florin leon - managementul proiectelor software

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    Bdnrkf Dinf

    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

    snbtwhri

    Uupnrt ai eurs

    7?82

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    9

    Euprkfs

    Ehpktndud 8. Kftrnaueiri f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

    8.8. Kftrnaueiri .................................................................................................. 88

    8.7. Bufekkdi lhfhjiliftuduk...................................................................... 85

    8.7.8. _dhfkbkehrih ...................................................................................... 85

    8.7.7. Nrjhfkzhrih .................................................................................... .81

    8.7.5. Uidiekh pirsnfhduduk .................................................................... 89

    8.7.1. Enfaueirih ...................................................................................... 8:

    8.7.9. Enftrndud ........................................................................................... 8:

    8.5. Fnkufk ai ghz ........................................................................................... 83

    8.5.8. Aibkfkkk .............................................................................................. 83

    8.5.7. Qrkufjckud lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet............................... .8;

    8.5.5. Ekedud ai vkh hd ufuk prnkiet................................................... 77

    8.1. Lhfhjirud ai prnkiet ............................................................................... 79

    8.1.8. Ieckdkgrud htktuakfkdnr .................................................................. 7:

    8.1.7. _riskufkdi k fihtifkh ................................................................ .5?

    8.1.5. Lsurhrih pirbnrlhfidnr ........................................................ 57

    8.1.1. Klpdkehrih enriet ....................................................................... .55

    8.9. Enfeduzkk ........................................................................................................ 59

    Ehpktndud 7. Litnandnjkk ai aizvndthri h prnjrhlidnr

    7.8. Kftrnaueiri .................................................................................................. 5:

    7.7. Hgnrahrih enaihz k riphr ............................................................. 5:

    7.5. Litnandnjkh sievifkhd .......................................................................... 5:

    7.5.8. Litnandnjkh ehseha .................................................................... 53

    7.1. Litnandnjkh ekedke (ktirhtkv) .............................................................. 1?

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    2

    7.1.8. Litnandnjkh spkrhd ...................................................................... 18

    7.1.7. Litnandnjkh Qklignxkfj ........................................................... .17

    7.9. Litnandnjkh ckgrka ieduz .................................................................... 15

    7.2. Lnaidud R ...................................................................................................... 11

    7.:. Litnai bnrlhdi ........................................................................................... 19

    7.3. _rnjrhlhrih ixtril .............................................................................. 1:

    7.;. Litnandnjkh Npif Unurei ....................................................................... 1;

    7.8?. Litnandnjkh ai aizvndthri Nbbscnri (Nutsnurekfj) .................. 9?

    7.88. Enfeduzkk ..................................................................................................... 98

    Ehpktndud 5. Mustkbkehrih bkfhfekhr h prnkietuduk5.8. Kftrnaueiri .................................................................................................. 95

    5.7. Akhjrhlh prhjuduk ai rifthgkdkthti .................................................... 95

    5.5. Whth liaki ai rieupirhri h kfvistkkik .............................................. 99

    5.1. Rhdnhrih hetuhd fit ............................................................................... 92

    5.9. Whth kftirf ai rieupirhri h kfvistkkik........................................... 93

    5.2. Enfeduzkk ........................................................................................................ 9;

    Ehpktndud 1. Lhfhjiliftud anlifkuduk

    1.8. Kftrnaueiri .................................................................................................. 25

    1.7. Aibkfkrih anlifkuduk ................................................................................ 25

    1.5. Erihrih strueturkk ai aisenlpufiri h hetkvktkdnr..................... 22

    1.1. Rirkbkehrih anlifkuduk ............................................................................ 23

    1.9. Enftrndud anlifkuduk ............................................................................... 2;

    1.2. Enfeduzkk ........................................................................................................ :?

    Ehpktndud 9. Lhfhjiliftud tklpuduk

    9.8. Kftrnaueiri .................................................................................................. :8

    9.7. Aibkfkrih hetkvktkdnr ............................................................................... :8

    9.5. Nranfhrih hetkvktkdnr ............................................................................ :7

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    :

    9.5.8. Litnah akhjrhlik ai prieiaif........................................... :7

    9.1. Istklhrih aurhtik hetkvktkdnr k prnkietuduk.................................. :2

    9.1.8. Litnah aruluduk erktke ............................................................... :2

    9.1.7. Litnah _IWQ ................................................................................... :2

    9.1.5. Ukludhrih Lnfti Ehrdn ................................................................ :;

    9.9. Enfskairifti prhetkei hdi pdhfkbkerkk ................................................ 3?

    9.9.8. Uenpurkdi pdhfkbkerkk .................................................................... 3?

    9.9.7. Ehdkthtih istklrkdnr ..................................................................... 38

    9.9.5. Nlkskufkdi brievifti .................................................................... 37

    9.9.1. Wienlhfark ................................................................................... 35

    9.2. Enfskairifti prhetkei hdi pdhfkbkerkk ................................................ 31

    Ehpktndud 2. Lhfhjiliftud enstuduk

    2.8. Kftrnaueiri .................................................................................................. 39

    2.7. Litnai ai istklhri................................................................................... 32

    2.5. Lnaidi hdjnrktlkei edhskei ..................................................................... ;7

    2.1. Lnaidi hdjnrktlkei lnairfi ................................................................ ;9

    2.1.8. Lnaidud Zhdstnf-Bidkx ................................................................ ;:

    2.1.7. Lnaidud ENENLN .......................................................................... ;;

    2.1.5. Hfhdkzh pufetidnr bufeknfhdi............................................... 8?8

    2.9. Akstrkgukrih bnrik ai lufe f tklp............................................... 8?5

    2.2. Enfeduzkk ..................................................................................................... 8?3

    Ehpktndud :. Lhfhjiliftud ehdktkk

    :.8. Kftrnaueiri ............................................................................................... 8?;

    :.7. _rneisidi prkfekphdi hdi lhfhjiliftuduk ehdktkk.................... 88?

    :.5. Uthfahraidi KUN ;??? ............................................................................ 88?

    :.1. Lnaidud ELLK .......................................................................................... 889

    :.9. Gkgdkntieh KQKD .......................................................................................... 88;

    :.2. Enfeduzkk ..................................................................................................... 87?

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    3

    Ehpktndud 3. Lhfhjiliftud risursidnr ulhfi

    3.8. Kftrnaueiri ............................................................................................... 878

    3.7. Bhetnrk ai lhfhjilift hd ieckpik ................................................... 877

    3.5. Lntkvhrih ................................................................................................... 877

    3.5.8. _rneiaurk k lntkvhri ............................................................... 875

    3.5.7. Qinrkh htiptrkk......................................................................... 871

    3.5.5. Qinrkh kirhrckik fivnkdnr ulhfi h duk Lhsdnw ................ 879

    3.5.1. Qinrkh eidnr ank bhetnrk h duk Cirzgirj ............................... 873

    3.5.9. Qkpurk ai pirsnfhdkthti ............................................................ 873

    3.1. Nrjhfkzhrih ieckpidnr ........................................................................... 87;

    3.1.8. Nrjhfkzhrih kirhrcke ............................................................... 87;3.1.7. Nrjhfkzhrih lhtrkei .................................................................. 85?

    3.9. _rkfekpkk jifirhdi ai nrjhfkzhri h ufik ieckpi ........................... 858

    Ehpktndud ;. Enfaueirih ieckpik

    ;.8. feriairih .................................................................................................. 855

    ;.8.8. Aidijhrih hutnrktkk ................................................................. 851

    ;.8.7. Lnaididi enlpnrthlifthdi ................................................... 851

    ;.7. _ndktkeh k putirih ................................................................................... 851

    ;.7.8. Uursi ai putiri ........................................................................... 859

    ;.7.7. Qkpurk ai putiri .......................................................................... 852

    ;.5. _rneisud ai biiaghe` ............................................................................. 85:

    ;.5.8. Jriidkdi sugnranfhkdnr .......................................................... 853

    ;.1. Ehdktkdi fieishri lhfhjiruduk ai prnkiet.................................. 85;

    ;.1.8. Ifirjkh ........................................................................................... 85;

    ;.1.7. _irsivirifh ................................................................................ 85;

    ;.1.5. Uthgkdkrih k rispiethrih prknrktkdnr................................. 81?

    ;.9. Liehfksli ai ennranfhri .................................................................. 81?

    ;.2. Utkdurk ai lhfhjilift .......................................................................... 818

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    ;

    Ehpktndud 8?. Lhfhjiliftud enlufkerkk

    8?.8. Kftrnaueiri ............................................................................................. 819

    8?.7. _rneisidi prkfekphdi hdi lhfhjiliftuduk enlufkerkk........ 81:

    8?.5. Qrhfslktirih kfbnrlhkkdnr.............................................................. 81:

    8?.1. Ghrkiri ai enlufkehri ....................................................................... 81;

    8?.9. lguftkrih enlufkerkk ............................................................... 89?

    8?.9.8. lguftkrih prneisuduk ai hseudthri........................... 89?

    8?.2. Enlufkehrih serks............................................................................. 898

    8?.2.8. Wiahethrih ilhkd-urkdnr ........................................................ 898

    8?.:. Enlufkehrih virghd .......................................................................... 895

    8?.:.8. Nrjhfkzhrih iakfidnr .......................................................... 895

    Ehpktndud 88. Lhfhjiliftud rkseuduk

    88.8. Kftrnaueiri ............................................................................................. 89:

    88.7. Hfhdkzh UZNQ ........................................................................................ 89;

    88.5. Kaiftkbkehrih rkseurkdnr ....................................................................... 827

    88.1. Hfhdkzh rkseurkdnr .................................................................................. 821

    88.9. _dhfkbkehrih jistknfrkk rkseurkdnr.................................................. 822

    88.2. Lnfktnrkzhrih rkseurkdnr .................................................................... 82:

    Ehpktndud 87. Hfhdkzh aiekzkkdnr

    87.8. Kftrnaueiri ............................................................................................. 82;

    87.7. Aiekzkk f enfakkk ai eirtktuakfi.................................................... 8:?

    87.7.8. Hfhdkzh _hritn ........................................................................... 8:?

    87.7.7. Hfhdkzh enlphrrkk pirieckdnr............................................ 8:7

    87.7.5. Hfhdkzh lhtrkeik ai aiekzkk ................................................... 8:1

    87.7.1. Hfhdkzh ensturk-gifibkekk ....................................................... 8::

    87.5. Aiekzkk f enfakkk ai kfeirtktuakfi................................................ 83?

    87.5.8. Erktirkud Dhpdhei ....................................................................... 83?

    87.5.7. Erktirkud lhxklhx .................................................................... 838

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    8?

    87.5.5. Erktirkud lhxklkf .................................................................... 838

    87.5.1. Erktirkud Curwkez ..................................................................... 837

    87.5.9. Erktirkud Uhvhji (hd rijritidnr) .......................................... 835

    87.1. Aiekzkk f enfakkk ai rkse................................................................... 831

    87.1.8. Hrgnrk ai aiekzki ...................................................................... 831

    Wibirkfi .................................................................................................................... 8;8

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Ehpktndud 8

    Kftrnaueiri f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

    8.8. Kftrnaueiri

    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr aivkfi rhpka litnah ai lhfhjiliftutkdkzht ai uf fulr akf ei f ei lhk lhri ai kfaustrkk. Uuft rihdkzhti

    prnkieti piftru enfstrukrih eidnr lhk lhrk zjrki fnrk shu piftru rihdkzhrihufnr prnjrhli kfbnrlhtkei bnhrti sklpdi. Eik lhk ludk lhfhjirk ai prnkietenfskair e ticfkekdi ai lhfhjilift pnt bk hpdkehti prnkietidnr kfakbiriftai aklifskufi k e litnandnjkh, litnaidi k phkk utkdkzhk piftrulhfhjilift suft hprnhpi heidihk. Ludti enlphfkk lhrk hu f prizift npndktke aiedhrht ai halkfkstrhri bndnskfa litnai ai lhfhjilift hdprnkietidnr.

    Enfbnrl Jckauduk _LGN@ (_rnmiet Lhfhjilift Gnay nb@fnwdiaji, Enrpud ai eufntkfi hd Lhfhjiliftuduk ai _rnkiet), ufprnkiet isti uf ibnrt tilpnrhr ftriprkfs piftru h erih uf prnaus shusirvkeku ufke.

    Euvftud tilpnrhr fsihlf e nrkei prnkiet hri uf feiput k ufsbrkt. f jifirhd uf prnkiet feipi efa uf hfulkt tkp ai aneulift nbkekhdaiedhr e prnkietud kh bkkf. Heist aneulift ai ngkeik eriihz ufidilkmdnhei ai rihdkzhri h ecidtukidkdnr k ensturkdnr prnkietuduk. Ubrktud

    prnkietuduk hri dne ai ngkeik htufek efa tnhti ngkietkvidi prnkietuduk hu bnstrihdkzhti. Yfidi prnkieti si tirlkf htufek efa akf akbirkti lntkvi si aiekaihghfanfhrih prnkietuduk piftru e senpurkdi shdi fu pnt bk rihdkzhti prhetke.

    Euvftud ufke fsihlf e gufurkdi shu sirvkekkdi erihti ai prnkietsuft ftr-n nhriehri lsur akbirkti bh ai nrkei h bnst prnaus fhkfti. Heistdueru fu fsihlf e prnkietud isti enlpdit ufke, ek e ufidi prk suftsubkekift ai akbirkti piftru h fieiskth uf prneis ai pdhfkbkehri piftrunrjhfkzhrih ibnrtuduk ehri triguki beut.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri

    87

    Ahe fu hr ixksth heisti prk akbirkti hl vnrgk ai n ripitkki airutkf ehri fu hr hvih fivnki ai kfstruliftidi k ticfkekdi ai lhfhjiliftai prnkiet.

