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    MINISTERUL EDUCAIEI REPUBLICII MOLDOVAINSTITUTUL DE FORMARE CONTINU

    MANUAL LA DIFICULTI GRAMATICALE I LEXICALE(PENTRU STUDENI NCEPTORI I INTERMIDIARI

    vorbitori ai limbii romne)

    Elaborat de:Corneiciuc Irina lector IFC MFCo!ocaru Aliona lector IFC MF

    Galco"#$i %era lector #u&erior IFC

    C'i(in)u*+,*

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    VERBCon-or. #en#ului (i -unc/iei lor 0n &ro&o1i/ie "erbele 0n li.ba En2le1) #e #ub0.&art 0n dou)

    2ru&e &rinci&ale: "erbe de #en# 3Notional "erb4 (i "erbe au5iliare 3Au5iliarie#46

    Verbe deaciune

    Verbe cu senssaic

    Au!i"iare#rinci#a"e

    Au!i"iare$%da"e

    &' Verbe"e de sens #unt acele "erbe care e5&ri.) 0n/ele#ul de&lin al unei ac/iunii dee5e.&lu to go, to write,to come,to seeetc6 %erbele de #en# #e #ub7.&art 0n:

    a4 verbe de aciune care iau -or.a continu) de e5e.&lu: to 2o 8 2oin29

    b4 verbe cu sens static3#au "erbele care e5&ri.) 27ndirea recunoa(terea e.o/iile etc64 nuiau -or.a continu) de e5e.&lu: to be, to become, to look, tolove, to notice, to belong, to want, to prefer, to feel, to taste, tohear etc.

    (' Verbe"e au!i"iare#unt -olo#ite &entru a e5&ri.a rela/iile de ti.& (i de .od ale "erbelorde #en#6 %erbele au5iliare 0n li.ba en2le1) #unt: to be, to have, to do, may, can, must, willetc.

    Cteva verbe cu sens statc #unt nu.ite )*erbe de "e+,ur,- 3#au "erbeco&ulati"e;4 (i #e -olo#e#c 0n &ro&o1i/ii ca &arte a &redicati"ului 0.&reun) cu un

    #ub#tanti" ad!ecti" &artici&iu #au nu.eral6Ace#te "erbe #unt: to be3cel .ai &rinci&al4 to get, to become, to look, to seem, to appear(= seem, to feel, to smell, to grow etc.

    E626 &' *erb de "e+,ur, . subsani*/ I a. a #tudent6 8!u sunt student6M< brot'er beca.e a doctor in ,==,6

    "ratele meu a devinit medic #n $%%$.(6 *erb de "e+,ur, . ad0eci*/ >e loo$# ill6 ?!l arat& bolnav.

    1' *erb de "e+,ur, . #arici#iu/ @ur #tudent# 'a"e 2ot tired6'tudenii notri au obosit.

    2' *erb de "e+,ur, . nu$era"e/ Fi"e &lu# -i"e i# ten6)inci plus cinci fac *ece.

    !erbe"e #t$ be%&%t$ 'ave%& #t$ $%pot fi folosite att caverbe e sens ct i caverbe au"are*

    Verb de sens Au!i"iare

    *

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    T$ be + a ,3e 8 Ba# 3Bere4 8 been4%erbul to beare la re#ent Ten#e trei -or.e: La a#t Ten#e dou) -or.e:a$3 are3is

    4as35ere

    I a$ 6 eu #unt I 5as 6 a. -o#tou are 6 tu e(ti ou 5ere ? ai -o#t>e #'e it is 6 el ea e#te >e #'e it 5as6 a -o#t

    e are 6 noi #unte. e 5ere 6 a. -o#tou are 6 "oi #unte/i ou 5ere 6a/i -o#tT'e< are 6 ei #unt T'e< 5er6au -o#t

    &' )% be- ca verb e ac-une3 a -i a e5i#ta4 e#te un "erb al #t)rii #au al rela/iei6 El e5&ri.)o #tare o 0n#u(ire #au o rela/ie (i a&are nu.ai la -or.a 8 i.&le6

    E626 'e i# at #c'ool noB6 8!a este la coal& acum.M< boo$# are on t'e table6 8 )&rile mele sunt pe mas&.

