here is mine. Now, I __________________. Good bye. Good bye.

Brown:

Powers:

Brown: Powers: Brown: Powers: Brown: Powers: Brown:

Powers:

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GRAMMAR FOCUSPOSSESSIVES PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS You use a possessive pronoun (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs) or a possessive adjective (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their) to show that something belongs to someone: e.g. I like your suit. It fits better than mine. (mine = my suit) Yours is a nicer colour, though. (yours = your suit) Where did Jane buy hers? (hers = her suit) We usually get ours in Marks & Spencer (ours = our suits) Theirs are very good quality, arent they? (theirs = their suits) You use an object pronoun (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them) as the direct object of a verb: e.g. Her teacher wants her to study science at university. My cousin has invited us to his place on Sunday.

or as the indirect object of a verb: e.g. The President gave him a medal for bravery. Did John tell you the answer?

or after a preposition: e.g. Can Jane look after it for me this afternoon? He wont lend his car to them any more.

You use a reflexive pronoun (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) to talk about the same person or thing as the subject: e.g.26

I told myself not to be so silly. Frank has hurt himself.

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and when you want to emphasize that one person, and no other, does something: And did you build the whole house by yourself? Yes, we had to do it by ourselves because we didnt have enough money to pay a builder. e.g. in some special phrases: e.g. Does she live by herself? - No, her sister lives with her. Enjoy yourself at the dance tonight! Help yourself to some more cake! Make sure those children behave themselves and dont make too much noise.

Remember!Personal pronoun I you he she it we you they Object pronoun me you him her it us you them Possessive pronoun mine yours his hers ours yours theirs Possessive adjective my your his her its our your their Reflexive pronoun myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves

1. Use the possessive pronoun instead of the possessive adjective: a. He is one of my friends. b. Is this one of your little schemes? c. She played one of her old records. d. Thats one of our favourite topics. e. Here, John, meet one of your well-known commentators. f. He took a fancy to one of my cousins. g. Some of their computers got out of order. h. I gave him one of my CDs. i. Was it one of her applications? j. Do you have one of my copies?27

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2. Choose the right pronoun: a. Were much stronger than (they/them) at football. b. Just between you and (me/I), its (him/he) Im afraid of, not (she/her). c. Let (we/us) all go for a walk except (she/her), since (she/her) is tired. d. I know youre bigger than (I, me), in fact youre bigger than (we/us) both, but were not afraid of you. e. Youre as tall as (I/me), so you can easily ride my bike, but youre much fatter than either (I/me) or my brother, so we cant lend you a sports jacket. f. Do you think (he/him) is stronger than (I/me)? g. How can you talk to a woman such as (she/her)? h. Its only (we/us), (I/me) and my girl-friend Maisie! i. Help (I/me) carry (she/her), (she/her) has fainted. 3. Insert the missing possessives: a. This doesnt look like .......... book; it must be .......... b. Tell him not to forget ......... tickets; she mustnt forget ....... either. c. Tell me, isnt that ... girl-friend Mary over here? Oh, no, she was .... last week, but ... dog doesnt like me!. d. It was very good chocolate, but Ive eaten up .....; can you give me a little piece of ...? e. They have two of ......... houses in this street, and the house on the corner is also ... f. I see that he has lost ... pencil; perhaps you can lend him .... g. ........ is a very bad one, whats ......... like? (all persons). h. You can take ........ and give me ......... i. John has come to see me; ........ father and ...... were school friends. j. Weve taken ......... share, has she taken .......... ? Translate into English: a. Mie i mamei mele nu ne plac foarte tare dulciurile. b. Mai e mult de ateptat pn la cin. c. Spune c e tot att de nalt ca el. d. Ei ne-au convins s trecem de la GSM la DIALOG. e. Dac a fi n locul ei, a face cerere s obin acest post. f. I-am explicat cum stau lucrurile cum m-am priceput mai bine. g. Cu ei eti nedrept, nu cu mine. h. Odihnete-te puin; te ateapt o cltorie lung. i. Maina se ndrepta direct spre ei. j. Ia prea multe asupra lui. k. Sper ca tot ce am vorbit s rmn ntre noi. l. Au ceva bani asupra lor? m. Cineva ca tine ar trebui s dicteze moda (to set the fashion). n. Uite-te i tu n jur, toate locurile sunt ocupate!28

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SECTION B LEAD-INWhat country would you like to live in? Why? Where would you like to live: an apartment in the city center, a house in the suburbs, a house in the country? Do you like to socialize a lot or prefer your intimacy?

READINGHOUSES & FLATS Estate Agents LOCATION PRICE BEDROOMS RECEPTION ROOMS NURSERY BATHROOM KITCHEN PANTRY GARDEN GARAGE SHOPS TIME TO GET TO THE CENTER DESCRIPTION Suburbs $ 55,000 1 large 2 small A living room with space for a table and a dining room Regular With bathtub Large Adequate Small For two cars 5 minutes away 30 minutes Semi-detached house in a leafy suburb. Quiet residential street close to schools and park. Best of both worlds.

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Estate Agent: Mr. Windfield:

Estate Agent: Mr. Windfield:

Estate Agent:

Would this house suit you. Mr. Windfield? Well, Im not sure. You see, I have a big family: besides myself and my wife, we have three kids, and it is also my mother-in-law ... I think my kids would like to have their grand-mother nearby to take care of them, while their Mom and Dad are out, working. Then, I think it is exactly what you need. Oh, I dont know ... Maybe one more bedroom ... But what about guests? My cousins and my wifes sister and brother are usually checking in every Christmas! Ill definitely need more bedrooms! O.K. Dont worry! Well find something else.

THE AVERAGE BRITISH FAMILY The average British family lives in a semi-detached house with a garden in the south of England. They own their house, which is situated in the suburbs of a large town. The house has three bedrooms. On average they have two children and a pet. The family drives a two-year-old Ford Cortina. He works in the office of an engineering company for 40 hours a week and earns 200 per week. He starts at 9:00 in the morning and finishes at 5:30 in the evening. He goes to work by car, which takes him 20 minutes. He doesnt particularly like his job, but there are chances of promotion. She works in a service industry for three days a week and earns 95. She works locally and goes there by bus. She quite likes her job as it gets her out of the house, she meets people, and it is close to the childrens school. The children go to a state school which is a few miles from home. A special bus comes to pick them up every day. They are at school from 9:00 to 3:30. The most popular evening entertainment is watching television or video, which the average person does for two and a half hours a day. After that, the next most popular activity is visiting friends, going to the cinema or a restaurant, or going to the pub. The most popular hobby is gardening and the most popular sports are fishing, football and tennis. (from Headway Intermediate, OUP)

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Compare the British family with the average family from Romania. Think of the following: house/jobs/hours of work/school/transport/entertainment.

