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    Informaiidespre

    acvariun 99 de pagini, actualizat la 28. mai. 2011

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    CuprinsAnimalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Palaemonidae 1

    Family description....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1Palaemonetes spp. Ghost Shrimp...........................................................................................................................................................................................................2

    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Cambaridae 4Family description....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4Cambarellus patzcuarensis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................5

    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Neritidae 6Family description....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6Neritina natalensis sp. !ebra. !ebra Nerite Snail................................................................................................................................................................................."

    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae 8Family description....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................#Pomacea maculata $%mpullaria Gi&as'. (ystery Snail.........................................................................................................................................................................11Pomacea canaliculata $%mpullaria %ustralis'........................................................................................................................................................................................12

    Animalia. Chordata. Amphibia. Pipidae 13Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1)*ymenochirus boett&eri. +roscu,a &ri. - decedat..................................................................................................................................................................................14

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Characiormes. Characidae. 16Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

    Paracheirodon innesi. Neon tetra..........................................................................................................................................................................................................1#Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae !"Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2Chromobotia macracanthus/ Clo0n loach.............................................................................................................................................................................................22+otia almorhae $+otia lohachata'/ oyo loach.......................................................................................................................................................................................24

    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. Cypriniormes. Cyprinidae !6Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................26+alantiocheilos melanopterus. +ala $Colourul' shar3....................................................................................................................................................................... ...2Crossocheilus siamensis. Siamese al&ae eater. ..................................................................................................................................................................................)

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cyprinodontiormes. Poeciliidae. 3!Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................)2Poecilia reticulata. Guppy......................................................................................................................................................................................................................))iphophorus maculatus. Platy...............................................................................................................................................................................................................)5iphophorus hellerii. Green S0ordtail...................................................................................................................................................................................................)"

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. Cichlidae. 3#Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................)Pterophyllum scalare. %n&elish......................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...45(i3ro&eopha&us ramirezi. am cichlid.................................................................................................................................................................................................4#7abidochromis caeruleus/ 7emon yello0 lab.........................................................................................................................................................................................5

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. $sphronemidae. %1Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................51+etta splendens. Siamese i&htin& ish. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .5)

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae %6Family description..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................56Corydoras aeneus/ +ronze corydoras...................................................................................................................................................................................................5#Corydoras paleatus. Peppered corydoras.............................................................................................................................................................................................6Corydoras sterbai. Sterba8s corydoras..................................................................................................................................................................................................62Corydoras sch0artzi/ Sch0artz8s catish...............................................................................................................................................................................................6)Corydoras arcuatus/ S3un3 Corydoras or %rched corydoras................................................................................................................................................................64Corydoras panda/ Panda corydoras......................................................................................................................................................................................................65*oplosternum littorale. *oplo Catish....................................................................................................................................................................................................6#

    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae ("Family description.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................."9tocinclus :estitus. ;0ar 9tto/ ;0ar or (id&et suc3ermouth catish. .............................................................................................................................................."4

    %ncistrus dolichopterus ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................."6

    Plantae. Angiosperms. (8Cabomba alodea....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................#4+acopa monnieri....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................#5(icrosorum pteropus. ?a:a ern............................................................................................................................................................................................................#"Cladophora ae&a&ropila/ ?apanese (oss +alls....................................................................................................................................................................................#

    )i*erse #"Primul ac:ariu........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Saturi pe scurt.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................)Ciclul %zotului.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5

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    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Palaemonidae

    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Palaemonidae

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Arthropoda

    Subphylum: Crustacea

    Class: Malacostraca

    Order: ecapoda

    Infraorder: Caridea

    Superfamily: Palaemonoidea

    !amily: Palaemonidae

    Palaemonidae is a family of crustaceans of the order ecapoda" #hey belong to the infraorder Caridea$ %hich

    contains the true shrimp& %hile some fresh%ater palaemonid species are 'no%n as (pra%ns($ the family belongsto the suborder Pleocyemata li'e all true shrimp$ %hereas the true pra%ns are members of the suborderendrobranchiata"

    #%o subfamilies are distinguished: the Palaemoninae are less diverse phylogenetically$ but more diverseecologically" #hey are mainly carnivores that eat small invertebrates and can be found in any a)uatic habitate*cept the deep sea" #he most significant palaemonine genus is Macrobrachium$ %hich contains commercialspecies such as Macrobrachium rosenbergii"