    (' )% be- ca verb cu sens statcE626 >e Bill be a teac'er6 8!l va fi profesor.

    'e i# nice6 8!a este dr&gu&.T'e ta#$ Ba# di--icult6 8+ntrebarea a fost grea.

    1' )% be- ca verb au"ara!ut) la -or.area ti.&urilor co.&u#e6a7 to be -or.a ? in+creea1) di-erite -or.e de Continuou# 3a#&ect continuu4

    E626 I a. 2oin26 8!u plec.T'e #tudent# Bere Britin26 8 'tudenii scriau.>e 'a# been Britin2 t'i# boo$ -or -i"e

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    >a"e

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    do e Bill do -or u#6 S El ne con"ine6 T'i# #ort o- Bor$ Bont do -or 'i.6 S Ace#t lucru nu I #e

    &otri"e(te6 It Bont do to &la< all dae 'a# .ade o-- Bit' our .one< Q a #ter#?o cu banii no#trio- Ro.anian .a$e Q de -abricatie ro.anea#ca>e Bill .a$e a ca&ital #oldier Q "a -i un #oldat -oarte bunI Bill .a$e it 'otun&lea#ant -or 'i. Q a. #a?i -ac 1ile -ri&teMa$e 'i. -or2et it S F)?l #) uite de acea#[email protected] #BalloB doe# not .a$e a #u..er Q cu o r0ndunica nu #e -ace &ri.a"ara

    (' @T% d%- ca verb au"ar #e -olo#e(te la -or.area &ro&o1i/iilor intero2ati"e (i a

    &ro&o1i/iilor ne2ati"e la a#&ectul i.&le 8 re#ent i.&le a#t i.&leE626 Do

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    Re*isi%n and e!ersises:

    O

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    J

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    V

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    Co.&lete t'e #entence# beloB6 U#e t'e a##i"e 3&re#ent i.&le or Continuou#4

    =

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    ,+

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    ,,

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    ,*

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    ,H

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    ,P

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    ,

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    Ab%*eAb$ve ? &re&o1i/ie6* easu1ra3-)r) atin2ere cu #u&ra-a/a de ba1)4

    E626 T'e &lane i# abo"e t'e cloud#6 83vionul este deasupra norilor.T'e #un ri#e# abo"e t'e 'ori1on6 8 'oarele r&sare deasupra ori*ontului.re&o1i/ia @O*er-de a#e.enea #e utili1ea1) cu #en#ul deasupra6 Di-eren/a e#te c) &re&6

    abo"e; #e utili1ea1) 0n ca1ul c7nd obiectul #e a-l) "ertical c'iar dea#u&ra (i relati" nu tare #u#-a/) de #u&ra-a/) 0n ti.& ce &re&6 o"er; &re#u&une a-larea obiectului -oarte #u# dea#u&ra#u&ra-e/ei6E626 T'e la.& 'an2# o"er t'e table6 89ampa atrn& deasupra mesei.but >i# 'ead Ba# abo"e t'e Bater

    Sensu" de ba:, a #re#%:iiei )%*er- ese 1este'E626 'e t'reB t'e ball o"er t'e -ence6 8!a a aruncat mingea peste gard.