LANGUAGE WORKROLE-PLAY: Work in pairs. Prepare a dialogue together, then act it out. Student A is letting his apartment in a central position. He asks for a high rent and yet he has solid arguments and is optimistic about letting. Student B would like to rent an apartment in a central position, but the supply is rather generous, so he is difficult to persuade. What does knowing a new word mean? It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know: a) what words it is usually associated with; b) whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics; c) how it is pronounced. Try to learn new words not in isolation but in phrases. Write down adjectives together with nouns they are often associated with and vice versa (e.g. royal family; rich vocabulary). Write down verbs with the structure and nouns associated with them (e.g. to add to our knowledge of the subject; to express an opinion). Write down nouns in phrases (e.g. in contact with; a train set; shades of opinion). Write down words with their prepositions (e.g. at a high level; thanks to your help). Note any grammatical characteristics of the words you are studying. For example, note when a verb is irregular and when a noun is uncountable or is only used in the plural. Make a note of any special pronunciation problem with the words youre learning.

GRAMMAR FOCUS1. Work in pairs or groups. Put in missing articles and make any other changes necessary to make complete sentences. A note from Helen to Maggie, January 16.31

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Mr. Briggs from restaurant supplies shop phoned. Said he cant deliver fridge and cooker until this afternoon. Ive got to go to the butchers. Can you stay in restaurant, let restaurant supplies man in and wait by phone? Have taken booking for Saturday. Its in reservation book.

Remember! THE INDEFINITE ARTICLEUsage a before a consonant or a semivowel an before a vowel or mute h The indefinite article is used: with singular nouns when mentioned for the first time with singular nouns which represent a class of things after the verb to be: - with man, woman, child, etc. - to express nationality, profession in expressions of price, speed, ratio (a/an = per) with certain numbers Examples a man a hat a watch a university a European an apple an egg an uncle an island an hour I live in a nice flat. She has a daughter. A fridge is a very useful thing in our homes A child needs love Dont shout at him! Hes only a child. I am a Romanian. He is an architect. (but He is elected director temporary position) 15p a kilo 65 km an hour six times a day 11,000 a month a dozen a hundred a thousand 1 kilo = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half (but half a kilo) Its a pity. Its a shame. What a nice man! Such a long way!

in some expressions and exclamations

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THE DEFINITE ARTICLEUsage Examples The definite article is used: before objects that are unique or well-known the earth the stars the sea the wind before a noun defined by a phrase or clause the shop round the corner the place where I met him before a singular noun which represents a The washing machine has made life class of objects easier for housewives. with adjectives to represent a class of people The old have to be respected. collectively The English have many hobbies. before superlatives, ordinal numbers the best results the first place with proper names: the Pacific the Thames the Azores - seas, rivers, group of islands the Carpathians the Sahara - chains of mountains, deserts the Netherlands the Hague - certain countries and cities the Times the Titanic the Ritz - newspapers, ships, hotels the European Union the BBC - organisations (but Kodak IBM names of companies) The Johnsons will go on holiday. - plural surnames (= the whole family) - names consisting of noun + of + noun the Tower of London the Gulf of Mexico the British Museum the Far East or adjective + noun after prepositions Usage There is no article (& article): before plural nouns before uncountable and abstract nouns before names of meals He laid his notebook on the table.

ZERO ARTICLEExamples I bought apples and grapes. Money does not bring happiness. (but: The happiness of the young married was great.) He has bacon and eggs for breakfast. (but: The breakfast I had in that hotel was excellent.) History studies past events. (but: The history of that country is fascinating.) He arrived home. She is at work now. He went to university (to study). She goes to church on Sundays (to pray). He was taken to hospital (as patient). He is at sea (as sailor). I went to town to buy clothes. (but: This is the new home for orphans. Ill wait for you outside the university. The church is a very old building. The hospital was renovated. He goes to the sea every summer.)

before names of subjects before home, work, school/ college/ university, church, hospital, sea, town

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with some proper names: names and surnames continents, countries, regions islands, mountains, lakes cities, towns, streets, parks before noun + numbers

Uncle David Mr Norfolk Asia North America Canada Central Europe Madagascar Everest Lake Ontario London Venice Regent Street Hyde Park chapter 5 page 123 room 476 bus 19 gate 5

1. Which is the correct, (a) or (b)? a. Julie goes to (a) church (b) the church every Sunday. b. Go straight ahead to (a) church (b) the church, then turn left. c. Im a bit upset. Lees in (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. Hes quite ill. d. My sister works at (a) hospital, (b) the hospital. Shes a cleaner. e. In Britain, children go to (a) school (b) the school from nine oclock until four oclock every day. f. My wife is away on business in (a) Far East (b) the Far East. g. The highest mountain in (a) the Himalayas (b) Himalayas is (a) Mount Everest (b) the Mount Everest. h. Shes travelling in (a) the Europe (b) Europe and (a) Middle East (b) the Middle East. i. (a) Spaghetti (b) The spaghetti you ate yesterday was for todays dinner. j. I like (a) spaghetti (b) the spaghetti. 2. Fill in the blanks with a or an where necessary. a) My neighbour is .. photographer. b) Theyll pay him .. thousand .. week. Its .. enormous salary, but he is .. managing director after all. c) I have .. hour and .. half for lunch. d) .. friend of mine is expecting a baby. If its .. girl shes going to be called Etheldreda. What .. name to give . girl! e) The lamp is broken. Do you have .. screwdriver? 3. In each pair of sentences, fill in one blank with the, and the other blank with & (no article). 1 A I am not motivated by _____ money. B When are you going to pay back _____ money I lent you? 2 A The scientist could not work out _____ age of fossils.34