    Naht ei ngkietkvidi hu bnst faipdkfkti, risursidi riufkti f heist

    senp pnt bk htrkgukti hdtnr prnkieti. Heihsth fsihlf e ieckph ufuk prnkietpnhti bk eriht spiekhd piftru senpud heistukh.

    Yfud akftri prkfekphdidi hvhfthmi hdi lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet istiehphekthtih ai h bnrlh ieckpi ludtkaksekpdkfhri ehri enfkf nhlifk pntrkvkkdh lnliftud pntrkvkt. _rkf urlhri, pnt bk hausi f prnkiet risursi ainsigktihtufek efa suft fieishri.

    _irsnhfh (shu nrjhfkzhkh) ehri hri uf kftiris prkvkfa rizudthtidi ufuk

    prnkiet si fuliti phrti kftirisht (ifjd. sth`icndair). _rnkietidi vnrhvih ftntaihufh lhk ludt ai n phrti kftirisht, bkiehri eu fivnk k htiptrkakbirkti. Edkiftud shu spnfsnrud isti prkfekphdh phrti kftirisht f prnkiet.Br heisth, prnkietud prnghgkd e fu s-hr rihdkzh. Upnfsnrud hskjur ghfkkfieishrk piftru prnkiet k hri eid lhk lhri kftiris f sueeisud heistukh.

    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr riprizkft hpdkehrih ufnr eufntkfi,hptktuakfk k ticfkek piftru hetkvktkdi prnkietuduk eu senpud ai h shtksbheishu aipk fivnkdi k htiptrkdi prkdnr kftirishti. Aiek, lhfhjiliftud ai

    prnkiet utkdkzihz n sirki ai kfstrulifti k ticfkek piftru h jistknfh prnkieti.Lhfhjirud ai prnkiet isti pirsnhfh rispnfshgkd f bkfhd piftru

    sueeisud shu iieud prnkietuduk.Ui pnhti bhei n akstkfeki ftri tirlifkk ai prnkiet k prnjrhl.

    Enfbnrl Jckauduk _LGN@, uf prnjrhl riprizkft uf jrup ai prnkietihalkfkstrhti ftr-uf lna ennranfht piftru h ngkfi gifibkekk ehri fu s-hrputih ngkfi ahe prnkietidi hr bk halkfkstrhti siphrht.

    Isti klpnrthft ai rihdkzht bhptud e tirlkfhrih ufuk prnkiet fufsihlf k tirlkfhrih gufurkdnr shu sirvkekkdnr pi ehri di prnauei prnkietud.Ai ixilpdu uf prnkiet piftru enfstrukrih ufik eiftrhdi fuedihri si tirlkfefa h bnst faipdkfkt senpud ai enfstrukri h eiftrhdik k ai pufiri fbufekufi. Eiftrhdh enftkfu s bufeknfizi k aup ei prnkietud h bnstbkfhdkzht.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Ehpktndud 8. Kftrnaueiri f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

    85

    8.7. Bufekkdi lhfhjiliftuduk

    Lhfhjiliftud riprizkft faipdkfkrih ufnr ngkietkvi prkfkftirliakud nhlifkdnr k hd hdtnr tkpurk ai risursi. Heisth si ribir dhprneisud ai sthgkdkri k htkfjiri h senpurkdnr prkf ekfek bufekk ai ghz=pdhfkbkehri, nrjhfkzhri, sidieki ai pirsnfhd, enfaueiri k enftrnd, bndnskfarisursi ulhfi, bkfhfekhri k lhtirkhdi.

    8.7.8. _dhfkbkehrih

    _rkviti hftkekphrih sktuhkkdnr vkktnhri k aitirlkfhrih eidik lhk

    pntrkvkti lnahdktk ai hekufi piftru faipdkfkrih ngkietkvidnrnrjhfkzhknfhdi. Aisinrk enfskairht prklh bufeki h lhfhjiliftuduk,pdhfkbkehrih pufi ghzidi tuturnr eidnrdhdti bufekk. _dhfkbkehrih i uf prneisenftkfuu ehri klpdke sthgkdkrih hekufkdnr fieishri piftru h rspufai dhftrigrk prieul= ei triguki beut, efa k eul. Ai hsilifih, f heihstbhz lhfhjirud triguki s kh f ehdeud k bhetnrkk ehri pnt hmuth shu lpkiakehhtkfjirih senpuduk, prieul k pnskgkdidi hdtirfhtkvi akspnfkgkdi piftruhtkfjirih sh.

    _rkf pdhfkbkehri si kfstktuki n sirki ai hekufk ehri hfjhmihzkfakvkzkk, aiphrthliftidi k ftrihjh nrjhfkzhki tklp ai zkdi, dufk shu eckhrhfk. Ai heiih, pdhfkbkehrih triguki beut eu htifki, dufau-si f ehdeudurltnhridi hspieti=

    8.

    Aitirlkfhrih risursidnr fieishri07.

    Kaiftkbkehrih fulruduk ai nhlifk k h tkpurkdnr ai ehdkbkehri

    (pirsnfhd ticfke, ai supirvkzhri shu lhfhjirkhd)05.

    Aizvndthrih liakuduk nrjhfkzhknfhd f ehri si vh duerh (kirhrckhnrjhfkzhknfhd)0

    1.

    Aitirlkfhrih sthfahraidnr fieishri piftru ivhduhrih ivndukikprnkietuduk, hstbid fet s si pnht bhei enriekk htufek efa heistdueru si klpufi.

    f bufeki ai hlpdnhri shu sbirh ai hekufi, si pnt ivkaifkh trik

    ehtijnrkk ai pdhfkbkehri=

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri

    81

    8. _dhfkbkehrih strhtijke= Aitirlkf ngkietkvidi lhmnri hdi

    nrjhfkzhkik. Isti kfkkht k jckaht ai uf lhfhjilift ai fkvid fhdt,fs tnhti fkvidurkdi ai lhfhjilift triguki s phrtkekpi piftru ehpdhfkbkehrih strhtijke s aih rizudthti. Heist tkp ai pdhfkbkehri

    faipdkfiti senpurk prieul= Uthgkdkrih ufnr akriekk k hfjhmhlifti pi tirlif dufj piftru

    ftrihjh nrjhfkzhki0

    Klpdkehrih lhk ludtnr fkvidurk ai lhfhjilift f prneisudai pdhfkbkehri0

    Aizvndthrih ufuk lnaid nrjhfkzhknfhd f ehri pdhfurkdisugufktkdnr s bki hrlnfkzhti k enfskstifti0

    7.

    _dhfkbkehrih thetke= _rkviti lhk hdis klpdilifthrih pdhfurkdnrstrhtijkei prkftr-uf lhfhjilift ai fkvid liaku. Qhetkeh istilkmdneud ai faipdkfkri h strhtijkik. _dhfurkdi si ribir dhrispnfshgkdktkdi ufktkdnr k f jifirhd si enfeiftrihz pihetkvktkdi eurifti k pi tirlif seurt0

    5. _dhfkbkehrih npirhknfhd= Ui ribir dh faipdkfkrih

    rispnfshgkdktkdnr dh fkvid ai pnst shu enlphrtklift. _dhfurkdi pnt bkskfjudhri (piftru hetkvktk ehri fu si ripit, ai ixilpdu rihdkzhrih

    ufuk gujit) shu enftkfui (ehri kfedua hfulkti prneiaurk shu pndktkek).

    8.7.7. Nrjhfkzhrih

    Nrjhfkzhrih isti bufekh lhfhjiliftuduk ehri lgkf risursidiulhfi k lhtirkhdi prkf prnkiethrih ufik strueturk bnrlhdi h shrekfkdnr khutnrktkk. Nrjhfkzhrih sthgkditi aiek ridhkkdi akftri hetkvkthti k hutnrkthti.

    f heist enftixt, lhfhjirud triguki s faipdkfihse phtru senpurkprkfekphdi=

    8.

    U aitirlkfi ei hetkvktk ai dueru triguki beuti piftru htkfjirihngkietkvidnr nrjhfkzhknfhdi0

    7.

    U edhskbkei tkpurkdi ai hetkvktk k jrupurkdi ai dueru f ufktk unrjistknfhgkdi0

    5.

    U htrkguki kfakvkzkdnr shrekfk ai dueru k s-k aidiji hutnrkthtih ftr-

    uf lna haievht0

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    89

    1.

    U prnkietizi n kirhrcki h ridhkkdnr piftru duhrih aiekzkkdnr.

    _rneisud ai nrjhfkzhri pnhti bk vzut eh bnrlht akf ekfek phk=

    8.

    Utuakirih pdhfurkdnr k senpurkdnr= _dhfurkdi aketihz senpurkdi khetkvktkdi eurifti shu vkktnhri. f ufidi sktuhkk, hr triguk erihti fnkufktk, hdtinrk, ufnr ufktk ixkstifti dk si enfbir fnk htrkgukk, khrufidi ufktk pnt bk aisbkkfhti. _nt hprih fnk ridhkk ftri prkdikftirishti. Nrjhfkzhrih eriihz n fnu struetur, fnk ridhkk k dilnakbke pi eidi ixkstifti0

    7. Kaiftkbkehrih hetkvktkdnr fieishri piftru htkfjirih ngkietkvidnr=

    Qriguki eriht n dkst ai shrekfk feipfa eu eidi enftkfui ktirlkffa eu eidi skfjudhri05.

    Edhskbkehrih k jruphrih hetkvktkdnr= Lhfhjirkk triguki s ibietuizitrik prneiaurk=

    U ixhlkfizi bkiehri hetkvkthti piftru h-k aitirlkfh fhturhjifirhd (lhr`itkfj, prnaueki ite.)0

    U jrupizi hetkvktkdi f hrkkdi enrispufztnhri0

    U sthgkdihse aiphrthliftidi haievhti f eharud strueturkk

    nrjhfkzhkik01.

    Htrkgukrih shrekfkdnr k aidijhrih hutnrktkk=Yf phs erktke f ehri sisthgkdise aiphrthliftidi, fhturh, senpud k shrekfkdi bkierukaiphrthlift, lpriuf eu pirbnrlhfidi htipthti0

    9. _rnkiethrih ufik kirhrckk ai ridhkk= Ui cntrse ridhkkdi ai dueru

    virtkehdi k nrkznfthdi. Utrueturhrih virtkehd rizudt ftr-n kirhrcki aiduhri h aiekzkkdnr f ehri si tki ekfi rspufai piftru bkiehri shrekf.

    Utrueturhrih nrkznfthd aibkfiti ridhkkdi ai dueru ftri aiphrthliftik sthgkditi fulrud ai sugnranfhk hk bkieruk lhfhjir.

    8.7.5. Uidiekh pirsnfhduduk

    Heihst bufeki prkviti rieruthrih, sidieknfhrih, kfstrukrih kaisilfhrih pirsnhfik pntrkvkti piftru pnzkkh pntrkvkt f eharudnrjhfkzhkik. f jifirhd, si enfskair e nhlifkk suft eih lhk klpnrthft

    risurs ai ehri akspufi nrjhfkzhkh. _rkf sidiekh pirsnfhduduk, si anriti

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    kaiftkbkehrih, htrhjirih k pstrhrih pirsnfhduduk ehdkbkeht piftru h neuphpnzkkkdi akspnfkgkdi.

    Uidiekh pirsnfhduduk pnhti bk vzut eh uf prneis f npt phk=

    8.

    _dhfkbkehrih risursidnr ulhfi=Qriguki s hskjuri bhptud e fivnkdiai pirsnfhd hdi nrjhfkzhkik vnr bk shtksbeuti. Ai ngkeik, sihfhdkzihz pdhfurkdi nrjhfkzhkik piftru h viaih ei enlpitifihfuli vnr bk fieishri f vkktnr. Aup rihdkzhrih privkzkufkdnr, sisthgkditi fulrud ai pirsnhfi ehri triguki rieruthti (akf hbhrhnrjhfkzhkik) shu kfstrukti (akf kftirknr)0

    7. Wieruthrih= Ui kaiftkbke k si htrhj ehfakahk ehri faipdkfise

    eirkfidi piftru pnsturkdi vhehfti privzuti. Eh rizudtht hd hfhdkzikpnsturkdnr, si ftnelise aiserkirkdi k spiekbkehkkdi heistnrh.Wieruthrih ibietkv si rihdkzihz prkf skti-urk Kftirfit spiekhdkzhti,hjifk ai neuphri h bnrik ai lufe, dijturk eu ufkvirsktkdi,hfufurk pugdkei f zkhri ite.0

    5. Uidieknfhrih= Aup rieruthri, ehfakahkk kftirishk triguki ivhduhk

    k sidieknfhk eik hdi ernr enlpitifi si pntrkvise eu eirkfidipnsturkdnr. Ithpidi urlrkti f ivhduhri pnt bk= enlpdithrih ufnr

    bnrludhri, ixhlkfhrih prnbisknfhd, virkbkehrih rienlhfarkdnr kkftirvkud0

    1. Kfsthdhrih k nrkifthrih= Naht sidieknfhk, fnkk hfjhmhk triguki

    kftijrhk f nrjhfkzhki0 triguki s dk si prizkfti jrupud ai dueru,prieul k rijudhliftud kftirf shu fnrlidi nrjhfkzhkik0

    9. Kfstrukrih k aizvndthrih= Ui feihre lguftkrih ehphektkk

    hfjhmhkdnr ai h enftrkguk dh bufeknfhrih ibkekift h nrjhfkzhkik.