    #he Pontoniinae have a higher evolutionary diversity$ but almost all of them inhabit coral reefs$ %here theyassociate %ith certain invertebrates such as sponges$ cnidarians$ mollus's and echinoderms" #his group includescleaner shrimps as %ell as parasites and commensals" #hey generally feed on detritus$ though some arecarnivores and hunt tiny animals"

    Genera

    #he family contains +,- genera$ divided unevenly bet%een t%o subfamilies:.+/

    +" Palaemoninae 0afines)ue$ +1+2

    3" Pontoniinae Kingsley$ +145

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Palaemonidae

    Palaemonetes spp. Ghost Shrimp

    Species Proile and Care @normation

    !resh%ater Invertebrate

    Scientific 6ame : Palaemonetes sp"Common 6ames : 7lass Shrimp$ 7rass Shrimp

    Care 8evel : 9asy

    Sie : + ; 3 inches : ?"2 ; 1

    #emperature : [email protected]! ; [email protected]! abitat : !ound in multiple places throughout 6orth America$ mostly farm raised for the pet fish trade

    9:er:ie0

    #he 7host Shrimp is a cool little fresh%ater shrimp that you may be interested in 'eeping if you have the righttan' setup" #hey are sometimes called the (7lass Shrimp( because they have a semi;translucent body" #his is avery ine*pensive shrimp to purchase and should live for a year or t%o and sometimes even longer"

    #hey are fre)uently used by fishermen as fish bait and they are considered pests by clam farmers %ho spend lotsof money trying to eradicate them from their clam farms" !or hobbyists$ they can provide an interesting additionto a tan' stoc'ed %ith smaller$ less aggressive fish species" 8arger fish may find them irresistible and %ill ustlove eating them"

    7host Shrimp need to build a borro% to feel secure so you %ill need to provide a sand or very small sied gravelsubstrate that %ill allo% them to create a shelter for themselves" Dou may be able to 'eep multiples provided thatyou have a tan' large enough to support multiples" Dou may see some aggressive behavior amongst them aroundbreeding time"

    #his is a some%hat decent scavenger and %ill go after all fish foods placed into the tan'" Ma'e sure they aregetting enough to eat by dropping in a sin'ing shrimp pellet or algae %afer every once in a %hile"

    If you have your ghosties in a tan' %ith fishes that need treatment for diseases you %ill need to remove theshrimps to a separate tan' %hile medicating" Ee%are especially of any medications containing copper" 0unactivated carbon through the a)uarium filter and ma'e sure you remove all of the medications before introducingthem bac' into the tan'"

    #emperament B Eehavior : Sometimes %ill eat baby fish$ they are usually food for other fish$ sometimes %illfight among themselves if the tan' is too small and there are too many of them"

    Ereeding B Mating B 0eproduction : If you put several of them in your tan' then they %ill mate and the female%ill carry small eggs in her belly %hich you can see" >appens %ithout you doing anything" If you %ant to raisethe young then you need to move the female to a separate tan' before she has her babies and add the appropriateamount of a)uarium salt"

    #an' Sie : 2 gallons

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    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Palaemonidae

    !ish isease : !resh%ater !ish isease

    #hey are not very susceptible to disease but are susceptible to chemicals that treat fish diseases" 8oo' for%arnings stating (not good for invertebrates on the bottle(" Stay a%ay from using any copper based medicationsin a tan' %ith ghost shrimps"

    iet B !ish !ood : Omnivorous ; %ill eat almost anything you feed it and also a good bottom feeder" #his is notan effective algae eater"

    #an' 0egion : Fsually stays close to its burro% in the sand or gravel"

    7ender : >ard to determine$ no noticeable e*ternal differences bet%een males and females" !emales %ill carrythe eggs"