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B 3 A B 4 A B 5 A B 6 A B

We never refuse to give someone a job on the basis of _____ age. _____ mistakes you have made cost us a great deal of money. Don't worry. Everybody makes _____ mistakes. This book will give you _____ information you need. CD-ROMs can store large quantities of _____ information. _____ visitors must be accompanied at all times. _____ visitors are on a fact-finding mission from Brazil. _____ Japanese imports are currently at very high levels. It is very difficult to sell to _____ Japanese. THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

Regular nouns - you make the plural by adding -s to the singular noun: day days, price - prices - you add -es to a noun ending in -s, -ss, -sh, -z, -x, -ch, -tch: bus buses (or: busses), buzz - buzzes, fox - foxes, wish - wishes, church - churches, match - matches you add -es to nouns ending in o: tomato - tomatoes, potato potatoes

Irregular nouns - you change nouns ending in a consonant + -y to consonant + -ies: party - parties, baby - babies, story stories) (but: you add -s to a noun ending in vowel + -y: boy boys, donkey - donkeys, storey storeys) - the nouns: calf, half, knife, life, loaf, shelf, thief, wife, wolf, scarf, hoof change -f or -fe into -ves in the plural: life - lives, knife - knives, leaf - leaves (but: roof - roofs, cliff cliffs, handkerchief handkerchiefs) (but: radio - radios, photo - photos, piano pianos)

4. Rewrite the sentences, making the words in brackets plural: Example: Television and newspapers are the mass (medium) of advertising. Television and newspapers are the mass media of advertising. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He wished to place certain (memorandum) before the committee. The (mouse) were caught by the neighbour's cat. Piano (solo) will be played by Ian Smith. He arranged that his books should contain detailed (appendix). Due to heavy snowfall, (bus) are late. University faculties expect to receive completed (thesis) by the beginning of June. The (thief) broke into the shop but were caught by the (passer-by).35

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8.

The ships were unloading their (cargo) on to the (wharf).

9. He agreed that these were strange (phenomenon). 10. Many people think that (parent-in-law) should not live alongside the young couple. 5. Which of the nouns below are followed by a singular verb and which are followed by a plural verb? police, news, people, politics, clothes, pyjamas, shoes, economics, trousers, glasses, scissors, mathematics, goods, savings, premises. 6. There are three countable nouns in this list. Which are they? (The rest are all uncountable): book knowledge bread love cream progress gold weather jam work oil accommodation snow cupboard wind English wood equipment advice furniture football match homework fun luggage help music travel rubbish health traffic information 7. Fill in the blanks with some or any: Note that some is typically used in affirmative sentences, while any is typically used in interrogative sentences, conditional clauses and sentences with a negated verb or containing words of the type: never, neither, nor, hardly, seldom; adjectives like reluctant, hard, difficult or other adjectives with too; verbs like to prevent, to deny, to fail. Some can replace any in interrogative and negative sentences or conditional clauses when the basic meaning is assertive or when one makes an offer or an invitation.36

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Any can be used in affirmative sentences, but with a change of meaning: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. If he gives ........ trouble, we will call his parents. I have hardly ............ doubt that he did it. If you would lend me .......... money I should buy myself a dictionary. I had ........... pills recommended to me the other day. If you find us ....... chairs, well sit on the terrace. They failed to turn out ....... nice dress. ......... of the sketches are very good. He has scarcely .... friends in this town. Are you sure you dont want me to make ......... coffee? She denied that she had sold ............ CDs to him. Would you like ............ more salmon? If you have ......... doubts, ask for further explanations. May we have ........... entertainment, too?

8. Put in a/an, some, any or a lot of only where necessary. a. Peter and Alison havent got ______ children. b. ______ children would be ____ problem for them at the moment as they have ________ work to do and they dont have _____ money. c. Unfortunately they dont have _______ interesting hobbies either. I think one of them should have _____ hobby. d. Their lives consist entirely of ______ work. _____ people live like that. e. They arent even interested in ______ travel. Sad, isnt it? 9. Supply some, (a) little, (a) few, much, many: Note that much and many are typically used in interrogative and negative sentences, while in affirmative sentences they may form part of the subject come after too or very: a. b. c. d. e. f. As she was still hungry, she asked for ....... more ham and eggs. Last year I spent the New Years Eve at the seaside; there were .......... people on the beach. Are there .......... lions at the Zoo? Have ..... salmon! Did you have ........ difficulties in translating the text? The tea is too sour, you have put too .......... lemon in it.37

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g. 8. h. i. j. k.

There are ........ letters for you today. ............. Europeans spend their holiday in Brasil. There are ........... fine shops in this street. His lectures provide ........... opportunities for discussion. Theres very .......... accommodation near the colleges. Very ......... ideas get farther than the inventor.

Words of Wisdom Comment on the following: Home is where the heart is. There is no place like home. East, west, home is best. Lets learn a new word! bungalow a bungalow was originally the house of a European in India, which usually had only one storey. It would have a veranda all around it and a thatched roof to protect the people who lived there from the hot sun. Today, many houses in Britain also have only one storey, and these are known as bungalows. My grandmother has moved to a bungalow, because she finds it difficult to get up and down the stairs.

CHECKLIST 1. Introduce: i) your cousin to a friend of yours. ii) your boss to a foreign business partner. iii) yourself to a new teacher. 2. Use in contexts the following: i) How do you do? ii) What do you do? iii) How are you? 3. What do you use in front of a noun: a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun? 4. Which of thes nouns can be accompanied by an indefinite article and why? butter, news, pity, John. 5. Name ten nouns having an irregular plural form.

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UNIT 3

COMPANIES

SECTION A LEAD-INWhat is a company? What do companies deal with? What companies do you know? Are they success companies or bankrupt companies? What does the success of a company consist in?