    Kfstrukrih si enfeiftrihz hsuprh ehdkbkerkk hfjhmhkdnr. Aizvndthrihklpdke prijtkrih dnr piftru rispnfshgkdktk supdklifthri shuhvhfshri0

    2. Ivhduhrih pirbnrlhfidnr= Yf skstil prnkietht s lsnhri

    pirbnrlhfidi ibietkvi hdi hfjhmhkdnr f enlphrhki eu sthfahraidiai pirbnrlhf pristhgkdkti0

    :. Aiekzkkdi ai rienlpifshri=_i ghzh ivhdurkk pirbnrlhfidnr, si pnt

    duh aiekzkk prkvkfa rienlpifsidi bkfhfekhri, trhfsbirrkdi,

    prnlnvrkdi shu ritrnjrharkdi0

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    8:

    3. feithrih ridhkkdnr ai lufe= Lhfhjiliftud triguki s bki

    prineupht k ai ailkskk, pifsknfrk shu enfeiakirk.

    8.7.1. Enfaueirih

    Aup erihrih pdhfurkdnr, strueturkk nrjhfkzhkik k enlpdithrihpirsnfhduduk, urltnrud phs hd prneisuduk lhfhjirkhd isti enfaueirih, hakeakrkmhrih k lntkvhrih hfjhmhkdnr etri ngkietkvidi nrjhfkzhknfhdi. Akf heistlntkv, enfaueirih isti klpnrthft lhk hdis dh prklud fkvid ai supirvkzhri,ainhriei dh heist fkvid isti enfeiftrht lhmnrkthtih hfjhmhkdnr nrjhfkzhkik.

    Ehrhetirkstkekdi eidi lhk klpnrthfti hdi bufekik ai enfaueiri si

    ribir dh stkdud ai enfaueiri (hutnerhtke, ailnerhtke) k dh prneisud ai duhri haiekzkkdnr. Heistih suft f strfs dijtur eu n sirki ai bhetnrk prieulurjifh sktuhkik shu lntkvhrih sugnranfhkdnr. Ai hsilifih, lhfhjirud ehdkair triguki s eufnhse tnhti hspietidi sktuhkik eurifti, s istkliziklphetud pi ehri d vnr hvih aiekzkkdi shdi k s kh tntaihufh f ehdeudidiliftud ulhf. Id triguki s htrkguki shrekfkdi kfkkhdi tuturnr hfjhmhkdnr, saih nrakfi edhri k enfeksi k s urlrihse lnaud eul suft faipdkfktishrekfkdi, afa ahe isti fivnki farulrk virghdi shu serksi.

    8.7.9. Enftrndud

    Ydtklh bufeki h lhfhjiliftuduk si ribir dh ivhduhrihpirbnrlhfidnr nrjhfkzhkik piftru h aitirlkfh ahe k faipdkfiti shu fungkietkvidi. f heihst bhz triguki duhti urltnhridi lsurk=

    8. Uthgkdkrih sthfahraidnr ai pirbnrlhf utkdkzhti piftru h lsurh

    prnjrisud etri senp. Uthfahraud riprizkft uf liehfksl ai lsurehftkthtkv shu ehdkthtkv, aistkfht lnfktnrkzrkk pirbnrlhfidnrnhlifkdnr shu prneisidnr. f jifirhd putil vnrgk ai=

    Uthfahrai lhfhjirkhdi= kfedua rhpnhrti, rijudhlifti kivhdurk ai pirbnrlhf. Ai ixilpdu, uf rhpnrt dufhr akfphrtih tuturnr pirsnhfidnr klpdkehti f vfzrk, eiftrht pihrkkdi eciki ai kftiris piftru lhfhjirud ai vfzrk0

    Uthfahrai ticfkei= si ribir dh litnaidi k prneisidi ai

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    prnaueki, dh lhtirkhdi, ieckphlifti, enlpnfifti kburfkznrk. Uthfahraidi ticfkei pnt vifk akf sursi kftirfi shuixtirfi. Ai ixilpdu, sthfahrai ai ehdkthti akethti airijdiliftrk juvirfhlifthdi shu spiekbkehkkdi

    prnauetnruduk piftru ieckphlifti07.

    Lnfktnrkzhrih k ivhduhrih pirbnrlhfidnr= suft lsurhtipirbnrlhfidi k si aitirlkf ahe rispiet sthfahraidi sthgkdkti.Ahe n hsilifih enlphrhki kfake bhptud e rizudthtidi suftheeipthgkdi, fu isti fieishr fkekn hekufi. f ehz enftrhr, si triei dhurltnrud phs=

    5. Enriethrih aivkhkkdnr ai dh sthfahrai= lsurkdi ai enrieki

    fieishri si vnr duh pi ghzh h trik bhetnrk sthfahraud, priekzkhlsurtnrkk ehri h kfakeht aivkhkh k akhjfnstkeud pirsnhfidnr ehri hukfvistkjht ehuzidi aivkhkik. Uthfahraidi pnt bk prih sdhgi shu prihstrketi. Lsurtnrkdi pnt bk klprieksi ainhriei kfstruliftidi ailsur pnt bk utkdkzhti aibietuns shu prizkft idi fsidi aibieti.Nhlifkk pnt duh aiekzkk jrikti dh cntrrih hekufkdnr enrietkvifieishri.

    8.5. Fnkufk ai ghz

    8.5.8. Aibkfkkk

    f eidi ei urlihz, vnl priekzh etivh aibkfkkk isifkhdi piftrulhfhjiliftud ai prnkiet=

    _dhf= Jrhbkeud ahtidnr ai feipiri k tirlkfhri hdi hetkvktkdnrlpriuf eu kfbnrlhkk aispri risursi k ensturk. Yf pdhf ai ghzisti pdhfud kfkkhd, ehri si shdvihz k si bndnsiti piftru h lnfktnrkzhprnjrisud. Yf pdhf kftirklhr isti uf sit ai ahti shdvhti f tklpudairudrkk prnkietuduk, bndnskti piftru h di enlphrh eu hdti pdhfurkkftirklhri.

    Gujit= Enstud istklht hd prnkietuduk ehri si sthgkditi f pdhfud aighz (ifjd. ghsidkfi).

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    8;

    Enst= Enstud tnthd pdhfkbkeht piftru n hetkvkthti, risurs, shrekftrhsht shu piftru ftrijud prnkiet. Yfinrk isti aifulkt ensteurift.

    Wisursi= Nhlifkk, ieckphliftidi k lhtirkhdidi bndnskti piftru h

    bkfhdkzh hetkvktkdi akf prnkiet. Qhrkb ai pdht=Enstud risursidnr pi nr. Ixkst anu tkpurk ai thrkbi

    ai pdht= sthfahra k piftru nri supdklifthri.

    Uuprh-hdnehri=Wizudthtud htrkgukrkk lhk ludtnr hetkvktk aiet pnhtirihdkzh n risurs f tklpud ai dueru akspnfkgkd.

    Hetkvkthti akvkzht=N hetkvkthti hd erik jrhbke ai dueru isti ftrirupt.Ai ixilpdu, n hetkvkthti ai anu zkdi, ehri fu fieiskt ixieukh prkf

    dueru enftkfuu, pnhti bk lprkt hstbid fet prklh zk ai dueru s bkiprnjrhlht dufk khr eih ai-h anuh zk mnk.

    Fkvidhri= Wizndvhrih enfbdketidnr ai risursi shu h suprh-hdnerkdnrprkf ftrzkirih shu akvkzhrih ufnr hetkvktk. Efa n risurs istifkvidht, shrekfkdi shdi suft akstrkgukti k riprnjrhlhti.

    Aht ai fecikiri=Ahth dh ehri n hetkvkthti isti prnjrhlht piftru hbk bkfhdkzht. Heihst aht aipkfai ai ahth ai feipiri h hetkvktkk,aurhth heistikh, ehdifahridi aup ehri si duerihz, ahtidi ufnr shrekfkprieiaifti, aipifaifidi bh ai hdti hetkvktk k hdti enfstrfjirk.

    ftrzkiri=Qklpud akftri ahth pdhfkbkeht ai feipiri h ufik hetkvktkk lnliftud f ehri feipi ibietkv duerud dh heihsth. ftrzkirkdi suftaisinrk bndnskti piftru h rizndvh suprh-hdnerkdi ai risursi.

    Dkvrhgkd=Yf rizudtht enferit k lsurhgkd, prnausud shu uf idiliftehri triguki prnaus piftru h bkfhdkzh prnkietud shu n phrti hprnkietuduk. f lna fnrlhd, ieckph prnkietuduk k prkdi kftirishti

    aieka ai enluf henra dkvrhgkdidi fhkfti ai feipirih prnkietuduk.

    8.5.7. Qrkufjckud lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet

    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr isti haisih rizulht ftr-uf trkufjck(bkjurh 8.8). _rkfekphdkk trik bhetnrk suft tklpud, enstud k anlifkud aihpdkehri, fulkk k trkpdh enfstrfjiri. Heistih bnrlihz vrburkditrkufjckuduk hvfa ehdkthtiheh til eiftrhd=

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    8.

    _rnkietidi triguki s bki dkvrhti dh tklp.7.

    _rnkietidi triguki s si feharizi f ensturk.5.

    _rnkietidi triguki s si feharizi f anlifkud ai hpdkehri.1.

    _rnkietidi triguki s faipdkfihse eirkfidi ai ehdkthti hdi edkifkdnr.

    Bkjurh 8.8.Qrkufjckud lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet

    Ahe tklpud shu ghfkk hr bk fidklkthk, shu eirkfidi hr bk fudi, fu hrlhk bk fivnki ai lhfhjilift ai prnkiet. Akf pehti, eidi lhk ludti prnkietihu n hfulkt dklkt ai tklp, ai gujit k anlifku ai hpdkehri. fidijirihtrkufjckuduk prnkietuduk pirlkti duhrih ai aiekzkk lhk gufi htufek efa

    triguki beuti enlprnlksurk. Ahe si hmustihz n dhtur h trkufjckuduk,eididhdti anu dhturk suft hbiethti. Ai ixilpdu=

    Ahe si aiekai seairih tklpuduk hdneht piftru bkfhdkzhrihprnkietuduk, pnhti rizudth n eritiri h ensturkdnr, prieul k nristrfjiri h anlifkuduk ai hpdkehri0

    Ahe si aiekai seairih gujituduk prnkietuduk, pnhti rizudth uf

    jrhbke ai dueru lhk dufj k n seairi h anlifkuduk ai hpdkehri0 Ahe si aiekai ixtkfairih anlifkud ai hpdkehri, prnkietud pnhti s

    aurizi lhk ludt tklp k s ensti lhk ludk ghfk, ai ixilpdu sugbnrl ai risursi ulhfi.

    Lnakbkerkdi akf pdhfud prnkietuduk pnt hbieth trkufjckud f akvirsilnaurk, f bufeki ai ekreulsthfidi spiekbkei k ai fhturh prnkietuduk. Aiixilpdu, ai eidi lhk ludti nrk, seurthrih tklpuduk ai ixieuki hd prnkietuduk

    pnhti eriti ensturkdi. f hdti ehzurk, heistih si pnt eckhr aklkfuh.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Akf pufet ai viairi hd trkufjckuduk prnkietuduk, risursidi suftenfskairhti uf idilift ai enst. Aiek, f bufeki ai eul hmustl risursidipiftru lhk ludt shu lhk pukf ibnrt ai dueru shu piftru h ribdiethakspnfkgkdkthtih heistnrh, ensturkdi vnr ureh shu vnr engnr f lna

    enrispufztnr. Heisti ensturk suft ghzhti pi thrkbidi ai pdht hdi risursidnr.Ai hsilifih, si pnhti ngsirvh e pi lsur ei si hmustihz risursidi, hphrlnakbkerk f jrhbkeud ai dueru. Ai ixilpdu, ahe hvil uf fulr ai risursisuprh-hdnehti k si fkvidihz prnkietud, jrhbkeud ai dueru pnhti enfkfi heulshrekfk akvkzhti k ftrzkirk, ehri ixtkfa ahth dklkt h tirlkfrkk prnkietuduk.

    f eidi lhk ludti prnkieti, eid pukf n dhtur h trkufjckuduk isti bkx._iftru ufidi prnkieti, isti dhturh gujituduk= sug fkekn bnrl fu si vnr prklk

    lhk ludk ghfk piftru prnkiet. Dh hdtidi, isti dhturh tklpuduk= ahtidi fu si pntsecklgh. Uhu isti anlifkud ai hpdkehri= fu vh bk pirlks fkekn secklghri fdkvrhgkdi. Kaiih isti ai h jsk prkdi gdnehti shu bkxi hdi trkufjckudukprnkietuduk. Heisti prk fi spuf ei si pnhti secklgh shu hmusth ahe ixkstn prngdil. Ifufhrih prngdilik fi pnhti hmuth s edhrkbkel ei phrti htrkufjckuduk hri akbkeudtk.

    Eufnsefa ehri phrti h trkufjckuduk fu pnhti bk secklght fi pnhtihmuth s hbdl ei triguki hmustht. Hh e, htufek efa si feipi nptklkzhrih,

    f prklud rfa, si aiekai ehri akftri eidi trik idilifti isti bkx. Heisth istiai ngkeik idiliftud eid lhk klpnrthft piftru sueeisud prnkietuduk(tirlkfhrih dh tklp, fiaipkrih gujituduk shu rispiethrih anlifkuduk aihpdkehri enfvifkt). Hpnk, si aitirlkf pi ehri dhtur h trkufjckuduk hphriprngdilh eurift piftru h tk dh ei idilifti triguki duerht piftru h riduhgufud lirs hd prnkietuduk.