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Cambaridae

    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Cambaridae

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Arthropoda

    Subphylum: Crustacea

    Class: Malacostraca

    Order: ecapoda

    Infraorder: Astacidea

    Superfamily: Astacoidea

    !amily: Cambaridae$ >obbs$ +5-3

    Genera

    Earbicambarus

    Eouchardina

    Cambarellus

    Cambaroides

    Cambarus

    istocambarus

    !allicambarus

    !a*onella

    >obbseus

    Orconectes

    Procambarus

    #roglocambarus

    Cambaridae is the largest of the three families of fresh%ater crayfish$ %ith over - species".+/ Most of thespecies in the family are native to 6orth America east of the 7reat ivide$ such as the invasive speciesProcambarus clar'ii and Orconectes rusticus$ %ith fe%er species living in 9ast Asia and Gapan$ such as arigani

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    Animalia. Arthropoda. Crustacea. Cambaridae

    Cambarellus patzcuarensis.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ArthropodaSubphylum: Crustacea

    Class: Malacostraca

    Order: ecapoda

    !amily: Cambaridae

    7enus: Cambarellus

    Species: C" patcuarensis

    Einomial name

    Cambarellus patcuarensis

    Hillalobos$ +5-,

    Cambarellus patcuarensis is a crayfish in the family Cambaridae".+/

    ;escription

    It has a body measuring -2 centimetres

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Neritidae

    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Neritidae

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Mollusca

    Class: 7astropoda

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Neritidae

    Neritina natalensis sp. "Zebra". Zebra Nerite Snail

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Mollusca

    Class: 7astropodaclade Cycloneritimorpha

    Superfamily: 6eritoidea

    !amily: 6eritidae

    7enus: 6eritina

    Species: 6" natalensis

    Einomial name: 6eritina natalensis$ 0eeve$ 8"A"$ +1-2

    9:er:ie0

    #he ebra 6erite Snail is one of the most$ if not the most$ popular nerite snail in the hobby" Its coloration is a

    beautiful golden shell %ith blac' agged;edged stripes running do%n" It is one of the larger nerite snail %ith asie ranging from +B3( to a full inch in sie" I have seen some rather large ones"

    #his species occurs in Africa: in Kenya$ Moambi)ue$ Somalia$ South Africa$ and #anania".

    6eritina natalensis is a species of small fresh%ater snail %ith an operculum$ an a)uatic gastropod mollus' in thefamily 6eritidae$ the nerites"

    +reedin&

    One do%nside to the ebra 6erite Snail$ and this applies to most other nerite snails$ is its inability to breed inpure fresh%ater" #he ebra 6erite Snail re)uires brac'ish %ater in order to breed successfully" Some hobbyistshave been some%hat successful in breeding nerite snails but it does not seem that the young snails survive fortoo long" Some may loo' at this as a plus$ meaning that the ebra 6erite %ill not over populate a tan' andbecome another pest in the a)uarium"

    %ppearance

    #he ebra 6erite Snail is typically blac' and gold$ or sometimes a gold;lime coloration" #he coloration pattern isnot a s%irl but rather the color e*tends in lines from the very bac' tip of the snail" #he ebra 6erite Snail is oneof the most popular$ if not the most$ due to this beautiful coloration and pattern"

    Feedin&

    Another plus for the ebra 6erite Snail is its algae eating abilities" #his snail %ill clean your tan' glass spotlessand also clean algae off of roc's and even leaves" Many hobbyists purchase the ebra 6erite Snail more becauseof its algae eating abilities than its visual loo's" It is recommended that you supplement their diet %ith algae%afers or similar type food since the #rac'ed 6erite Snail may not be able to sustain itself solely on algae in the

    tan'" #his species is also larger than other nerite snails and %ill not be able to successfully eat algae off of smallleaves due to its %eight"

    +eha:ior

    #he ebra 6erite Snail cantend to escape from a tank and ma'e its %ay outside of the tan'" It is considered atidal snail and can live outside of %ater" Simply pic' them up and put them bac' inside of the tan'$ they %illsurvive as long as they have not been out of the tan' for too long" It is recommend to keep an eye on them andlook around the tank occasionally for possible escapes" It is thought that %hen the snail is uncomfortable it %illescape$ but %ill not %hen happy" It is also an e*tremely docile creature and does not bother any other a)uariuminhabitants"

    A peaceful snail$ %ill not bother tan' inhabitants" >o%ever$ should not be 'ept %ith aggressive fish that mayattac' it such as 8oaches or Pufferfish"