READINGA SUCCESS LIFE STORY IN BUSINESS A wartime bomb is exploding in front of Guido Borghis electric-appliance shop in Milan. That means that his 40 years of hard work are wiped out. Borghi is telling his three sons, We have to go back to being hired workmen. I am too old to start all over again. Today at Comerio, some 30 miles north of Milan, stand the headquarters of the multi-million-pound Borghi complex, Italys largest refrigerator manufacturer. Giovanni Borghi keeps everything going with his own boundless energy. He works together with his sons. They are making now hot plates, water heaters and electric irons as well as cookers. From now on there is nowhere for the Borghis to go but up. By day Giovanni and his sons run the business and make deliveries, at night they take products apart to find ways of improving them. They now have more than 4,000 employees. They cooperate with their customers. With the Italian standard of living constantly rising, a mass market is developing for their refrigerators and all their other household and industrial39

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products. To mass-produce successfully at the right price, to cut costs, Borghis make new investments of most of their fortune. The output rises constantly. Day by day they prove to be more efficient. Despite the success of their business, the Borghis live a simple life. All they earn is put back into the business, either to develop new products and new factories or to improve the employees welfare. Giovannis greatest pride and joy is the six-storeyed ultra-modern home built on the factory premises for 450 apprentices between 16 and 21. A luxury apartment block in appearance, the hostel has dormitories, study and game rooms, an assembly hall where films are shown, and athletics facilities together with many other company facilities for employees. Giovanni Borghi always plays to win, whether in his business or in his other undertakings. His favourite remark to his younger employees is: Every one of you can become like me. The important thing is never to treat success like a comfortable armchair. (based on Indro Montanelli, Italys Biggest Enterprises)

LANGUAGE WORK1. 2. 3. 4. Why are the Borghis ruined? Do they really go bankrupt? Where are their companys headquarters? What do they manufacture and what do they expand their products to? Why are their products efficient? What contributes to the efficiency of their products? 5. Which is the key of Giovannis success in business?

1. Fill in the gaps with suitable words from the text:The Borghis have to everything because a bomb is exploding in front of their shop. The companys are at Comerio. They are making refrigerators, cookers, electric irons, washing-machines . They put back into the business all they because they want to new and new and to improve their employees . The companys between 16 and 21 live in beautiful and well-equipped . Giovannis success key is to work ceaselessly and not to treat like a comfortable .

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2. Italian is the adjective from the proper noun of country Italy. Give the adjectives from these nouns: Portugal Romania Hungary Thailand Belgium Holland Switzerland Vietnam Iceland Mexico France Chile Wales Pakistan 3. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences: Example: Juan comes from Spain. He is a Spaniard and he speaks Spanish. a. Birgit comes from Denmark. She is a . and she speaks b. Zafer comes from Turkey. He is a .. and he speaks . c. Michael comes from Athens. He is a .. and he speaks . d. Anita comes from Sweden. She is a ... and she speaks . e. Eleanor comes from Scotland. She is a .. and she speaks f. Shuhei comes from Japan. He is a .. and he speaks . g. Iris comes from Finland. She is a ... and she speaks 4. Mr. Scott, a companys manager, is offering a 15,000 interest-free loan. An interest-free loan is a loan that is free of interest. Use similar compound adjectives to express the following ideas: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. a job that consumes a lot of time .. an event forgotten for a long time a flower that smells sweet a suit made by a tailor .. a plane that flies high ... goods that are free of tax .. a child who is seven years old ..

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5. Look at the words in the box, which have certain similarities in meaning. Put each word into its appropriate sentence: trade job practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. business profession vocation living craft industry commerce

He qualified as an economist in 1995, and set up in ... in Sheffield. After leaving school, he. in a solicitors office. I like my son to take over the . when I retire. Nursing is not just a job; it is a .., calling for much self-sacrifice and devotion. She earns her ... by telling fortunes at the seaside. The ancient . of weaving has been carried on in these islands for centuries. My uncle Joshua has worked in the local Chamber of . since he graduated from Oxford. Our mark is a circle with the letters G L inside it. There are a lot of Scotsmen in the medical .. Its a dirty, smoky city, as there is a lot of heavy .. on the outskirts.

6. Read the following text about BICC and make the company profile: BICC is a large multinational with about forty thousand employees world-wide and a turnover of approximately three billion pound. The groups main activities are construction and manufacture of cables. The group has five different divisions. Balfour Beatty is Britains leading construction company with a turnover of around $ 1,700 m. The company is famous for its work constructing motorways, buildings and of course, the channel tunnel. Another division is BICC Cables. They are the largest manufacturer of fibre optic cables in Europe and they now own the Italian company Ceat Cavil, CelCat in Portugal; part of CGC in Spain and KVC in the former East Germany. BICC Cables is expanding fast in Asia too and it has a turnover of $ 1,103 m. Make also a profile of each division of the multinational company BICC.

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7. Fill in the spaces using the words below: divided into division retail subsidiary manufactures employs

ICL is a . of Fujitsu, which is a an 82% shareholder in the parent company. The company . a total of 12,000 people. ICL group consist of twenty-nine autonomous companies. Each company has its own Managing Director. The group is . three divisions. The first is Industry Systems. This division produces business solutions (software) for ICIs customers. The second is Technology, which computers and components. The third . is Services, which sells computer services, like maintenance and training. ICL operates in six different target markets: . - thats shops, supermarkets and so on; financial services; local and central government; healthcare; manufacturing; travel and transport.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

What is a holding or parent company? What is a subsidiary? What is a division? What does the group consist of? What is a company made up of? Where do the companies of a group operate in? What is a target market?

8. Ask questions about the building and the facilities of a company, using the words below and beginning with: Is the building ? There is a/an There are . Is there a/an .? Are there ..? Are they any .? There isnt a/an. There arent any. There are no modern separate rooms for smokers staff restaurant large car park facilities for disabled staff near a railway station lifts bus stop nearby noisy crche air conditioning system sport or recreational facilities cold in winter nice to work in43

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Practice: Make comments in your own words about each of the qualities of a company building and about its facilities. 9. Study the organization of a company: Human resources Training Production Production Marketing Marketing Finance Buying or Purchasing Customer Account Financial Services

Personnel Wages and Salaries

Packaging Distribution or Dispatch Quality

After-Sales Research and Development Advertising

Maintenance

Now read attentively the definitions below and specify which department: 1. puts the products in boxes and crates? 2. places ads in magazines? 3. pays the staff? 4. purchases supplies? 5. sells the products to customers? 6. plans how to sell new products? 7. services the machines and equipment? 8. arranges courses for the staff? 9. recruits new employees? 10. manufactures the products? 11. invoices customers? 12. looks after customers problems and complaints? 13. dispatches the products and sends them to customers? 14. organises control systems to prevent mistakes? 15. deals with taxation, investment and cash management?44

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GRAMMAR FOCUSPRESENT TENSES Read the following paragraph about the company Marks & Spencer: Marks & Spencer, the British food and clothes company, is the most famous British shop in the world. At the moment, there are M & S shops in Britain, and other shops in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and Portugal. Currently, they are building a large new store in Paris on the Rue de Rivoli. In North America, the company owns Brooke Brothers and there are about fifty stores in Canada. More and more people, from Hong Kong to Lisbon, are buying their clothes and food from M & S. The clothes vary from country to country. Food departments sell typically British food: tea, cakes, biscuits etc., and shops in Paris are very popular at lunchtime as they sell sandwiches. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 1. Use simple present tense in the following sentences, to show permanent activities: Example: M & S sells food and clothes. Does M & S sell food and clothes? It does not/doesnt sell food and clothes.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Steve, an engineer, works for an oil company. Monika, a journalist, writes for an Italian newspaper. Louisa, an airhostess, travels all over the world with an American airline. Juan, a businessman from Madrid, exports Spanish antiques, an unusual job. Mikis, and Yiannis, architects, design houses in Athens.