    Ahe dhturh pi ehri h hprut prngdilh k dhturh bkx h trkufjckudukenkfeka, rlf eididhdti anu dhturk hdi trkufjckuduk piftru h bk hmusthti. Aiixilpdu, ahe prnkietud triguki s bki tirlkfht dh tklp k prngdilh isti eprnkietud fieiskt prih ludt tklp, si pnt lnakbkeh risursidi shu anlifkud aihpdkehri.

    Ahe dhturh prngdilik isti akbirkt ai dhturh bkx, prnkietud trigukinptklkzht hahptfa dhturh rlhs. Ai ixilpdu, ahe prnkietud triguki s bkitirlkfht dh tklp, ahr eriti anlifkud ai hpdkehri, lhk rlfi s hmustlfulhk dhturh enstuduk, ai ixilpdu, prkf haujhrih ai risursi.

    Efa si hmustihz n dhtur h trkufjckuduk, eididhdti anu suftsuseiptkgkdi ai h bk hbiethti, pnzktkv shu fijhtkv.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    _rnkietidi hu ftntaihufh risursi dklkthti, ahr ufinrk ixkst prnkietif ehri enstud k ehftkthtih risursidnr phr h bk fidklkthti. Fi putil jfak dhprnkietud Lhfchtthf akf hfkk 1? shu dh prnkietud Hpnddn akf hfkk 2?, ahreckhr k heisti prnkieti hu hvut ufidi enfstrfjirk ai risursi. _iftru

    lhfhjirud ai prnkiet ehri feire s bkfhdkzizi uf prnkiet eu risursi pukfishu rhri, heisth pnhti prih uf lna lkfufht ai h jistknfh uf prnkiet, ahr aingkeik heisti tkpurk ai prnkieti vkf ai ngkeik eu eirkfi siviri piftrujrhbkeud ai dueru k tirlifidi dklkt.

    8.5.5. Ekedud ai vkh hd ufuk prnkiet

    _rnkietidi ai nrkei aklifskufi, lkek shu lhrk, pnt bk jistknfhtibndnskfa litnandnjkh lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet. _iftru e tnhti prnkietidisuft ufkei ftr-uf bid, isti utkd ngsirvhrih ekeduduk ai vkh hd prnkietidnrpiftru h viaih e ixkst ludti hsilfrk ftri prnkieti k tnhti trie prkf bhzisklkdhri. Ekedud ai vkh hd ufuk prnkiet aibkfiti feiputud k sbrktudheistukh k akbirktidi ithpi akf eharud duk. f akbirkti pufeti hdi ekeduduk aivkh, heisti ithpi suft riivhduhti k isti duht n aiekzki ahe s si enftkfuiprnkietud shu fu. _ufetidi akftri feiputud k sbrktud prnkietuduk vhrkhz

    enfskairhgkd f bufeki ai spiekbkeud prnkietuduk ehri urlihz s bki rihdkzht.f Jckaud _LGN@ suft akseuthti prneisidi ai ghz hdi

    lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet. Lhfhjiliftud ai prnkiet isti uf prneis f ehrikftr hfulkti risursi, heistih suft priduerhti k suft prnausi rizudthti. feharud prneisidnr ai lhfhjilift ai prnkiet suft kfedusi k hdti prneisiprieul= kfkkirih, pdhfkbkehrih, ixieukh k fecikirih.

    _i phreursud aurhtik ai vkh h ufuk prnkiet, vnr ixksth rizudthti dh

    bkiehri bhz. faipdkfkrih heistnr rizudthti auei dh erihrih ufuk prnausdkvrhgkd, thfjkgkd, virkbkehgkd rizudthtud lufekk aipusi f eharud prnkietuduk._rnausidi pnt bk dkvrhti f ixtirknrud prnkietuduk, shu suft fieishri piftrurihdkzhrih hdtnr hetkvktk akf eharud prnkietuduk, bkkfa enfskairhti dkvrrkkftirfi.

    Ixkst lhk ludti lnaidi hdi ekeduduk ai vkh hd prnkietidnr, fbufeki ai spiekbkeud anlifkuduk. Lnaidud tkpke euprkfai phtru sthakk, akfehri udtklud pnhti bk enlpus akf anu ithpi. f bkjurh 8.7 si prizkft ekedud

    ai vkh jifirke hd ufuk prnkiet.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    75

    Bkjurh 8.7.Ekedud ai vkhhd ufuk prnkiet

    Heisth enfkfi urltnhridi sthakk=

    8.

    Uthakud ai aibkfkri=

    Aibkfkrih spiekbkehkkdnr prnkietuduk0 Aibkfkrih ngkietkvidnr prnkietuduk0

    Kaiftkbkehrih prkfekphdidnr rispnfshgkdktk07.

    Uthakud ai pdhfkbkehri=

    _dhfkbkehrih jrhbkeidnr ai dueru ehdifahrkstkei0

    _dhfkbkehrih risursidnr ulhfi, ai tklp k h gujitudukprnkietuduk0

    Lhfhjiliftud rkseurkdnr05.

    Uthakud ai ixieuki k enftrnd=

    Klpdilifthrih prnkietuduk0

    Lnfktnrkzhrih prnjrisuduk frijkstrht f klpdilifthri0

    Ivhduhrih, lsurhrih k enftrndud rihdkzrkdnr kftirliakhri0

    Idhgnrhrih ai privkzkufk k prnjfnzi ai aizvndthri01.

    Uthakud ai dkvrhri k bkfhdkzhri=

    Dkvrhrih prnausuduk prnkietuduk etri gifibkekhr, kfeduzfahetkvktk ai kfstrukri, trhfsbir ai aneulifti ite.0

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri

    71

    Wihdkzhrih ufik hfhdkzi pnst-klpdilifthri0

    Wihdnehrih risursidnr0

    Whpnrtud bkfhd hd prnkietuduk.

    _i aurhth ekedud su ai vkh, prnkietud triguki s bhe bh fprkfekphd dh anu tkpurk ai eirkfi. _rklh akftri heistih si ribir dh ithph aiaibkfkri h prngdilik, f ehri iviftuhdidi irnrk pnt enfauei dh aizvndthrihufik sndukk enrieti piftru n prngdil aibkfkt jrikt.

    f bhzh kfkkhd h prnkietuduk, fkvidurkdi ai ensturk k ai pirsnfhd suftlkek. Ixkst anhr ekvh nhlifk eciki ehri k pitrie tklpud duerfa dhprnkiet. Hu bnst heckzkknfhti pukfi lhtirkhdi shu aidne, khr hfjhmhliftud

    enlphfkik eu prkvkri dh phrtih bkfhfekhr h prnkietuduk fu isti aipdkf. fheihst ithp ixkst eih lhk lhri prnghgkdkthti eh prnkietud s fu bkifkeknaht bkfhdkzht. Ludti prnkieti hmufj f heihst bhz anhr piftru h bkftrirupti htufek efa si sthgkditi e fu si pnhti rispieth enstud ai rihdkzhrishu ensturkdi aipise gifibkekkdi. f heihst ithp h prnkietuduk, ludtihspieti hdi shdi suft fieufnseuti.

    Eih ai-h anuh prngdil ehrhetirkzihz ithph pnst-klpdilifthri.Nrkei prnkiet triguki s si bkfhdkzizi eu idhgnrhrih ufik hfhdkzi pnst-

    klpdilifthri, eu senpud ai h kaiftkbkeh htt hspietidi pnzktkvi hdiprnkietuduk et k hspietidi ei triguki lguftkti.

    f prhetke, heihst ithp isti aisinrk trieut eu viairih. Hstbid, feharud enfbirkfik Brnftkirs Enfbirifei nf _rnkiet Lhfhjilift, ufudakftri lnairhtnrk h ftright huakifh bnrlht akf 1?? ai pirsnhfi= Ekakftri aulfihvnhstr hu prklkt akspnzkkh eh, aup ixieuthrih prnkietuduk, sidhgnrizi uf rhpnrt ai ivhduhri ehri s euprkfa enfeduzkkdi bkfhdi> Dh

    heihst ftrighri anhr 8? pirsnhfi hu rkakeht lfh.H anuh ftrighri h heidukhk lnairhtnr h bnst= Ek akftriaulfihvnhstr hk bnst sndkekthk s prizifthk lhfhjiliftuduk enlphfkik eivik bhei eh s ivkthk ripithrih f vkktnr h jriidkdnr beuti f ixieuthrihprnkietuduk> Dh heihst ftrighri fulhk 7 pirsnhfi hu rkakeht lfh.

    Enfeduzkkdi bkfhdi aup ixieuthrih ufuk prnkiet suft ainsigkt aiklpnrthfti, ainhriei pirsnhfidi ehri fu eufnse kstnrkeud prnkietidnrprieiaifti hu tifakfh ai h ripith jriidkdi hftirknhri. Witkeifh ufnr

    pirsnhfi ai h bhei n trieiri f rivkst h rizudthtidnr bkfhdi pnhti hvih lhk

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    ludti ehuzi. f prklud rfa, pi lsur ei si hprnpki ai bkfhdkzhrihprnkietuduk, lhfhjirkk aivkf firgatnrk s trihe dh rihdkzhrih hdtnr shrekfkshu prnkieti. f hd ankdih rfa, ik fu anrise s rieufnhse bhptud e dhhfulkti hspieti triguki hausi lguftkrk. Yfinrk, heihst htktuakfi isti

    aitirlkfht ai anrkfh ai h fu erih akbkeudtk pirsnhfidnr h ernr hetkvkthtitriguki pirbieknfht.

    Qntuk, nrket ai gkfi isti rihdkzht n hetkvkthti, ftntaihufh isti dnepiftru lguftkrk, khr hfhdkzidi bkfhdi triguki enfausi f heist spkrkt.Qifakfh ai h piaipsk pirsnhfidi h ernr hetkvkthti prizkft aibkekifi pnhtiaufh lhfhjirkdnr ai prnkiet f idhgnrhrih ufnr rhpnhrti ai ivhduhrienrieti.

    8.1. Lhfhjirud ai prnkiet

    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr pnhti bk n prnbiski, n neuphki, uf rnd shun hetkvkthti. Yfidi enlphfkk hu lhfhjirk ai prnkieti h ernr ahtnrki isti aih supirvkzh prnkieti ftrijk eu suti ai pirsnhfi. Hdti enlphfkk henra heisttktdu ufnr lhfhjirk feiptnrk, bkiehri bkkfa rispnfshgkd ai n lke phrti

    akftr-uf prnkiet lhk lhri. f bufeki ai lnaud f ehri isti strueturht nnrjhfkzhki, ai eudturh sh nrjhfkzhknfhd k ai ngkietkvidi prnkietuduk,lhfhjiliftud ai prnkiet pnhti hvih uf rnd kfbnrlhd (isti rihdkzht ai etrinrkekfi, nrk ai eti nrk isti fieishr) shu edhr aibkfkt (S, [ k ] suft lhfhjirkai prnkiet eu fnrl ftrihj).

    Yfinrk hgsifh ufuk lhfhjir ai prnkiet aiakeht fu pufi prngdili._rnjrhlhtnrkk k ibkk dnr rihdkzihz pdhfurkdi kfjkfiritk efa isti fivnki k

    uf spiekhdkst f lhr`itkfj bhei pdhfkbkehrih shu sthgkditi eirkfidi. Nrkeihdt hetkvkthti ai lhfhjilift ai prnkiet pur k sklpdu si akstrkguki fftrihjh ieckp. _nhti e ufkk nhlifkk akf ieckp hu bnst hfjhmhk piftrukftirisud dnr akfendn ai serkirih ai ena. Heitkh fu vnr ribuzh hetkvktkprieul pdhfkbkehrih, prnkiethrih kftirbhik eu utkdkzhtnrud shu aibkfkrihstrhtijkik ai hbheirk. Bndnskfa heist lna ai dueru si pnt rihdkzh nptklkzrksilfkbkehtkvi. Htth tklp et tnk lilgrkk ieckpik suft akspuk s heeiptirispnfshgkdktk piftru h bhei duerurkdi s lihrj f lna ennranfht k s

    prikh hetkvktkdi ufuk lhfhjir ai prnkiet aiakeht, heihsth fsihlf uf nl

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    lhk pukf, ai ehri ieckph si pnhti dkpsk. Ibkekifh k sklpdkthtih trigukihpriekhti.

    Hdtinrk, dkpsh ufuk lhfhjir ai prnkiet eriihz aksbufekk. Br npirsnhf h erik prkfekphd hetkvkthti isti jckahrih ibnrtuduk jdnghd,

    kftirisidi kfakvkauhdi pnt hbieth akriekh ieckpik. f murud rndurkdnr ticfkei kenlirekhdi pnt hprih tifskufk ehri aue dh feitkfkrih prnjrisuduk kbrustrhrih eidnr klpdkehk. Ai ixilpdu, f spkthdidi ai urjif uf skfjurliake kh aiekzkkdi prkvkfa hekufkdi ibietuhti piftru uf phekift. Heist lnaai dueru heeidirihz duhrih ludtnr aiekzkk k edhrkbke rndud bkieruk lilgruakf ieckp. Br n hstbid ai hutnrkthti edhr piftru prngdili ai lhfhjilifthd prnkietidnr, ieckpidi ai aizvndthri pnt ftlpkfh akbkeudtk. Ahe fu

    ixkst uf rispnfshgkd piftru enfaueirih prneisuduk ai priduerhri k snrthri haibietidnr, shu fklifk fu isti akriet rispnfshgkd piftru lnfktnrkzhrihjrhbkeuduk ai dueru k silfhdhrih prngdilidnr, heisti hetkvktk pnt rlfiludt f urlh eidnr ghzhti pi prnjrhlhrih prnprku-zks.