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae

    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Mollusca

    Class: 7astropoda

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae

    Apple snails inhabit various ecosystems: ponds$ s%amps and rivers" Although they occasionally leave the %ater$they spend most of their time under %ater" Fnli'e the pulmonate snail families$ apple snails are nothermaphroditic$ but gonochoristic& i"e" they have separate genders"

    %s a common a

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae

    Instead of becoming a valuable food source$ the introduced snails escaped and became a serious threat to riceproduction and the native ecosystems" uring the +51s the introduced snails rapidly spread to Indonesia$#hailand$ Cambodia$.5/ >ong Kong$ southern China$ Gapan and the Philippines$ and there are indications thatthey are currently invading Australia"

    >a%aii e*perienced the same introduction of Pomacea for culinary purposes$ and its taro industry is no%suffering because of it"

    7enera Marisa$ Pila and Pomacea

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae

    Pomacea maculata (Ampullaria Gigas. !ystery Snail

    Origin: South America

    Se*ing: Monoecious

    #emperature: Immaterial

    Attitude: 9ats day and nightSecurity: Carries it on bac'

    !oods: Any food on bottom

    Later: 6eeds hard %ater

    Incubation: 3 to , %ee's

    Erood Sie: About + eggs

    Ereeding: 9ggs laid above %ater

    Appeal" Mystery snails add an element of intrigue to your a)uaria" #heir %aving tentacles and ever;che%ingradula

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    Animalia. Mollusca. Gastropoda. Ampullariidae

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullaria Australis

    http:BB%%%"oceanoblu"comBstoc'listBschedaB,1Bampullaria;australis;gialla

    Of the 2 species of Pomacea officially recognied$ only t%o are readily available on our mar'et: PomaceaEridges

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    Animalia. Chordata. Amphibia. Pipidae

    Animalia. Chordata. Amphibia. Pipidae

    Family description

    8o%er Cretaceous to 0ecent

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Amphibia

    Subclass: 8issamphibia

    Superorder: Eatrachia

    Order: Anura

    Suborder: Mesobatrachia

    !amily: Pipidae

    #he Pipidae are a family of primitive$ tongueless frogs" #he thirty species in the family Pipidae are found intropical South America

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    Animalia. Chordata. Amphibia. Pipidae

    ymenochirus boettgeri. #roscu$a gri. % decedat

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Amphibia

    Order: Anura

    !amily: Pipidae

    7enus: >ymenochirus

    Species: >" boettgeri

    Einomial name: >ymenochirus boettgeri$ ymenochirus boettgeri$ also 'no%n as Congo %arf Cla%ed !rog or %arf African !rog$ is a species of frog inthe Pipidae family" It lives in central Africa" #his species is also bred and sold as an a)uatic pet" As pets$ %arfAfrican !rogs can live peacefully among other fish in an a)uarium" #hese frogs can be fed regular fish fla'es$although they especially li'e to eat freee;dried blood%orms and the elodea plant" >o%ever$ if you do choose toadd this critter to your a)uarium$ ma'e sure the tan' is coveredQ#his species is not afraid to and %ill ump outof its tan'"

    Eroastele din salbaticie se confrunta cu o scadere a numarului si cu e*tinctia$ in mare parte din caua activitatilorumane" in pacate$ piata animalelor de companie contribuie la acutiarea criei e*tinctiei amfibienilor si laraspandirea unei infectii devastatoare cu ciuperca Chytrid" in aceasta caua ar trebui sa cumperi numai broastede care esti sigur ca sunt specii captive locale si care au fost testate pentru aceasta infectie"

    urata de viata: in ur de 2 ani"

    imensiunea si aspectul: Eroastele pitice ating$ la maturitate$ o lungime de 3$2 ,$1 cm" e obicei$ ele au oculoare gri;maroniu deschis$ cu puncte mai inchise" Chiar daca uneori au o culoare mai deschisa$ varietateaalbinoasa este specifica broastelor africane cu gheare$ care sunt mai mari$ si nu apare la broastele pitice"Eroastele africane cu gheare tinere seamana la aspect cu broastele pitice& uita;te daca au membrane intre degeteledin fata& broastele pitice au picioarele din fata palmate$ spre deosebire de broastele mai mari"