2. Simple present tense is also used with time adverbials to express frequent, actions, habitual. Example: Steve, to watch television, every day Does Steve watch television every day?

1. They, to drink coffee, every morning; 2. You, to cook Chinese food, on Sunday; 3. We, to visit friends, at the weekend; 4. She, to go to work, daily;45

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5. They, to visit a foreign country, every summer; 6. Steve, to run to his office, every day. 3. The adverbs of frequency (always, usually, often ) are often used with simple present tense. Their place is either between subject and predicate or after the verb to be. Example: I, an umbrella, carry, often; I often carry an umbrella. He, late, always, is. He is always late. The English, breakfast, at, speak, seldom; He, never, to be, in, interested, conferences; They, punctual, their, morning, in, the, at, normally, be, offices; Generally, she, own, her, forget, age; We, play, sometimes, Sunday, morning, on, tennis.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

4. Simple present is also used in Time Clauses to express the future after when, before, till, until, as soon as, immediately, by the moment Model: When you come, Ill be ready.

1. These gates will remain shut until the train ....(pass). 2. By the time he .. (get back) from his business trip, hiswife will have cleaned the house.

3. It is said that one Englishman will not speak to another till they ..(be introduced).

4. Ill ring you up whenever I ... (have) time. 5. As soon as she .... (learn) to type Ill get her a job.PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE 1. We use present continuous tense to express a temporary action, to indicate a temporary behaviour and an action which annoys the speaker. Example: She is not writing now, she is speaking on the phone.46

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I usually teach literature, but .. (teach) grammar this year. Why (be) so upset? Whats the matter with you? You .. (be) very unrealistic, life is not such. She .. (always, talk) on the phone when I come to see her. He .. (continually, lose) his glasses and (ask) me to look for them.

2. Use present continuous tense to describe personal fixed plans and appointments in the near future:

1. 2. 3. 4.

I .. (fly) to Paris on Friday. They .. (have dinner) with the sales team tonight. .. you .. (do) anything this evening? No, Im not. We .. (have breakfast) at 7.00 tomorrow because Tom doesnt want to miss the early train. 5. Where .. you (go) at the weekend? Dont you want to pay me a visit? 3. Use simple present or present continuous:

1. I . (hear) music. It .. (sound) fine. 2. I .. (think) he is a good man. 3. You .. (hear) from your daughter? 4. I .. (think) of his parents. How are they now? 5. You .. (be) rude today! 6. You cant see the manager now, he .. (to have) an interview. 7. He .. (usually, speak) so quickly. I .. (not understand) what he .. (say) now. 8. You .. (enjoy) yourself or you .. (like) to leave now? 9. I .. (enjoy) myself very much. I .. (want) to stay to the end. 10. .. (come) with me for a walk? ..(mind) if I bring my dog?Translate into English: Ce-i determin pe oameni s munceasc? Pare evident c oamenii muncesc numai pentru a se hrni i a se mbrca. Dar exist ci de a-i determina s munceasc pentru mai mult dect att. Dar mai muli bani i mai multe beneficii nu

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duc automat la o productivitate crescut. Primul lor efect este s ncurajeze oamenii s rmn n slujb, nu s produc mai mult sau s fie fericii. Managerii se gndesc s dea oamenilor slujbe potrivite talentelor individuale. n cazul banilor ca stimulent, oamenii muncesc pentru ei pn la un punct - s-i satisfac concepiile personale de via bun. Exist teoreticieni care pretind c banii i beneficiile sunt stimulente negative, absena lor i face pe oameni nefericii, dar prezena lor nu-i face mai productivi. Aceiai teoreticieni spun c banii conteaz doar mpreun cu performana individual. Pentru a stimula angajaii, multe companii i atrag n procesul de luare a deciziilor, aa nct ei s-i poat raporta elurile personale la cele ale companiei. n multe cazuri sugestiile salariailor sunt aplicate de ctre patroni cu succes. Remember! The following verbs cannot be used in the continuous aspect. Some of these verbs can be used in the continuous aspect with different meanings:VERBS VERBS WITH DIFFERENT MEANINGS IN THE CONTINUOUS ASPECT Verbs of senses: to smell, to taste, to feel, when they express a voluntary action; The verb to see = to visit, the verb to hear = to hear from (to have news from somebody); Verbs of mental activity: to think, to understand, to believe, to expect, to remember, to suppose; Verbs of feeling: to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, to loathe, to mind; 48 The verb to think when it doesnt express ideas but recollections; The verb to expect = to wait for; The verbs to like, to love, to enjoy when they dont express permanent states but a short period of time; Im seeing my family on Sunday. Are you hearing from your sister? Im thinking about summer holidays. my EXAMPLE

Verbs of senses when they show an involuntary action: to see, to hear, to smell, to taste, to feel, to sound, to look;

Im feeling the material to see if it is real silk.

Im expecting a present from Santa Claus. Im loving/enjoying this party. Im liking school better now.

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Verbs expressing will: to want, to wish, to refuse, to prefer; Verbs of possession: to have, to belong to, to own, to possess, to contain, to hold, to consist of; Other verbs: to matter, to depend upon, to deserve, to resemble To be

The verb to have in different expressions.

Dont disturb him! Hes having lunch.

The verb to be when it expresses a temporary behaviour.

I cant understand why you are being so rude today!

Lets have fun! Its the first day at university. Lecturer: Whats your nationality? Student: Its difficult to say. Lecturer: What do you mean? Student: Well, you see, my father is Polish, my mother Lithuanian, and I was born on a Russian ship, in Romanian waters, under the Turkish flag.