    Aik ludk prnjrhlhtnrk ai vrb hu subkekift ai ludti eufntkfiaispri lhfhjiliftud ai prnkiet, fet hr putih bhei eckhr ik heist dueru,heitkh rieufnse vhdnhrih ufke h ufik pirsnhfi enlpitifti, aiakehti, ehrimnhe rndud ai lhfhjir.

    Lhfhjiliftud ai prnkiet isti f heidhk tklp=

    ntkkf ainhriei prisupufi fidijirih prneisidnr, kfstruliftidnr kticfkekdnr, prieul k aibkfkrih k ennranfhrih hetkvktkdnr ehritriguki ibietuhti0

    n hrt, ahtnrkt hspietidnr kftir-pirsnfhdi ehri si ribir dhenfaueirih nhlifkdnr.

    Kfstruliftidi k ticfkekdi ai lhfhjilift ai prnkiet suft feirehti ktisthti k pnt bk bndnskti eu sueeis dh nrkei prnkiet. Hprnhpi tnhti akftriheistih suft akspnfkgkdi ai ludk hfk, ahr hu bnst nhrieul akbkekd ai utkdkzhtbr hmutnrud ehdeudhtnhridnr pirsnfhdi.

    Ai hsilifih, prkf nrjhfkzhrih ftr-n lhfkir ehri ehfhdkzihzibnrturkdi aipusi ai ieckp f akriekh ai rihdkzhri h prnkietuduk, si eriihz nsthri ai fhdt lntkvhki. Heihsth pirlkti ieckpik s si enfeiftrizi hsuprh

    ngkietkvidnr k s fu bki akstrhs ai hdti hetkvktk akf mur. _rkdi kftirishti

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Ehpktndud 8. Kftrnaueiri f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

    7:

    triguki s hkg pufeti ai enfthet enfsievifti eu ieckph ai prnkiet, khrlhfhjirud ai prnkiet triguki s bki n surs skjur ai kfbnrlhkk eu prkvkri dhprnkiet k tnt ei si ftlpd f eharud heistukh.

    Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet pnt bk vzuk eh fkti lhfhjirk ai ftriprkfairk

    lkek. Ludti akf ehrhetirkstkekdi fieishri f jistknfhrih ufik lkek hbheirk suftheidihk eu eidi fieishri piftru uf guf lhfhjilift ai prnkiet. f rihdkthti,ahtnrkt bhptuduk e ludk lhfhjirk ai prnkiet akf zkuh ai hstzk hu prijtkrihai ghz f aksekpdkfi ticfkei, isti surprkfztnr bhptud e hptktuakfkdi ehri disuft sndkekthti irhu enfskairhti hftirknr hgkdktk fingkfukti piftrulhfhjirkk ticfkek.

    Hstzk isti ai htiptht eh lhfhjirud ai prnkiet s hkg eufntkfi

    enfskairhgkdi akf anlifkud bkfhfekhr, enfthgkdkthti, vfzrk, lhr`itkfj,prnaueki, eireithri k aizvndthri, pdhfkbkehri strhtijke k npirhknfhd,ehrhetirkstkekdi nrjhfkzhkkdnr, risursi ulhfi, halkfkstrhki, jistknfhrihridhkkdnr ai lufe, lntkvhri k hdti enlpitifi kftir-ulhfi. Ieckphludtkaksekpdkfhr h prnkietuduk aivkfi n iftkthti f skfi, hxht pi fivnkdiprnkietuduk k ehri feihre shtksbheirih heistnr fivnk f eid lhk guf lnapnskgkd.

    8.1.8. Ieckdkgrud htktuakfkdnr

    Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet gufk suft jriu ai jskt ainhriei heitkh trigukis lifkf uf ieckdkgru hd htktuakfkdnr. Yf lhfhjir ai prnkiet triguki fufulhk s bki enftkift ai heisti trsturk, ahr k s k aizvndti kfstkfetidihaievhti piftru hfulkti sktuhkk. Heihsth enftrkguki dh kaiih elhfhjiliftud ai prnkiet isti n hrt= fieiskt kftukki, cntrri k ixpirkifai h utkdkzh heisti bnri f lna ibkekift.

    8. Nrjndkud / dkpsh nrjndkuduk.Ahtnrkt rispnfshgkdktkk lhrk pi ehri n

    hu lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet, heitkh jsise n shtksbheki pirsnfhd flufeh dnr. Ik kfvistise n lhri feretur ilnknfhd f eiih ei bhek, piftru ludk, heihst dijhtur ilnknfhd isti eiih ei k aitirlkfs lifkf kftifskthtih fieishr piftru h bk ibkekifk. Ahr f heidhktklp, lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet triguki s ivkti pdhshrih kftirisidnr

    prnprkk fhkftih prnkietuduk. Ik triguki s bki akspuk s aidiji httshrekfk klpnrthfti et k akstrhetkvi, s lphrt prilkkdi k

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri

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    rienlpifsidi eu ftrihjh ieckp. Eckhr ahe lfarkh pnhti bk nrizirv ai ifirjki, lhfhjirud ai prnkiet triguki s rieufnhselnliftud f ehri heihsth k st f ehdi.

    7. Hutnerhkh / aidijhrih.f ufidi sktuhkk, eidi lhk klpnrthfti duerurk

    suft n dkfki edhr ai hutnrkthti k uf tklp ai rspufs rhpka. Yflhfhjir ai prnkiet triguki s bki feriztnr k akspus s prikhenftrndud k s bnrizi hfulkti hekufk hdi ieckpik. Qntuk, f jifirhdsenpud isti s si ivkti hsilifih sktuhkk ixtrili. Yf prnkietjistknfht gkfi triguki s eriizi n htlnsbir ufai shrekfkdi pnt bkaidijhti khr endhgnrhrih isti ibkekift.

    5. Qndirhrih hlgkjuktkk / urlrkrih pirbiekufkk. _rklidi bhzi hdi

    nrkeruk prnkiet enfkf ixpirkifi aisecksi k ai n bdukakthti lhri,hendn ufai fieufnseutud suredhsihz eufnseutud. Hlgkjukthtihenftrndht isti isifkhd piftru senhtirih dh suprhbh h kaikdnr gufi,k uf lhfhjir ai prnkiet hr triguk eid pukf s rispieti heist dueruahe fu s d bhekdktizi k s d enftrndizi. Ahr f hdti lnlifti, lhkhdis f bhzidi bkfhdi hdi prnkietuduk, aksekpdkfh k priekzkh suft vkthdi.Isti fivnki ai kftidkjif piftru h akseirfi ftri ehzud f ehripirbiekufih isti rspdhtkt k ehzud f ehri n snduki liakner, rhpka

    k fijdkmift isti subkekift.1.

    Enlufkehrih nrhd / serks.Kfakbirift et isti ai hxht n nrjhfkzhkiai aizvndthri snbtwhri pi enlufkehrih idietrnfke, hptktuakfkdi aienlufkehri nrhd suft ai n klpnrthf erktke piftru lhfhjiliftudprnkietuduk. ftntaihufh vnr bk ftdfkrk, fijnekirk, akseukk pi cnd ksiskufk ai grhkfstnrlkfj, khr lhfhjirud ai prnkiet triguki s bkiibkekift htt dh fidijirih et k dh enlufkehrih kaikdnr bh f bh.

    Eu et nrjhfkzhkh shu prnkietud isti lhk lhri, eu htt hgkdktkdiserksi aivkf lhk klpnrthfti. f ekuah pribirkfidnr duk pirsnfhdi, uflhfhjir ai prnkiet triguki s k aih sihlh efa isti lhk ibkekiftenlufkehrih serks k efa isti ai pribirht enlufkehrih nrhd.

    9. Wieufnhtirih enlpdixktkk / prnlnvhrih sklpdktkk. Ludk nhlifk

    eha vketkli enlpdixktkk. Efa suft puk bh f bh eu n prnvnehrinrjhfkzhknfhd shu kfjkfirihse enlpdix, ik tkfa s si enfeiftrizihsuprh aithdkkdnr k s pkhra akf viairi klhjkfih ai hfshlgdu. Hdkk

    ribuz enlpdixkthtih k khu aiekzkk prnhsti piftru e fu fidij ftru

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Ehpktndud 8. Kftrnaueiri f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

    7;

    tntud sugtkdktkdi prngdilidnr hpruti. Ieckdkgrud hkek pnhti bk jsktvzfa ehri pirspietkv hsuprh prnkietuduk i lhk bndnsktnhri, prkfsecklghrih shu enlgkfhrih pirspietkvidnr. Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiettriguki s aitirlkfi ieckph s urlrihse sklpdkthtih k ehdkthtih,

    br h lkfklkzh fs enlpdixkthtih fieishr serkirkk ufuk ena guf kai feriairi.

    2. Wgahrih / firgahrih. f eidi lhk ludti ehzurk, lhfhjirud ai

    prnkiet isti pirsnhfh ehri lpkfji dh hekufi, bnrfau-k pi eikdhdk ssi enfeiftrizi hsuprh shrekfkdnr ai dueru. Ahr f ufidi sktuhkk,firgahrih si ftnhrei lpntrkvh prnkietuduk. Yfidi hetkvktkpndktkei, gkrnerhtkei shu kftir-nrjhfkzhknfhdi suft enfsulhtnhri ai

    tklp. Ai ixilpdu, ahe n pirsnhf klpnrthft triguki s vkf dh uflnlift aht dh n ftdfkri, lhfhjirud ai prnkiet triguki s bkirgatnr. H tk efa s bnrizk n prngdil k efa s ti ritrhjk k sdhk duerurkdi s lihrj ai dh skfi isti n ehdkthti pi ehri triguki s k-n aizvndti lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet.

    :. Eurhmud / brkeh. N kaii jrikt isti heiih e nhlifkdnr eurhmnk fu di

    isti brke. Ai bhpt, eurhmnk suft eik ernrh di isti brke, ahr eu tnhtiheistih hdij s heknfizi. Yf lhfhjir ai prnkiet triguki s hkg n

    guf fidijiri h tuturnr duerurkdnr ehri pnt lirji ru k s dienfskairi pnskgkdi. Ahr, eu tnhti heistih, id triguki s hkg eurhmudfieishr piftru h heeipth prnvnerk lhrk.

    3. feriairih / seiptkekslud. Fu isti fklke lhk klpnrthft piftru

    lnrhdud ieckpik aiet uf dkair rispietht ehri eriai f eiih ei bhei.Yf lhfhjir ai prnkiet triguki s hkg feriairi f lufeh rihdkzht ks vha haivrhth vhdnhri h ngkietkvidnr ei vnr bk htkfsi. f heidhktklp, isti fivnki ai n anz ai seiptkeksl (fu ekfksl) ribirktnhri dhlnaud f ehri si bhe hfulkti duerurk. Ekfivh triguki s erktkei k spuf ftrigrk, s enftisti prisupufirkdi hdtnrh k s haueprngdilidi akbkekdi dh dulkf. Ecikh isti ehphekthtih ai h pufiftrigrk ribirktnhri dh prisupufirkdi eukvh, ai h-k enftisth kpntizidibr h zarufekfh feriairih ieckpik f lufeh pi ehri n bhei.

    _irsnhfidi eu hstbid ai hgkdktk si jsise bnhrti rhr, eu htt lhk ludt

    eidi ehri hu ehphekthtih ai h di ieckdkgrh ibkekift. Ludti akftri jriidkdi piehri di bhei uf lhfhjir ai prnkiet suft ehuzhti ai kfibkekifh ieckdkgrrkk

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri

    5?

    heistnr bnri enfbdketuhdi. Qntuk, nrkekfi pnhti aivifk lhk guf frieufnhtirih, fidijirih k hpnk f eritirih hgkdktkdnr shdi ai h kfibnridi f ieckdkgru. _rkvkfa heihst dkst ai bnri enfbdketuhdi kfivkthgkdi,lhfhjirud ai prnkiet pnhti rienfskairh ei bhei k ai ei, piftru h duh aiekzkk

    lhk gufi.

    8.1.7. _riskufkdi k fihtifkh

    Yfh akf tilirkdi lhfhjirkdnr ai prnkiet feiptnrk isti heiih esueeisud fieiskt secklghri= lnakbkehri, enfstrukri shu akstrujiri.Lifkfirih strkk eurifti, f hbhrh ufuk senp ixpdkekt piftru heihsth, isti n

    prhetke kfibkekift. Dulih si secklg tnt tklpud k ahe uf skti wig shunrkei hdt prnkiet isti dh bid ai guf hstzk eul irh hfud trieut, hsth fsihlfe h rlhs f url ainhriei htkfjirih senpurkdnr h bnst ru akrieknfht shuixieukh prnkietuduk h iuht ftr-uf bid.

    Isti jriu ai kjfnrht klifsh priskufi ehri ehai pi ulirkklhfhjiruduk ai prnkiet, ahr heihsth isti kfivkthgkd. Ixkst ftntaihufh uflna fnu ai h jfak, hdteivh ai fvht k hpdkeht, shu uf fnu prneis ehribhei lufeh lhk unhr k lhk ibkekift. Yf lhfhjir guf hri fivnki ai

    hgkdktk ai dkair, khr uf dkair guf fieiskt hgkdktk ai lhfhjilift. Nrkekfi iklpdkeht f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr isti rispnfshgkd ai eti uf pke akfhlfanu, kfakbirift ei serki f bkh pnstuduk.