    %c:ariul pentru broastele pitice

    Eroastele pitice nu au nevoie de un acvariu urias iti trebuie in ur de -$2 litri de apa pentru fiecare broasca" Potfi tinute in grupuri sau cu o comunitate de pesti care sa fie de apro*imativ aceeasi marime$ dar trebuie sa ai griaca si acvariul sa fie corespunator ca dimensiuni" 9vita acvariile inalte$ adanci$ deoarece broastele trebuie sa iasacu usurinta la suprafata$ pentru a respira" 8asa un gol de aer intre suprafata apei si capacul acvariului" easemenea$ acvariul trebuie sa aiba un capac potrivit$ pentru ca broastele vor incerca sa iasa"

    %pa si sistemul de iltrare

    Pune in acvariu numai apa fara clor

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    Animalia. Chordata. Amphibia. Pipidae

    aca se intampla asta$ poti incerca un alt tip de pietris sau le poti hrani dintr;o farfurioara pe care o pui in apa$peste pietris

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Characiormes. Characidae.

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Characiormes. Characidae.

    Family description

    #emporal range: Fpper Miocene ; 0ecent.+/

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Superclass: Osteichthyes

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Subclass: 6eopterygii

    Infraclass: #eleostei

    Superorder: Ostariophysi

    Order: Characiformes

    !amily: Characidae

    SubfamiliesAgoniatinae

    Aphyocharacinae

    Eryconinae

    Characinae

    Cheirodontinae

    Clupeacharacinae

    7landulocaudinae

    Iguanodectinae

    0hoadsiinae

    Serrasalminae oplias and >oplerythrinus have no% been moved into the 9rythrinidae$ and the sabre;toothed fishes of the genus >ydrolycus have been moved into the Cynodontidae" #he formner subfamilyAlestiinae %as promoted to family level

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Characiormes. Characidae.

    #he piranhas and relatives yphessobrycon$ Astyana*$ >emigrammus$ Moen'hausia$ and Eryconamericus include the largest number of

    currently recognied species among characid fishes that are in need of revision&.,/ Astyana* and>yphessobrycon in the usual delimitation are among the largest genera in this family".3/ #hese genera %ereoriginally proposed bet%een +12- and +51 and are still more or less defined as by Carl >" 9igenmann in +5+4$even though diverse species have been added to each genus since that time" #he anatomical diversity %ithin eachgenus$ the fact that each of these generic groups at the present time cannot be %ell;defined$ and the high numberof species involved are the maor reasons for the lac' of phylogenetic analyses dealing %ith the relationships ofthe species %ithin these generic (groups(".,/

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Characiormes. Characidae.

    such as human intervention into the tan'" 6eons are best 'ept in a densely planted tan' %ith subdued light and anideal temperature of 3+34 @C

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Superclass: Osteichthyes

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Subclass: 6eopterygii

    Infraclass: #eleostei

    Superorder: Ostariophysi

    Order: Cypriniformes

    Superfamily: Cobitoidea

    !amily: Cobitidae

    SubfamiliesCobitinae

    Botiinae

    Cobitidae is the family of the true loaches$ %hich are Old Lorld fresh%ater fish" #hey occur throughout 9urasiaand in Morocco$ and inhabit riverine ecosystems" #oday$ most (loaches( are placed in other families

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae

    9ventually it %as realied that the hillstream loaches$ though more similar to the true loaches than the other t%opresumed Cobitoidea$ are nonetheless distinct enough to be better regarded a full;blo%n family Ealitoridae" Andas it seems the (suc'ing Cobitoidea( are )uite distant indeed$ perhaps even mar'edly closer to the Cyprinidae$and thus the old superfamily Catostomoidea %arrants revalidation" !inally$ the puling mountain carps %eremost often considered a distinct family Psilorhynchidae in recent times" Eut in a number of systematic schemes$they %ere placed in the Ealitoridae enry IH$ Part + Act 3 has: (Lhy$ they %ill allo% us neer a ordan$ and then %e lea' inyour chimney& and your chamber;lie breeds fleas li'e a loach"( #his might be a misprint$ or an obsolete term fora dovecote$.-/ then as today notorious for (breeding( Ceratophyllus columbae fleas" Or it might indeed refer tothe fish: the Spined 8oach

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae

    Chromobotia macracanthus& Clo'n loach

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: ActinopterygiiOrder: Cypriniformes