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SECTION B LEAD-INDo you believe in good luck or in hard work? Which are the qualities of a hard-working person? Do you think that work is always rewarded? Why? Why not? Give examples from your personal experience.

READINGNOTHING TO SELL AND NOTHING TO BUY Patricia: They say that everyone lives by selling something. Im sure this is true. Jeffrey: So am I. In the light of this statement, teachers live by selling knowledge and priests by selling spiritual comfort. Patricia: I think the value of material goods may be measured in terms of money, but its extremely difficult to estimate the true value of the services which people perform for us. Jeffrey: So do I. There are times when we willingly give everything we own to save our lives, but we bear a grudge against doctors as we have to pay them. I dont agree with grudge-bearing persons. Patricia: Neither do I. I neither like that kind of persons, nor want to meet them. The conditions of society are such that skills have to be paid for in the same way that goods are paid for at a shop. Everyone has something to sell. Jeffrey: Yes, youre right! But what about tramps? They seem to be the only exception to this general rule. I dont mean beggars, who almost sell themselves as human beings to arouse the pity of passers-by. Patricia: I dont like them either. But real tramps are not beggars. Jeffrey: Yes, they only seek independence. They deliberately choose to lead the life they lead and are fully aware of the consequences. Patricia: Then why do we often speak with contempt of? I think there are a lot of people who cant honestly admit they feel a little envious of their simple way of life. Jeffrey: So do I, youre right! (based on Alexander, Developing Skills, Longman)50

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What do teachers and priests sell? How do we measure the values of material goods? Are skills paid for in the same way as goods are?

LANGUAGE WORK1. Speak about ways of earning ones living through hard work and ways of earning ones living through other ways. Explain the difference among these verbs, all of them including the idea to make money: to earn, to gain, to get, to win, to cash, to economize, to invest, to save, to speculate, to transact. 2. Make two columns: employed and unemployed. Which of the following words and phrases have to belong to each column: dismiss, fire, hire, promote, resign, retire, suspend, sack, kick out, strike, employment, industrious, fail, profit, inactive, on the dole, out of work, scrupulous, idle, serious, thorough, indolent, make someone redundant?

GRAMMAR FOCUS1. Read these ads about used cars sale. Then use so is and neither: Audi Quattro 2000, blue, 5-door, radio, excellent condition, taxed until December. 4,725 Renault Megane 2001, automatic, red, 4-door, sunroof, radio, taxed until September. 8,525 Porsche GT3 1996, red, 4-door, sunroof, excellent condition. 4,875 Hyunday Accent 2000, dark blue, 4-door, radio, excellent condition. 6,125

Example: The Audi is a 2000 model. So is the Hyunday.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The Audi is in excellent condition. The Hyunday is blue. The Porsche isnt taxed. The Renault isnt a 5-door model. The Porsche is red.51

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2. Read these ads about Job vacancies. Then write sentences using so do/does or neither do/does A Secretary/PA with good shorthand/typing skills and fluent French required for Sales Manager on international company. The job involves travel and a lot of organization work. Excellent salary, modern offices in Victoria, five weeks holiday. Ring Susan Gill 01-636-0239. B Legal Personal Assistant, 8800 pound. Busy solicitors office in West End. Good shorthand/typing and legal experience essential. Excellent working conditions, 5 weeks holiday. Please contact Mr. J. Banks. Tel. 01-629-9923. C Audio Secretary for overseas Dept. of City Bank. Previous banking experience, spoken and written French essential. Some travel involved. Salary negotiable. Excellent working conditions. 5 weeks holiday. Telephone Michael Hill 01-453-9785. D Secretary (Audio), 8,000 pound, required for Fashion Company with offices in Mayfair. No previous experience in fashion necessary. The job involves travel in UK. Current driving licence essential. If you have good typing and audio skills and an ability to organize, contact Jane Weathers 01-34-7111. We offer 4 weeks holiday and luncheon vouchers.

Example: Job A requires French. So does Job C. Job A doesnt offer flexible working hours. Neither do Jobs B and C

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.52

Job A requires good shorthand. Job C doesnt state the salary. Job A offers 5 weeks holiday. Job B requires previous experience. Job A doesnt offer luncheon vouchers. Job B offers excellent working conditions. Job A doesnt require a driving licence. Job D requires ability to organize.

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3. Translate into English: Jeffrey: Nu merg la petreceri prea des. Patricia: Nici eu. Ursc ncperile aglomerate. Jeffrey: i eu. Nu sunt un amator de petreceri, ntr-adevr. Patricia: Nici eu. Nu m pricep la conversaie. Jeffrey: Nici eu. Sunt un gen de persoan linitit. Patricia: i eu. Locuiesc singur ntr-o garsonier. Jeffrey: i eu. i nu am muli prieteni. Patricia: Nici eu. i vreau foarte mult un prieten bun, ntr-adevr. Jeffrey: Oh, i eu.

Remember! Conjunctions Structures The conjunctions either, neither, nor and so express emphatic alternatives in addition to remarks.REMEMBER When a negative verb is repeated with a new subject, either may be placed at the end of the sentence. This can be more clearly expressed by using neither/nor + auxiliary verb in the affirmative + subject. The same construction can be expressed in the affirmative with so. EXAMPLE He doesnt go. She doesnt go. He doesnt go and she doesnt go either. He doesnt go. Neither does she. He doesnt go and nor does she.

He goes and so does she.

Lets have fun! Story This is a story about the well-known millionaire, John D. Rockefeller and is told by a friend of his. This friend said that though Rockefeller gave away millions, Rockefeller himself was very mean about small sums of money.53

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One day he went to stay at a hotel in New York and asked for the cheapest room they had. Rockefeller said What is the price of the room?. The manager told him. And which floor is it on?. Again the manager told him. Is that the lowest priced room you have? I am staying here by myself and only need a small room. The manager said, That room is the smallest and cheapest we have, and added, But why do you choose a poor room like that? When your son stays here he always has our most expensive room; yours is our cheapest. Yes, said Rockefeller, but his father is a wealthy man; mine isnt.CHECKLIST 1. Comment an the following statement: Never treat success like a confortable chair. 2. State the difference between wages and salaries. 3. Choose the correct verb form: i) The Prime Minister meets/is meeting the foreign delegation at 10 a.m. ii) I meet/am meeting my friends at 10 p.m. 4. What important information should a job vacancy ad contain? 5. What is a holding company?