    Wivifkfa dh ecistkufih priskufkk, suft ludk lhfhjirk ehri buj ailnliftidi f ehri triguki s bki k dkairk, ai ixilpdu efa ieckph hri fivnkiai ekfivh ehri s kh n aiekzki, k si enlpdhe f h urlrk ibnrturkdi hdtnrh fdne s bhekdktizi shu eckhr s phrtkekpi dh idi. Ahe ekfivh st tnt tklpud k

    kfi senrud shu prkviti ai pi lhrjkfi, heisth isti lhk pntrkvkt piftru ufpnst ai enfthgkd. Efa ekfivh eu uf rnd ai dkair rspufai dh priskufibirkfau-si ai ih, id fu enfauei, ek si hseufai. Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet dhk shukfibkekifk tkfa s bki lpkfk fspri pirkbirkh prnkietuduk, ai ufai hauepukf vhdnhri heistukh.

    Yfkk lhfhjirk f heihst sktuhki si rizul dh h euhftkbkeh duerurkehri fu triguki euhftkbkehti. Fiskjurk ai ei hr triguk s bhe shu prih spirkhks bhe ei triguki beut, ik k neup tklpud eu duerurk sieufahri. Eu et

    sphkud akftri lhfhjir k prnkiet eriti, eu htt lhk ludt eriti k tklpud

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Ehpktndud 8. Kftrnaueiri f lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr

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    hdneht virkbkerkk thgididnr, dkstidnr shu rhpnhrtidnr. Isti pnskgkd eh lhfhjirudai prnkiet s hmufj s eriha f tklp e ahtidi k prneisidi suft eckhrprnkietud. Id si ghzihz pi duerurk lhk pukf klpnrthfti eu ehri si duerizlhk unr prieul bki ai dueru k rhpnhrti, f pnbkah duerurkdnr klpnrthfti

    ehri si rizndv lhk jriu, eul hr bk ibnrtud ai pdhfkbkehri shu prnjrhlhri. Hrputih hmufji s eriha e ahe urlihz pirbiet n hfulkt rutkf k virkbkerhpnhrtidi, prnkietud isti jhrhftht s hkg sueeis k, lhk ekfke, nrkei jriihdehri hphri fu isti akf vkfh duk.

    _iftru h lkfklkzh pnskgkdkthtih enfbuzkkdnr, lhfhjirkk ai prnkietgufk rizkst tifthkik ai h aibkfk dklkti strketi hsuprh lufekk pi ehri suftakspuk s n bhe shu fu. Ik ivkt s trhj n dkfki ftri shrekfkdi ribirktnhri dh

    lhfhjiliftud prnkietuduk k prnkietud f skfi. Ytkdkzhrih dkstidnr ai ngkietkviklpdke bhptud e ixkst uf prneis gkfi aibkfkt ehri jhrhftihz uf hfulktbkfhd, eiih ei fu isti ehzud. f rihdkthti ixkst ftntaihufh trik duerurk= ufsenp, uf vndul ai dueru k n lf ai nhlifk. Wndurkdi gkfi aibkfkti k pnthmuth pi heitk nhlifk s si nrjhfkzizi prkvktnr dh vndulud ai lufe, ahrbnrlhrih heistnr rndurk fu isti senpud prkfekphd. N dkst ai ngkietkvi pnhtihmuth nhlifkk s duerizi ftr-uf bid ehri htkfji senpud, ahr fu dksth istisenpud prkfekphd. Enfbufahrih prneisidnr eu senpurkdi isti ufh akf eidi lhk

    lhrk jriidk ai lhfhjilift.

    [ihrs hjn, wnr`kfj nf tci Kftirfit Ixpdnrir 1.? prnmiet, K whstci _L bnr sivirhd dhrji hrihs nb tci usir kftirbhei. K bidt skjfkbkehft

    prissuri= kt whs tci dhrjist hsskjflift Ka ivir cha. Kf rispnfsi, Kaividnpia tci gidkib tcht kb K enuda wrkti ivirytckfj anwf kftnecie`dksts, Ka fivir bhkd. Zckdi tckfjs an fiia tn gi trhe`ia ehribuddynf h prnmiet, Ka th`if kt tnn bhr. Ka gukdt hf idhgnrhti sprihasciit tn

    scnw ludtkpdi ahth vkiws, hfa tci dhrji wcktignhras kf ly nbbkei wirienviria wktc thgdis hfa dksts (hfa ixtrh wcktignhras wiri nf tci why).

    Ly gnss dit li ruf wktc kt giehusi tckfjs wiri jnkfj widd.Qcht ks, uftkd ci shw li spifakfj lnri tkli wktc ly ecie`dksts hfa

    prneissis tchf K aka wktc ly tihl h gkj ria bdhj (whrfkfj skjf). Ciehli kftn ly nbbkei nfi ahy, hfa siikfj tci enlkehddy dhrji lhtrkx nbecie`dksts hfa thgdis Ka wrkttif nf iviry bdht surbhei kf ly nbbkei, shtli anwf hfa ednsia tci annr. Ci shka, Uentt, tcks stubb ks fkei, gut

    ynur prnmiet ks ynur tihl. Lhfhji tci tihl, fnt tci ecie`dksts. Kb tciecie`dksts cidp ynu lhfhji tci tihl, jriht. Gut tci why ynuri jnkfj,

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    snnf ynudd gi uskfj ynur tihl tn cidp ynu lhfhji ynur ecie`dksts.(Uentt Gir`uf Qci Hrt nb _rnmiet Lhfhjilift)

    f dne s si enfeiftrizi pi prneisi shu litnai, lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet

    hr triguk s si enfeiftrizi hsuprh ieckpik. f lna skjur triguki bndnsktiskstili sklpdi ai pdhfkbkehri k lnfktnrkzhri, ahr idi triguki s bkienlphtkgkdi eu enlpdixkthtih prnkietuduk k eudturh ieckpik. Lhk ixhet,pdhfkbkehrih k lnfktnrkzhrih triguki s hmuti ieckph f htkfjirih senpudukprnkietuduk, fu s-k lpkiakei. Htth tklp et lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet sufthtifk k etkj feriairih ieckpik, nrkei sephri prkvkfa shrekfkdi,prneisidi, rhpnhrtidi shu dkstidi fieishri lhfhjiliftuduk ai prnkiet vh kik

    dh dulkf fhkfti eh prngdilidi pi ehri heistih di pnt rizndvh s aivkfsirknhsi.

    8.1.5. Lsurhrih pirbnrlhfidnr

    Aisinrk ixkst prisupufirk thekti shu eckhr ixpdkekti aispri lnaud fehri uf kfakvka isti rieufnseut shu fu piftru pirbnrlhfidi shdi.Aizvndthtnrkk suft prilkhk piftru tirlkfhrih shrekfkdnr dh tklp. Qistirkk suft

    rienlpifshk piftru ibietuhrih h fulirnhsi tisti k jskrih ludtnr aibieti.Upiekhdktkk piftru supnrt tidibnfke suft rspdtkk piftru priduhrih hfulirnhsi hpidurk k rizndvhrih dnr k hh lhk aiphrti. Qntuk, bndnskrih ufnrlitrkek dkfkhri piftru lsurhrih pirbnrlhfidnr ufuk kfakvka pnhti bkfiprnauetkv.

    Hh eul rikisi akf bkjurh 8.5, efa uf skstil ai lsurhri isti pusf hpdkehri, lsurkdi pirbnrlhfidnr feip s erihse. Dh feiput, vhdnhrihrihd h nrjhfkzhkik pnhti ai hsilifih s erihse. Heist bifnlif hri dneftr-n hfulkt lsur piftru e hfjhmhkk fu fidij skstilud ai lsurhribnhrti gkfi dh feiput, hh e hdij ehdih eih lhk skjur ai h htkfji senpurkdinrjhfkzhknfhdi. lguftkrk rihdi pnt hprih k piftru e prklidi kfti suftlnaisti k fu aitirlkf hfjhmhkk s fidi skstilud. Eu trieirih tklpudukfs, eu et sthfahraidi nrjhfkzhkik erise prkf lrkrih entidnr shu kfaueirihufik strk ai enlpitkki ftri hfjhmhk, suft bndnskti ek ai htkfjiri hsenpurkdnr kfenlphtkgkdi eu pndktkekdi bkrlik. Efa uf jrup ai hfjhmhk viai

    hdt jrup e prnbkt ai seprkdi skstiluduk ai ivhduhri, jrupud lhk dift skltipriskufih ai h-k klkth. Qriptht, lsurkdi k pkira ridivhfh piftru

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    haivrhtidi pirbnrlhfi, bkkfae hfjhmhkk eiaihz priskufkk ai h fidhskstilud. _irbnrlhfidi lsurhti erise, fs haivrhtidi pirbnrlhfi sehaarhlhtke. f heist lna skstilud ai lsurhri aivkfi aksbufeknfhd.

    Bkjurh 8.5.Ibietud lsurrkk ufkaklifsknfhdi h pirbnrlhfik

    Klhjkfi lihsurkfj prnjrhllir prnauetkvkty ghsia nf dkfis nbenai wrkttif pir ahy. Hf kfakvkauhd chs h ecnkei nb ehddkfj h

    brhliwnr` litcna (pirchps 9 dkfis wktc irrnr chfadkfj) nr nb enpykfj

    7?? dkfis nb npif-snurei ixhlpdi enai. Zckec nfi jits riwhraia>Zckec nfi ks ihskir tn lhkfthkf, tn enai-rivkiw, tn sieurkty-rivkiw, tntist, hfa tn kftijrhti> Nr sklkdhrdy, tci kfakvkauhd chs tci echfei tnribhetnr tcrii nvirdhppkfj litcnas kftn nfi, riauekfj tci skzi nb tcienai ghsi.

    Klhjkfi lihsurkfj tistirs ghsia nf tci fulgir nb gujs bnufa.An tciy dnn` bnr ihsy-tn-bkfa, nvirdhppkfj, sklpdi gujs nr jn hbtirskjfkbkehft nfis tcht riqukri sittkfj up enlpdix eustnlir ahth hfa

    enfbkjurhtknfs> Zckec hpprnhec jits riwhraia> Zckec nfi ykidaslnri eustnlir vhdui> (Wngirt A. Hustkf Lihsurkfj hfa Lhfhjkfj_irbnrlhfei kf Nrjhfkzhtknfs)

    8.1.1. Klpdkehrih enriet

    Lhfhjirkk fu suft hfjhmhk s enftrkguki f lna dkfkhr dh lufeh akfnrjhfkzhki, eh prnjrhlhtnrkk sklpdk, ek s hlpdkbkei vhdnhrih eidnr akf murud

    dnr. Litnaidi prkf ehri si pnhti haujh heihst vhdnhri akbir ai lufehrihdkzht dh fkvidurkdi kfbirknhri. Ahr piftru e ludk lhfhjirk suft bntk

    Fkvid aipirbnrlhf

    Qklp

    _irbnrlhfh rihd

    Kfakehtnrkklsurtnrkk

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    prnjrhlhtnrk ehri hu bnst prnlnvhk, suft hfsi eh ik s hkg lhk ludt thdiftdh serkirih enauduk aiet dh enfaueirih ufnr pirsnhfi.

    _rizifh ufuk lhfhjir hr triguk s enftrkguki eu eivh ai hdt fhturaiet sklpdh haujhri h ufik enftrkgukk kfakvkauhdi. Yfinrk heihst

    enftrkguki vkfi akf hpdhfhrih enfbdketidnr k kzndhrih ieckpik ai phrtihpndktke. Hdtinrk si ribir dh pdhfkbkehrih ai fkvid fhdt shu jskrih ufnr ekai ivkthri h sktuhkkdnr fihtipthti. _iftru e heisti enftrkgukk suft lhk jriuai lsurht, ludk lhfhjirk ai prnkiet hu n prngdil eu hlgkjukthtih rndudukdnr.

    Eih lhk guf litna ai h jsk pufetidi ai ieckdkgru isti utkdkzhrihakbirifik pskcndnjkei pi ehri n enfbir pnzkkh ai pi uf fkvid supirknr. Yf

    lhfhjir ai prnkiet, f tklpud hetkvktkdnr shdi, vh pitriei f lna fhturhdlhk ludt tklp eu nhlifkk akf ieckp aiet hdkk, ngkffa hstbid lhk ludtisursi ai kfbnrlhri k n pirspietkv lhk dhrj hsuprh prnkietuduk. Yflhfhjir ai prnkiet vh fidiji htt pirspietkvh enlirekhd h prnkietuduk etk pi eih ticfke k vh hmuth ieckph s enluti ftri eidi anu ahe istifieishr. Heihst pirspietkv lhk dhrj bhei pnskgkd nbirkrih ufnr kfbnrlhkkerktkei hfjhmhkdnr dh lnliftud pntrkvkt.

    Hs h chgkt, Kvi hdwhys whd`ia tci chdds hfa arnppia kf nfprnjrhllirs wcn cha tcikr annrs npif. Ka usuhddy must lh`i slhddthd`, try tn jit tcil tn dhujc hgnut snlitckfj, hfa hs` tcil tn scnwli wcht tciy wiri wnr`kfj nf. Kb tciy nbbiria, Ka whtec h ailn nbwchtivir tciya scnw li. Ankfj tcks iviry biw ahys, ivif bnr h biwlkfutis, nbtif jhvi li h jnna kaih nb tci rihd sthtus nb tci prnmiet.