    !amily: Cobitidae

    Subfamily: Eotiinae

    7enus: Chromobotia$ Kottelat$ 3-

    Species: C" Macracanthus

    Einomial name: Chromobotia macracanthus

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae

    In its native habitat$ the fish is found in %ater %ith a temperature range of 44 to 1? @! bet%een 2" and 1"$ and %ater hardness bet%een 2 and +3 d>".+/

    @n the ao%ever" %ith a tan' supported %ith natural environments$ Clo%ns are very noisy surface feeders%ho %ill assert themselves to ta'e the most and the best of blood%orm" Most clo%n loaches accept commercialfla'e food and sin'ing pellets as their dietary staple$ but thrive %ith a variety of food: live

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cypriniormes. Cobitidae

    #otia almorhae (#otia lohachata& oyo loach

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Cypriniformes

    !amily: Cobitidae

    Subfamily: Eotiinae

    Einomial name: Eotia almorhae$ 7ray$ +1,+

    Other 6ames: Almorha 8oach$ Pa'istani 8oach$ 0eticulated 8oach$ D;8oach

    Origin: 6orth and 69 India$ Eangladesh

    Adult Sie: ,;2 inches : ?"2 ; 4"2

    >ardenss: to +3 d7>

    #emperature: 42;1? !

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. Cypriniormes. Cyprinidae

    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. Cypriniormes. Cyprinidae

    Family description

    #emporal range: 9ocene ; Present

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Superclass: Osteichthyes

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Subclass: 6eopterygii

    Infraclass: #eleostei

    Superorder: Ostariophysi

    Order: Cypriniformes

    Superfamily: Cyprinioidea

    !amily: CyprinidaeSubfamilies

    Acheilognathinae

    Cultrinae

    Cyprininae

    anioninae

    7obioninae

    >ypophthalmichthyinae

    8abeoninae

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. Cypriniormes. Cyprinidae

    #he fish in this family are native to 6orth America$ Africa$ and 9urasia" #he largest cyprinid in this family is the7iant Earb

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    >abitat destruction and other causes have reduced the %ild stoc's of several cyprinids to dangerously lo% levels&some are already entirely e*tinct" In particular$ 8euciscinae from south%estern 6orth America have been hit hardby pollution and unsustainable %ater use in the early;mid 3th century& most globally e*tinct Cypriniformesspecies are in fact 8euciscinae from the south%estern Fnited States and northern Me*ico"

    Systematics

    #he massive diversity of cyprinids has so far made it difficult to resolve their phylogeny in sufficient detail toma'e assignment to subfamilies more than tentative in many cases" It is obvious that some distinct lineages e*ist for e*ample$ Cultrinae and 8euciscinae$ regardless of their e*act delimitation$ are rather close relatives andstand apart from Cyprininae $ but the overall systematics and ta*onomy of the Cyprinidae remain a subect ofconsiderable debate" A large number of genera are incertae sedis$ too e)uivocal in their traits andBor too little;studied to permit assignment to a particular subfamily %ith any certainty".1/

    Part of the solution seems that the delicate rasborines are the core group$ consisting of minor lineages that havenot shifted far from their evolutionary niche$ or have co;evolved$ for millions of years" #hese are among themost basal lineages of living cyprinids" Other (rasborines( are apparently distributed across the diverse lineagesof the family".5/

    #he validity and circumscription of proposed subfamilies li'e 8abeoninae or S)ualiobarbinae also remainsdoubtful$ although the latter do appear to correspond to a distinct lineage" #he sometimes;seen grouping of thelarge;headed carps ypophthalmichthyinae= %ith enocypris$ on the other hand$ seems )uite in error" Moreli'ely$ the latter are part of the Cultrinae".5/

    #he entirely paraphyletic (Earbinae( and the disputed 8abeoninae might be better treated as part of theCyprininae$ forming a close;'nit group %hose internal relationships are still little 'no%n" #he small African(barbs( do not belong in Earbus sensu stricto indeed$ they are as distant from the typical barbels and the typicalcarps

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. Cypriniormes. Cyprinidae

    #alantiocheilos melanopterus. #ala (Colour)ul shar*.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Cypriniformes

    !amily: Cyprinidae

    7enus: Ealantiocheilos

    Species: E" melanopterus

    Einomial name: Ealantiocheilos melanopterus should be ?"1"" #he preferable %ater hardness for this species is soft tomedium =" Later temperature should be 'ept bet%een [email protected]

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. Cypriniormes. Cyprinidae

    Crossocheilus siamensis. Siamese algae eater.