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UNIT 4

GOING TO COLLEGE

SECTION A LEAD-INIn groups discuss the following questions:

Do you think that the number of students should be greater? Do you think education should be free? Are there advantages in a private educational system? Is a diploma necessary to get well-paid jobs? What other ways are there to get qualifications? Complete these sentences with a word or expression to do with education from the box below:

1 2 3 4

Margaret had left school and was anxious to go to to study architecture. The .. are preparing their first exams. Joan attends the business courses regularly, so she is a .. student. When he finished the law studies, Christian was awarded a . to become a lawyer.55

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5 6 7

In order to go on to ... or vocational training, pupils usually take two or three A level examinations. Frank is among the best students and he is going to receive a .. In the States the . are quite high, so private colleges and universities are rather expensive.

grant college full-time tuition fees undergraduates higher education qualification READINGWork in pairs. Student A should use the information below and Student B should look at the information in File 1 on page 190.

HIGHER EDUCATION IN UKThere are forty-seven universities in Britain and thirty polytechnics, plus 350 colleges and institutes of higher education. Undergraduate courses normally take three years of full-time study, although a number of subjects take longer, including medicine, architecture and foreign languages (where courses include a year abroad). They lead in most cases to a Bachelors degree in Arts or Science (BA or BSc). Students of law, architecture and some other professions can take qualifications that are awarded by their own professional bodies instead of degrees. There are also various postgraduate degrees, including Master of Arts or Philosophy (MA or MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Universities accept students mainly on the basis of their A levels, although they may interview them as well. At present, students who have been accepted by universities or other institutions of higher education receive a grant from their local authority, which covers the cost of the course, and may cover living expenses, books and travel, although parents with higher incomes are expected to make a contribution. Before1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been introduced. (adapted from Britain Explored, Longman)

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LANGUAGE WORKComplete the chart. Then compare the educational system in UK or the USA with the educational system in our country. UK USA Romania Courses Degrees Admission Tuition fees Concerns

Write a paragraph describing some of the main differences .1. In pairs decide whether the following statements are true () or false ( ). Medicine, architecture and foreign languages are studied for three years. Students are only accepted based on entrance examinations. The grant received by students is being paid back at present. High schools and colleges are not attended by many Americans. Education is considered vital to the American ideal. Not so many people think that the quality of education is a problem that must be addressed. 2. Do you know what the following abbreviations stand for? BSc, PhD, VIP, CD, DJ, MA, Washington, D.C., SOS, IT, p.m., e.g., i.e. Can you add some more? 1 2 3 4 5 6

VOCABULARYClippings are some words normally used in an abbreviated form in informal situations. exam (examination) TV or telly (television) lab (laboratory) board (blackboard) fridge (refrigerator) rep (representative)57

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phone (telephone) ad/advert (advertisement)

fax (facsimile)

memo (memorandum)

You take / do / sit an exam. If you are well prepared, youll pass / do well in your exam. If you skip lectures, youll probably fail / do badly in the exam. Therefore, before an exam its a good idea to revise for it. When you pass all your exams, you graduate from university youre a graduate. 1. Look up the following terms specific to the US education system: sophomore freshman junior senior 2. Here are some words related to education and training. Put them in columns under these headings: degrees, subjects, education institutions, teachers

statistics professor college economics bachelor master university accounting tutor postgraduate lecturer geography high school international business doctor polytechnics reader

3. Correct the following sentences: 1 I cant come out. Im studying. Im passing an examination tomorrow. 2 Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your exam! 3 Shes a professor in a primary school. 4 He left university and now hes an economist.

GRAMMAR FOCUS1. Put in the prepositions in, at or on. 1 Nick was so bored, he had nothing to do ____ the weekend. 2 Derek went swimming ____ Sunday morning and _____ the evening he played bridge. 3 I took my annual holiday in August, but I had a few days off ____ Christmas as well. 4 I was born ____ 1954.58

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5 6 7

I was born ____26 March 1954. The house was built ____ the eighteenth century. Angela got up very early ____ the morning to set out on her trip and she arrived in Brighton quite late ____ night. I was six years old.

2. Write an appropriate question for these answers. Example: How old were you when you started school? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . I went to two schools. . The first was a junior school, the second was a high school. No, I didnt. I wasnt quite happy at school. I took A levels when I was 17. Yes, I did. I went to Oxford University Sociology . I studied there for four years. .. I graduated in 1977.

SIMPLE PAST 3. Put the verbs in the correct tense and fill in the spaces. All the verbs are irregular.write Infinitive letters a mistake care a report an ice-cream wrote Simple past a memo a decision a photograph a magazine a new CD Past participle written your resignation noise a chance through the handbook tickets 59

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a lecture attention out for lunch a car three languages the class someone off your best the bell fast your job

a present the rent on holiday carefully up to rain the point business with someone up a company a bet

your opinion taxes on a trip someone crazy loudly work early someone later homework back later a campaign your temper

4. Put either for or since with these time expressions. a b c d e f g h . a long time . six days . my last birthday . the end of the holidays . ages . I came to England . the last few days . the day I met you

PAST SIMPLE AND PRESENT PERFECT Before 1990 the grant was paid back, but since then a system of loans has been introduced. When was the grant paid back? How long has a system of loans been introduced? Past Simple 1990 Present Perfect now

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Compare the following sentences. a Hes lived in the countryside for seven years. (He still lives there.) He lived in the countryside for seven years. (Now he lives somewhere else.) b The company produced gramophones.(It cant produce any more.) The company has produced software. (It can produce some more.) c Have you seen Tom anywhere this morning? (Its still morning.) Did you see Tom this morning? (Its afternoon or evening.) SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT 5. Write the questions using present perfect or past simple. Look at the answers first. Example: How long / Sarah / live / in France? How long has Sarah lived in France? Since 1990 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 When / be the last time / you / have / a holiday? .. How long / you / khow / Doris? .. How long / Daniel / be / a student? ... What time / you / finish work? How long / you / write / your report last night? When / Chris / leave / for the airport? . When / Norman / take / these photos? ..

Last year. Two hours ago. Since last year. At 6.00 p.m. All evening. Ten minutes ago. Last summer.