    Bnr ixhlpdi, nfi lnrfkfj aurkfj tci KI 9.? prnmiet, K arnppiagy Brias nbbkei. Ci whs hrjukfj wktc Utivi, hfntcir prnjrhllir,

    hgnut cnw tciy wiri jnkfj tn jit tci fiw Dkst Rkiw enftrnd tn wnr`prnpirdy hf ufbnrisiif enlphtkgkdkty kssui cha giif aksenviria tchtlnrfkfj. Fiktcir nfi nb tcil whftia tn an tci wnr`. Hfa brnl wcht Kenuda cihr, kt wnuda th`i h chdb-ahy nr lnri tn bkx. K pn`ia ly fnsi kfhfa enfbkrlia wcht tciy wiri thd`kfj hgnut. Qciy fnaaia tcikr cihas,hs kb tn shy, [ihc, wcy scnuda ynu ehri> K tcif tnda tcil tn jn thd`tn Gkdd anwf tci chdd. Qciy hjhkf hs`ia wcy, tckf`kfj tcks whs h viry

    spiekbke hrecktieturhd kssui tcht K enudaft ihskdy ufairsthfa. K slkdia

    hfa shka, Giehusi K must dibt cks nbbkei, hfa ci chs tci fiw triienftrnd wnr`kfj pirbietdy nf cks lheckfi. Ci ehli hernss tci

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    59

    prngdil dhst fkjct hfa bkxia kt hs phrt nb hfntcir wnr` ktil. (UenttGir`uf Qci Hrt nb _rnmiet Lhfhjilift)

    Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet gufk triguki s eufnhse tnt bidud ai duerurk

    utkdi ribirktnhri dh sthrih ieckpik k h prnkietuduk k hpnk s di hpdkei piftru hhmuth nhlifkk s-k tirlkfi hetkvktkdi. Qrhfsbirud dh tklp hd kfbnrlhkkdnristi eiih ei bhei n ieckp liakner guf, khr n ieckp guf ixeidift.Fkekuf skstil ai lnfktnrkzhri h ufuk prnkiet fu pnhti fdneuk enlpditfivnkh nhlifkdnr ai h enlufkeh ftri ik aispri ei si ftlpd, piftru eriididi snekhdi suft ftntaihufh lhk putirfkei k ufinrk lhk rhpkai aieteidi ticfkei. Lhrkdi prnvnerk prieul vkzkufih hsuprh prnkietuduk, dkstidi aiehrhetirkstkek k jrhbkeidi ai dueru si riaue dh n sirki ai fulirnhsi prnvnerklhk lkek ehri suft kfbduifhti ai et ai gkfi eurj kfbnrlhkkdi ftr-n ieckp.Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet mnhe uf rnd erktke f lifkfirih hetkv h heistuk bduxai kfbnrlhkk.

    Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet pitrie lhk ludt tklp eu bkiehri pirsnhf akfieckp aiet nrkekfi hdtekfivh. Ik phrtkekp dh lhk ludti ftdfkrk, kftr flhk ludti gkrnurk k vnrgise eu lhk ludk endhgnrhtnrk aiet nrkekfihdtekfivh akf nrjhfkzhki. Ahe uf lhfhjir ai prnkiet i birkekt, suprht,

    lntkvht shu aiprklht, eivh akf heisti strk ai spkrkt si vh ribdieth k hsuprhnhlifkdnr pi ehri k ftdfiti f bkiehri zk. Eiih ei uf lhfhjir haueiprnkietuduk, guf shu ru, vh bk enfthjkns piftru ristud ieckpik.

    8.9. Enfeduzkk

    Lhfhjirkk ai prnkiet gufk etkj ai ngkeik uf hfulkt rispiet akfphrtih prnkiethfkdnr, h prnjrhlhtnrkdnr, h tistirkdnr k h eidnrdhdti pirsnhfieu ehri vkf f enfthet. Yf lhfhjir ai prnkiet triguki s bki f sthri srihdkzizi strhtijkk, pdhfurk, s hkg kaik k uf lna ai jfakri k ai enfaueirieu uf klphet pnzktkv hsuprh ieckpik. Ai ngkeik, heihsth klpdke jskrih ufnrnptklkzrk kftidkjifti f bduxud zkdfke ai dueru shu haueirih ufuk klpuds aiiftuzkhsl k feurhmhri f akriekh pntrkvkt dh lnliftud pntrkvkt. Lhfhjirkkai prnkiet fu triguki s bki suprh-nhlifk shu s bki ainsigkt ai kftidkjifk.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Qriguki anhr s fidihj hvhfthmud pirspietkvik dnr hsuprh sktuhkik k sbndnsihse heist dueru.

    Kf tci ifa, tci enri kaih K gidkivi kf ks tcht hs dnfj hs fn nfi

    jits curt (ixeipt pirchps enlpitktnrs), hfa ynu kfvndvia pinpdi kf tcirkjct why, fntckfj idsi lhttirs gut tci bhet tcht jnna stubb ks lhai. Ktanisft lhttir cnw lhfy kaihs ehli brnl ynu nr snlinfi idsi, hsdnfj hs tci nutenli ks pnsktkvi. _rnmiet lhfhjilift ks hgnut uskfjhfy lihfs fieisshry tn kferihsi tci prnghgkdkty hfa spiia nb pnsktkvinutenlis. H usibud ahkdy lhftrh Kvi usia ks Lh`i jnna stubbchppif. _inpdi wnuda sii li kf tci chddwhy nr wnr`kfj wktc h

    prnjrhllir ht h wcktignhra hfa hs`, Ciy Uentt, wchtech ankfj>

    Hfa Ka slkdi hfa shy, Lh`kfj jnna stubb chppif. Kt giehli hanlkfhft phrt nb cnw K hpprnhecia ihec hfa iviry ahy, hfa wcif Klhfhjia ntcirs, tcks httktuai ixtifaia nut hfa hernss tci tihltcrnujc tcil. (Uentt Gir`uf Qci Hrt nb _rnmiet Lhfhjilift)

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Ehpktndud 7

    Litnandnjkk ai aizvndthri h prnjrhlidnr

    7.8. Kftrnaueiri

    N litnandnjki ai aizvndthri h prnjrhlidnr, fulkt k prneis aiaizvndthri snbtwhri, riprizkft n struetur klpus hsuprh aizvndtrkk ufuk

    prnaus snbtwhri. Isti pdhfud ai hekufi prkvkfa sueeiskufih eidnr phtru bhzihdi kfjkfirkik prnjrhlrkk= hfhdkzh, prnkiethrih, klpdilifthrih k tisthrih.

    Yfidi enlphfkk bndnsise prnprkkdi litnandnjkk. Hdtidi bndnsiselitnandnjkk enlirekhdi. fs br n litnandnjki haievht, aizvndthrihprnausuduk isti chntke.

    Hdijirih ufik litnandnjkk ai aizvndthri triguki s kf sihlh aifhturh bkieruk prnkiet= lrklih ieckpik, gujitud, ticfndnjkh kkfstruliftidi utkdkzhti, tirlifidi dklkt, prneisidi ixkstifti aimh.

    7.7. Hgnrahrih enaihz k riphr

    Hgnrahrih enaihz k riphr (ifjd. enai hfa bkx) isti eih lhkrhpka k pukf ibkekift litnandnjki. Fu ixkst rijudk ai nrjhfkzhri k sikjfnr ithpidi eciki ai aizvndthri. Heihsth isti litnah utkdkzht ai ngkeik

    ai enlphfkkdi ai dh feiput ai arul, eu pukfk aizvndthtnrk. Wienlhfahrihf heihst sktuhki isti kftrnaueirih triptht h ufnr lnahdktk bnrlhdi aiaizvndthri k virkbkehri.

    7.5. Litnandnjkh sievifkhd

    Isti n litnandnjki jifirke f ehri eidi phtru bhzi urlihz ufhhdtikh ftr-n lhfkir sirkhd. Ieckpidi ehri si neup ai bkiehri bhz pnt bk

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    akbirkti, khr dh bkiehri trhfzkki ai bhz pnhti bk fieishr n aiekzkilhfhjirkhd. Ui rienlhfa piftru prngdili gkfi fidisi, piftruhutnlhtkzhrih ufnr skstili lhfuhdi ixkstifti shu piftru prnkieti ai seurtaurht.

    Bkjurh 7.8.Litnandnjkh sievifkhd

    Hvhfthmi. Litnandnjkh sievifkhd isti pntrkvkt efa enlpdixkthtihskstiluduk isti lke khr eirkfidi suft sthtkei. Isti sklpd, dnjke k unr ai

    urlht. Bnrihz lifkfirih ufik aksekpdkfi ai dueru f ehri hfhdkzh kprnkiethrih hu dne fhkftih klpdiliftrkk. Ui ivkt priskufih serkirkk enaudukfhkfti ai h eufnhti prieks ei prnaus vh triguk ai bhpt enfstrukt k aieksehai prnghgkdkthtih kftrnaueirkk ufnr prk ai ena kfutkdi shu kfibkekifti fprnausud bkfhd. Yf lhri fulr ai skstili snbtwhri akf trieut hu bnstenfstrukti eu n litnandnjki sievifkhd.

    Aizhvhfthmi. Ui henra n bnhrti lhri klpnrthf bhzik ai hfhdkz.Hfhdktkk triguki s aibkfihse tnhti aithdkkdi hpdkehkik fe ai dh feiput k

    fu ixkst uf prneis ai enriethri h irnrkdnr aup sthgkdkrih eirkfidnr.Enlufkehrih akftri ieckpidi aisilfhti piftru bhzidi ai aizvndthri sidklktihz f prkfekphd dh aneuliftidi rihdkzhti ai n ieckp k trklksiurltnhrik ieckpi. ftr-uf liaku ienfnlke akfhlke, litnandnjkhsievifkhd pnhti prnauei skstili ehri, dh vrilih dhfsrkk, s bki aimhfvieckti.

    7.5.8. Litnandnjkh ehseha

    Litnandnjkh ehseha (ifjd. whtirbhdd) h bnst prnpus ai ZkfstnfZ. Wnyei (8;:?). _rneisud eurji ai dh ithp dh ithp, eh hph ftr-nehseha. Aup bkiehri ithp ixkst uf phs ai vhdkahri. f aiserkirih kfkkhdixkst n ftnhreiri, uf phs fhpnk kftirhetkv ftri bkiehri anu ithpisueeiskvi.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Bkjurh 7.7.Litnandnjkh ehseha

    Aizhvhfthmud prkfekphd hd lnaiduduk ehseha hphri ainhriei edkiftudngkfi n vkzkufi prhetke hsuprh prnausuduk anhr f lnliftud tirlkfrkkprneisuduk ai aizvndthri. Ai hsilifih, lnaidud fu hri subkekift putiriaiserkptkv, f sifsud e fu kftijrihz hetkvktk eh lhfhjiliftud rkseudukshu lhfhjiliftud enfbkjurhkik.

    Eirkfi skstil k vhdkahri

    Eirkfi snbtwhri k vhdkahri

    _rnkiethri pridklkfhr k vhdkahri

    _rnkiethri aithdkht k vhdkahri

    Klpdilifthri, tisthri,aiphfhri k aisburhri

    _ri-npirhri, tisthri ai vhdkahri

    Npirhri, ftrikfiri, rivhdkahri

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    7.1. Litnandnjkh ekedke (ktirhtkv)

    Ui ghzihz pi kaiih pirbieknfrkk kferilifthdi h litnandnjkiksievifkhdi. Bhzidi suft akspusi f ekedurk ehri enftrkguki sueeiskv dhrihdkzhrih skstiluduk bkfhd. f bkiehri bhz si enfsul uf tklp lhk seurt,aup ehri urlihz lhk ludti ktirhkk prkf tnhti bhzidi. _i lsur eiprneisud fhkftihz, suft jifirhti akf ei f ei lhk ludti aithdkk. f bkfhd,aup etivh ekedurk, skstilud isti enlpdit k jhth ai dhfshri. _rneisud pnhtienftkfuh piftru dhfshrih lhk ludtnr virskufk hdi prnausuduk. Ui rienlhfapiftru prnkieti ufai tklpud isti isifkhd, ufai hphr rkseurk hsnekhti eu naurht lhri h prnkietuduk shu ufai eirkfidi fu pnt bk eufnseuti ixhet ai dh

    feiput.

    Bkjurh 7.5. Litnandnjkh ekedke

    Hvhfthmi. _irlkti biiaghe`-ud ai dh bkiehri ieckp f eiih eiprkviti enrietktuakfih eirkfidnr. Ixkst ithpi f ehri pnt bk enriethtiiviftuhdidi jriidk. Edkiftud pnhti stuakh rizudthtud k pnhti nbirk kfbnrlhkkklpnrthfti lhk hdis f bhzh akfhkftih dhfsrkk prnausuduk. Aizvndthrih sipnhti hahpth lhk gkfi prnjrisuduk ticfndnjke= pi lsur ei hphr fnk sndukk,idi pnt bk fenrpnrhti f prnaus. _nt hvih dne dkvrrk rijudhti shu rhpkai._irlkti prknrktkzhrih eirkfidnr.

    Aizhvhfthmi. Ai vrili ei fu ixkst enfstrfjirk hsuprh ieckpik ai

    hfhdkz s bhe duerurkdi eul triguki ai prklh aht, heist bhpt pnhti auei dhseairih rispnfshgkdktkk. Ieckph ai prnkiethri fu hri n vkzkufi jdnghdhsuprh prnausuduk k aiek fu pnhti rihdkzh n hrcktietur enlpdit. Bkiehriktirhki fieiskt uf tklp supdklifthr ai pdhfkbkehri. Ekedurkdi pnt enftkfuhbr n enfakki edhr ai tirlkfhri. Ieckph ai klpdilifthri pnhti bk pus fsktuhkh fianrkt f ehri eirkfidi k hrcktieturh skstiluduk suft f pirlhfiftsecklghri khr rifufhrih dh prk ai ena aimh serksi aitirlkf eritirihensturkdnr.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    7.1.8. Litnandnjkh spkrhd

    Litnandnjkh spkrhd, prnpus ai Ghrry Gnicl (8;33), enfskair ebkiehri phs akf aizvndthri enfkfi n sirki ai hetkvktk enlufi=

    prijtkrih= si kaiftkbke ngkietkvidi, hdtirfhtkvidi, enfstrfjirkdi0

    lhfhjiliftud rkseuduk= hfhdkzh k rizndvhrih sktuhkkdnr ai rkse0

    hetkvktk ai aizvndthri spiekbkei phsuduk eurift, ai ixilpdu hfhdkzheirkfidnr shu serkirih ai ena0

    pdhfkbkehrih urltnruduk sthaku= tirlifidi dklkt, risursidi fieishri,rivkzukrih strkk eurifti h prnkietuduk.