    7* 2a 2u"t e& 1esteE626 T'ere Bere abo"e tBent< &eo&le in t'e roo.6 8 n odae erau &e#te *+ &er#oane6 T'e< earn abo"e a"era2e6 8 Ei c7(ti2) .ai .ult dec7t #alariul .ediu63* 2a 2are 8n ran0& 1$9-e& 21$rtan-aE626 T'e deli"er< o- 2ood# Ba# t'Barted b< t'o#e abo"e 'i.6 8 Furni1area bunurilor a -o#t1)d)rnicit) de cei Yde #u#;6

    Ab$ve ? ad"erb ,6 at or to a 'i2'er &oint 8 care #e a-l) dea#u&ra

    E626 T'e cloud# abo"e loo$ li$e B'ite e .i##e# 'i# -a.il< abo"e all el#e6Ab$ve $nese",8 &rea 0ncre1)tor 0n #ine auto.ul/u.itE626 'eK# 2ettin2 a bit abo"e 'er#el-6Over t'ere8 acolo"i1a"iE626 ou can -ind 'i. o"er t'ere6

    A"" $ver t'e :$r"8 0n toat) lu.eaE626 T'ere are a lot o- intere#tin2 &lace# to "i#it all o"er t'e Borld6

    ;$r ab$ve

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    n li.ba en2le1) nu e5i#t) un "erb ec'i"alent &entru "erbul ro.7n a lii de la ; 3 (coal) lec/ii #au alt loc unde &re1en/a &er#oanei e#te nece#ar)49

    Ec'i"alentul lui e#te e5&re#ia to be ab#ent -ro.;6E626 M< -riend Ba# absen ;r%$#c'ool

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    Accent v.? a accentua9$. a accentua un cuvnt sau o silab&

    E626 T'e teac'er accented t'e #econd #illable6 1rofesoara a pus accentul pe a doua silab&.*6 a scrie semnul accentului #naintea silabei accentuate6

    E626 ou .u#t accent all t'e #tre##ed Bord# in t'i# #entence6 8Trebuie #) &une/i #e.nul accentului &e cu"intele accentuate din &ro&o1i/ia acea#ta6;. a scoate #n eviden& o idee, fra*& pronunndo cu o voce mai puternic&.

    E626 >e accented t'at 'e Ba#nKt 2oin2 to a2ree on t'o#e ter.#6 8

    El a accentuat c) nu are de 27nd #) acee&te acele condi/ii6S>n$n>2= % sress3 % e$#=asi:eE626 tre## accent t'e -ir#t #illable in 'a&&ine##; ? 1une accentul pe prima silab& #n cuvntul

    happiness.In 'i# re&ort t'e &re#ident #tre##ed e.&'a#i1ed t'e i.&ortance o- t'e &roble.6 8

    +n raportul s&u 1reedintele a accentuat importana acestei probleme.'ic' Bord #'ould I e.&'a#i1e ? )e cuvnt ar trebui accentuat2'e e.&o'a#i1ed it# i.&ortance to .e8!a a accentuat ct este de important aceasta pentru

    mineaccenn6 8 accent

    'ynonym< sress3 e$#=asi:e,6 accent na/ional re2ional #au orto2ra-ic6

    E626 >e 'a# a Frenc' an Al#atian accent6 !l are un accent franu*esc, alsatian.'e #&ea$# En2li#' Bit' a -orei2n accent6 !a vorbete engle*a cu un accent str&in.

    7*accent "n0vstc asu1ra une s"abe sau asu1ra unu cuvntcu scopul evedenierii luiE626 Accent i# t'e ele"ation o- t'e "oice B'ic' di#tin2ui#'e# one &art o- a Bord -ro. anot'er6? Accentul e#te o ridicare de "ocea care di-erentia1a o &arte de cu"ant de alta63*even-ere e eE6266 'e #et an accent #tre## e.&'a#i1e on detail#6 8 Ea a &u# accent &e detaliiN%,/ stress (n. are de asemenea sensul de stres& stare tens$nat4E626 T'i# !ob i# an ab#olute #tre## -or .e6 8 'erviciul meu este un stres absolut.

    Stress (v. a fi stresat, tensionatE626 T'e B'ole a--air #tre##ed .e a B'ole lot6 8 0oat& istoria eceasta ma stresat nespus de mult.

    Ac=eAc'e n6 durere 3continu) #urd) &oate -i c'ronic)4 #u-erin/)E626