SIMPLE PAST OR PRESENT PERFECT? 6. In the dialogue below, put the verbs into the simple past or the present perfect, as shown in the example. A: Could I have a word about your trip to Warsaw? B: Certainly. Is everything all right?61

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A: Yes. Your tickets 1) have arrived (arrive) and theyre with my secretary. And I 2) ...(just/have) a fax from the hotel confirming your reservation. B: Thank you. What about money? A: I 3) ... (already/order) some zloty for you. I 4) ... (ring) the bank yesterday, and theyll have them tomorrow. But theres a problem with your Eurocheque book. I 5) . (ask) them to send one a week ago, but it 6) (not/arrive) yet. B: Thats all right. I 7) . (never/need) a Eurocheque before. I normally use a credit card. A: Really? Are you sure you can do that? B: I think so. Certainly when I 8) . (go) to Austria last September I 9) . (take) my Visa card and my MasterCard, and I 10) (not/have) any problems. But Ill check about Poland. 11) . (you/ever/be) there? A: No, but have a word with Jennifer Cooper in Marketing. She 12) (be) there a couple of times, so I expect she would know. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OR PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS? 7. Underline the correct form of the verb. Remember that some verbs cannot be used in the continuous aspect. Example: I didnt realize that you and David were friends. How long have you known/been knowing him?

1. Peter is a natural salesman. He has sold/has been selling eight insurance policies since the beginning of the week. 2. The French visitor has arrived/been arriving at the airport for half an hour! You have to leave immediately to pick him up. 3. We have waited/have been waiting for Helen for one hour. I guess she wont come at all. 4. This report is a nightmare. I have written/have been writing it for two weeks, and it is still not finished.62

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5. Ive stayed/been staying in a hotel for a week, but I hope to find an apartment of my own. 6. I wonder how Jim is getting on. I havent heard/been hearing from him for nearly a month. 7. Marion has had/been having this car for eight years, but I think it wont need to be repaired too soon.

8. Complete the questions and answer about George Thomsons life using Past Simple and Present Perfect. p. 56 1949 1960 1965 1967 1971 1972 1975 1976 1980 1987 1989 1992 1994 1995 2002 (now) born in Manchester starts Garibaldi Grammar School, meets his best friend Harry moves to London sales representative for Fancy Clothes Manufacturer marries Sophie, a French librarian moves to France, teaches English his son Thomas born, returns to England gets a job as sales representative for WH Smith bookshops his daughter Clementine born, moves to detached house in Cambridge UK Manager for Cambridge Publishers made redundant meets Harry again, offered a job as Marketing Director with Harrys company St Jeromes Publishers St Jeromes Publishers goes bankrupt starts market stall selling clothes still selling clothes at Portobello market

1. Which school did he go to? Garibaldi Grammar School. 2. How long ... Harry? Since ..... . 3. How .... to Sophie? For thirty-one years. 4. What .. in France? He ... English.63

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5. When . to England? After .. born. 6. How many times .... Twice as sales representative?

7. Where ... to after Clementine was born? A house in Cambridge. 8. How .. clothes? Since .. . 9. . George a successful career? No, he hasnt, because ... 9. A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the sentences by matching a line from A with a line from B. B Although these clothes are expensive a) in spite of his age. Though the results are encouraging b) they are bought by a lot of people. Despite the lack of resources c) though he had no qualifications. He would walk for hours d) the company did not go bankrupt. He got the job e) they do not get the best marks. Although they learn more f) they are not enough for real success.

Remember! Past tense vs. present perfect Present perfect indefinite time How long have you prepared it? for a long time. Ive prepared it lately. since yesterday. recently. She has just left. Ive already seen it. I havent seen it yet.64

Past simple definite time When did you prepare it? yesterday. I prepared it two weeks ago. in 1995. at one oclock. when I last saw him. for two years.

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SECTION B LEAD-INWork in pairs. Student A should use the information below and Student B should look at the information in File 2 on page 191. Then answer the following questions:

Which university is the oldest, Cambridge or Harvard? Which college is the oldest? Which college is the most recent? Which college is the most famous? Which institute is best placed in science and technology?

READINGCambridge must be one of the best-known universities in the world. The renowned English institution started during the 13th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges. Most of them allow visitors to enter the grounds and courtyards. The oldest college, Peterhouse, was founded in 1284, and the most recent, Robinson College, was opened in 1977. The most famous is probably Kings, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of undergraduates is also very well known. Every year thousands of students from overseas come to Cambridge to study English in the first place. Each year in May there are the Eight Weeks of various sporting events, among which the most celebrated is the boat-race Oxford v. Cambridge. It was first rowed in 1829 and has became a regular event since 1856. To the North of this ancient city is the modern face of the University the Cambridge Science Park, which has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It was established in 1970 by Trinity College, which has a long scientific tradition going back to Sir Isaac Newton. Cambridge Science Park is now a centre of more than sixty companies and research institutes.

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LANGUAGE WORKAmerican English Cambridge Science Park is now a centre of more than sixty companies and research institutes. (British English) Cambridge remains a center of intellectual life, especially since its become home to MIT. (American English) Here are some of the main difference both in spelling and vocabulary between the two:Spelling British English metre, theatre colour, humour programme, dialogue analyse, organise defence, licence traveller, jewellry through, plough cheque encyclopaedia skilful, fulfil grey pyjamas American English meter, center color, humor program, dialog analyze, organize defense, license traveler, jewelry thru, plow check encyclopedia skillful, fulfill gray pajamas Vocabulary British English petrol lorry luggage holiday pavement lift term motorway (bank)note underground ground floor autumn American English gas(oline) truck baggage vacation sidewalk elevator semester freeway bill subway first floor fall

1. If you read words spelt in the following way, would the writer be British or American? 1) labor 2) fibre 3) centralized 4) movie theater 5) endeavour 6) thru 2. Translate the following into British English: 1. Weve run out of gas in the freeway. 2. Were leaving by subway. 3. Im looking forward to my vacation. 4. He put his baggage into the truck. 5. When does the fall semester start? 6. She bought a nice apartment on the first floor. 7. Can you change this bill for me?66

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Do you know any other examples of American English? Make a list at an appropriate place in your vocabulary notebook or file. 3. What is the comparative/superlative of the following adjectives? simple large fat easy difficult good cheap lucky profitable

quick

4. Choose the correct form