    Bkjurh 7.1.Litnandnjkh spkrhd

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    _rneisud feipi f eiftrud spkrhdik. Bkiehri ekedu tirlkfht riprizkftn ithp. _i lsur ei si phreurji spkrhdh, prnausud si lhturkzihz. Eubkiehri ekedu, skstilud si hprnpki ai sndukh bkfhd.

    7.1.7. Litnandnjkh Qklignxkfj

    feihre heeidirhrih prneisuduk ai aizvndthri prkf hpdkehrihphrhdidksluduk ftri akbirkti ktirhkk. Yfkthtih ai ghz isti n ehsit ai tklp(ifjd. tkli gnx), eu aurht bkx. Ai heiih, uf bhetnr eciki f hdijiriheirkfidnr isti ei pnhti bk rihdkzht ftr-n ehsit ai tklp. Heist bhptenftrhstihz eu litnandnjkkdi ktirhtkvi edhskei f ehri lhk ftk si cntrti

    bufeknfhdkthtih k hgkh hpnk tklpud ai dkvrhri. Bkiehri ehsit ai tklp istilprkt ftr-n sueeiskufi ai ithpi, eh f lnaidud ehseha. Aurhtidi heistnrithpi triguki s bki ai hsilifih hprnxklhtkv ijhdi. Qriguki s ixksti nieckp aiakeht piftru bkiehri ithp. Efa n ieckp tirlkf ithph k akfehsith ai tklp `, k pria dkvrhgkdud ieckpik aiakehti bhzik k+8 k hpnk feipiduerud dh heiihk ithp akf ehsith ai tklp `+8.

    Ahe n ehsit ai tklp hri Qzkdi k fithpi, prklh dkvrhri hri dne aupQzkdi, khr urltnhridi dh eti Q/ fzkdi aksthf. Ai ixilpdu, ahe Qisti ;

    sptlfk khr fisti 5, prklh dkvrhri vh bk beut aup ; sptlfk, h anuh dh87 sptlfk, h trikh dh 89 .h.l.a. Ixieukh dkfkhr h ktirhkkdnr hr enfauei dhtirlifi ai dkvrhri ai ;, 83, rispietkv 7: ai sptlfk.

    Enstud supdklifthr piftru seurthrih tklpuduk ai dkvrhri st futkdkzhrih risursidnr. Ai ixilpdu, ahe piftru uf prnkiet hfhdkzh kprnkiethrih aurihz 7 sptlfk eu 7 pirsnhfi, klpdilifthrih 7 sptlfkeu 1 pirsnhfi khr tisthrih 7 sptlfk eu 5 pirsnhfi, piftru ixieukh sirkhd

    h ktirhkkdnr suft fieishri 1 pirsnhfi. _iftru litnandnjkh tklignxkfj, suftfieishri 7+1+5 < ; pirsnhfi.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Bkjurh 7.9.Litnandnjkh Qklignxkfj

    Hvhfthmudprkfekphd isti seurthrih ekeduduk ai dkvrhri.Aizhvhfthmidi enfsthu f eritirih aklifskufkk ieckpik,

    enlpdixkthtih lhfhjiliftuduk k enstud rkakeht.Litnandnjkh si rienlhfa htufek efa suft fieishri tirlifi ai

    dkvrhri seurti k ixkst bdixkgkdkthti f jruphrih bufeknfhdktkdnr, hstbid fet

    ehsitidi ai tklp s hkg dufjklk ijhdi.

    7.9. Litnandnjkh ckgrka ieduz

    Litnandnjkh ieduz(ifjd. whtirsdukei), prnpus ai Wnfhda DiWnkGurghe` (8;;3), enlgkf prnjrisud enfsthft hd litnandnjkik sievifkhdi eu

    kferiliftidi ktirhtkvi hdi litnandnjkik ekedkei.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    Bkjurh 7.2.Litnandnjkh ckgrka ieduz

    f prklh ithp,seckh ai prkfekpku, ieckpidi duerihz ktirhtkv dh tnhtibhzidi prngdilik. Ieckph ai klpdilifthri si enfeiftrihz hsuprh shrekfkdnrerktkei. Yfud akf senpurkdi heistik ithpi isti ai h si enfvkfji ieckpidi eprnkietud isti bizhgkd, e n snduki pnhti bk jskt k pus f prhetke.

    f eih ai h anuh ithp, aiprntntkp

    , eirkfidi suft fjcihti. Aup eishrekfkdi erktkei hu bnst tirlkfhti, ieckph ai klpdilifthri si pnhtienfeiftrh pi ixtkfairih heistnrh. Yfud akf senpurkdi heistik ithpi isti ai henfvkfji pirsnhfidi akf hbhrh ieckpidnr (prkdi kftirishti) e n snduki istipnskgkd.

    f virskufkdi hdbh k gith, hrcktieturh isti fjciht, khr heeiftud ehaipi klpdilifthri k hskjurhrih ehdktkk. Wndud heistik ithpi isti ai henfvkfji edkifkk e hpdkehkh vh bk uf prnaus haivrht.

    fhkfti ai dhfshrih prnausuduk, klpdilifthrih isti fjciht kheeiftud ehai pi tisthri. Uenpud isti rihdkzhrih ufuk prnaus enlpitktkv.

    7.2. Lnaidud R

    Lnaidud R (jirl. R-Lnaidd) ivkaifkhz tisthrih pi tnt phreursud

    ekeduduk ai aizvndthri. H bnst eriht piftru rijdilifthrih aizvndtrkkprnausidnr snbtwhri f halkfkstrhkh biairhd jirlhf. Lnaidud pnhti bk

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    enfskairht n ixtifski h litnandnjkik ehseha, fs pufi heeiftud pi ridhkhakftri bkiehri bhz ai aizvndthri k bhzh ai tisthri hsnekht. Qrieirih dh bhzhurltnhri si bhei fulhk aup ei tnhti dkvrhgkdidi akf bhzh eurift hu trieuttistidi ai virkbkehri k vhdkahri.

    Bkjurh 7.:.Lnaidud R

    7.:. Litnai bnrlhdi

    Heist lnaid ai aizvndthri hpidihz dh bnrlhdkslud k rkjnhrihlhtilhtkekk piftru enfstrukrih spiekbkehkkdnr. Litnaidi bnrlhdi suftpntrkvkti f spiekhd piftru skstili eu eirkfi erktkei.

    Hvhfthmi=

    priekzkh ngkfut prkf spiekbkehrih bnrlhd0

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    pstrhrih enrietktuakfkk f tklpud trhfsbnrlrkk spiekbkehkkdnr f enaixieuthgkd0

    nbir pnskgkdkthtih jifirrkk hutnlhti ai ena0

    virkbkehrih enfskstifik k tisthrih prkf litnai sklkdhri ailnfstrrkkhutnlhti ai tinrili.

    Aizhvhfthmi=

    spiekbkehrih bnrlhd isti ai ngkeik n ghrkir ai enlufkehri ftriedkift k hfhdkst0

    fieiskt pirsnfhd bnhrti ehdkbkeht, aiek lhk seulp0

    bndnskrih klpiehgkd h ticfkekdnr spiekbkerkk bnrlhdi fu klpdkefihprht ngkfirih ai prnjrhli skjuri, ainhriei hfulkti hspietierktkei pnt bk nlksi akf spiekbkehkk.

    Bkjurh 7.3.Upiekbkehki f dklghmud ]

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    7.3. _rnjrhlhrih ixtril

    _rnjrhlhri ixtril (ifjd. iStrili _rnjrhllkfj) isti nlitnandnjki hjkd, pntrkvkt aizvndtrkk rhpkai ai hpdkehkk, prnpus ai@ift Gie` (8;;2). Akftri ehrhetirkstkekdi S_, hlkftkl urltnhridi=

    Ieckph ai aizvndthri fu hri n struetur kirhrcke. Bkiehri enftrkgukidh prnkiet bndnskfa lhxklud akf eufntkfidi shdi0

    Uerkirih ai ena isti hetkvkthtih eih lhk klpnrthft0

    _rnkietud isti f lkftih tuturnr prnjrhlhtnrkdnr akf ieckp, fu faneulifthkk, lnaidi shu rhpnhrti0

    Dh nrkei lnlift, uf riprizifthft hd edkiftuduk isti akspnfkgkd piftruedhrkbkehrih eirkfidnr0

    Enaud si serki et lhk sklpdu0

    Ui serki lhk ftk ena ai tist0

    Ahe hphri fieiskthtih riserkirkk shu idklkfrkk enauduk, heihsth sibhei br lkd0

    Lnakbkerkdi hausi enauduk suft kftijrhti enftkfuu, ai etivh nrk pi

    zk0 Ui prnjrhlihz f pirieck. Ieckpidi si secklg dh sbrktud ufik

    ktirhkk (8-7 sptlfk)0

    Ui duerihz 1? ai nri pi sptlf, br dueru supdklifthr.

    Lhfkbist piftru aizvndthrih hjkd ai snbtwhri (7??8)

    Aisenpirkl enftkfuu litnai lhk gufi piftru aizvndthrih ai

    snbtwhri prkf hpdkehrih heistnrh k prkf hmutnrud henraht hdtnrh piftru h dihpdkeh. Hstbid, hl hmufs s priukl=

    Nhlifkk k kftirhekufkdilhk ludt aiet prneisidi k kfstruliftidiUnbtwhri-ud bufeknfhdlhk ludt aiet aneulifthkh euprkfztnhriEndhgnrhrih eu edkifkklhk ludt aiet fijnekirih enftrhetidnrHahpthrih dh secklghrilhk ludt aiet rispiethrih ufuk pdhf

    Lhk ixhet, aik idiliftidi akf arihpth suft vhdnrnhsi, di priukl lhk

    ludt pi eidi akf stfjh.

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    _rkfekpkkdi Lhfkbistuduk hjkd

    Wispietl urltnhridi prkfekpkk=

    8.

    _rklh fnhstr prknrkthti isti heiih ai h shtksbhei edkifkk prkf dkvrrkfiftrzkhti k enftkfui ai snbtwhri vhdnrns.7.

    Heeiptl secklghrih eirkfidnr, eckhr k lhk trzku f prneisud aiaizvndthri. _rneisidi hjkdi vhdnrkbke secklghrih f hvhfthmudenlpitkknfhd hd edkiftuduk.

    5.

    Dkvrl brievift snbtwhri bufeknfhd, ai dh etivh sptlfk pf dhetivh dufk, pribirfa kftirvhdidi ai tklp lhk seurti.

    1.

    Nhlifkk ai hbheirk k aizvndthtnrkk triguki s duerizi zkdfke lpriufpi phreursud prnkietuduk.

    9.

    Enfstrukl prnkieti f murud pirsnhfidnr lntkvhti. Di nbirkl liakudk sprkmkfud ai ehri hu fivnki k hvil feriairi f ik e vnr bkfhdkzhduerhrih.

    2.

    Litnah eih lhk ibkekift k ibkehei piftru enlufkehrih kfbnrlhkkdnretri k f eharud ieckpik ai aizvndthri n riprizkft enfvirshkh bhf bh.

    :.

    Unbtwhri-ud bufeknfhd isti prkfekphdh lsur h prnjrisuduk.3.

    _rneisidi hjkdi prnlnvihz aizvndthrih aurhgkd. Upnfsnrkk,aizvndthtnrkk k utkdkzhtnrkk triguki s bki ehphgkdk s lifkf uf rktlenfsthft pi tklp fiaibkfkt.

    ;.

    Htifkh enftkfu piftru supirknrkthti ticfke k prnkiethri gufspnriti hjkdkthtih.

    8?.

    Uklpdkthtih hrth lhxklkzrkk ehftktkk ai lufe fiibietuht istiisifkhd.

    88.

    Eidi lhk gufi hrcktieturk, eirkfi k prnkietrk prnvkf akf eharudieckpidnr ehri si nrjhfkzihz skfjuri.

    87.

    Dh kftirvhdi rijudhti, ieckph ribdietihz hsuprh lnauduk f ehri

    pnhti aivifk lhk ibkehei k hpnk k lnakbke f lna enrispufztnrenlpnrthliftud.

    Ehrth aripturkdnr aizvndthtnruduk=

    Hk ariptud s tkk eiih ei si eiri, prkf eirkfi edhri, eu aiedhrhkk edhriai prknrkthti0

    Hk ariptud s spuk et k vh duh s klpdiliftizk bkiehri eirkf, k sk rivkzukitk istklrkdi f bufeki ai ixpirkif0

    Bdnrkf Dinf (7?82). Lhfhjiliftud prnkietidnr snbtwhri - Uupnrt ai eurscttp=//bdnrkfdinf.gyitcnst71.enl

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    1;

    Hk ariptud s k heeipk rispnfshgkdktkdi, f dne eh heistih s-k bkihtrkgukti0

    Hk ariptud s bhek trihg ai ehdkthti f nrkei lnlift0 Hk ariptud dh dkfkti, akstrheki k dh lufe prnauetkv k pdeut.

    Ehrth aripturkdnr edkiftuduk=

    Hk ariptud dh uf pdhf jifirhd, s tkk ei pnhti bk beut, efa, k dh eipri0

    Hk aript