    Siamese algae eater

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Cypriniformes

    !amily: Cyprinidae

    7enus: Crossocheilus

    Species: C" siamensis

    Einomial name: Crossocheilus siamensis

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    Siamese Algae 9aters %ill often school together$ but are also content living solo" Lhen t%o are 'ept together$they %ill often establish their o%n territory as they mature" #hey can be a long;lived fish$ ten years e*perienced"

    C" siamensis has a peculiar resting position: it doesnt lie flat on its belly but 'eeps its body propped up %ith itstail$ pelvic and pectoral fins" Doung fish sometimes rest on broad leaves$ adult specimens prefer resting onbottom or dense$ lo% plants li'e Cryptocorynes" #he s%im bladder is not very developed$ so the fish cant stay inmid%ater but it must be in constant motion or it sin's"

    Compatibility

    As they are not aggressive$ they can be 'ept in any community tan' big enough" #heir active behavior mightstress some sensitive species li'e d%arf cichlids and prevent them from spa%ning" #hey should not be 'ept %ith0ed;tailed Shar's ardness should be less than 3 d>" Later should be clean and o*ygenated$ because they come from bright andfast;flo%ing streams" #hey eat algae$ including red algae and all 'ind of live and prepared foods" It is very rarethat they harm plants in their tan' if they are given enough green food" #hey also eat algae %hen they are mature$but seem to prefer fla'e food" 8iisas fish eat uc'%eed

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cyprinodontiormes. Poeciliidae.

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cyprinodontiormes. Poeciliidae.

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Cyprinodontiformes

    !amily: Poeciliidae$ 7arman$ +152

    Poeciliidae is a family of fresh;%ater fish %hich are live;bearing a)uarium fish

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cyprinodontiormes. Poeciliidae.

    Poecilia reticulata. Guppy

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Cyprinodontiformes!amily: Poeciliidae

    7enus: Poecilia

    Species: P" reticulata

    Einomial name

    Poecilia reticulata$ Peters$ +125

    SynonymsAcanthocephalus guppii

    A" reticulatus

    7irardinus guppii

    7" petersi

    7" poeciloides7" reticulatus

    >aridichthys reticulatus

    >eterandria guppyi

    8ebistes poecilioides

    8" reticulatus

    Poecilia poeciloides

    Poecilioides reticulatus

    #he guppy o%ever$ guppies have been introduced to many different countries on all continents$ e*cept Antarctica"Sometimes this has occurred accidentally$ but most often as a means of mos)uito control$ the hope being that theguppies %ould eat the mos)uito larvae slo%ing do%n the spread of malaria" In many cases$ these guppies havehad a negative impact on native fish faunas".2/

    .edit/ 9cology and behavior

    7uppies e*hibit se*ual dimorphism" Lhile %ild;type females are grey in body colour$ males have splashes$

    spots$ or stripes that can be any of a %ide variety of colors"

    eproduction

    7uppies are highly prolific livebearers".?/ #he gestation period of a guppy is 3+, days$ %ith an average of 31days$ varying according to %ater temperature" Males possess a modified tubular anal fin called a gonopodiumlocated directly behind the ventral fin %hich is fle*ed for%ard and used as a delivery mechanism for one or moreballs of spermatooa" #he male %ill approach a female and %ill fle* his gonopodium for%ard before thrusting itinto her and eecting these balls" After the female guppy is inseminated$ a dar' area near the anus$ 'no%n as thegravid spot$ %ill enlarge and dar'en" Gust before birth$ the eyes of fry may be seen through the translucent s'in inthis area of the females body" Lhen birth occurs$ individual offspring are dropped in se)uence over the course ofan hour or so"

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cyprinodontiormes. Poeciliidae.

    7uppies prefer %ater temperatures of about 3? @C

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Cyprinodontiormes. Poeciliidae.

    +iphophorus maculatus. Platy.

    Scientiic classiication

    Scientific 6ame: iphophorus maculatus

    Other 6ames:7olden Moon Platy$ Moonfish$ Common Platy

    !amily: Poeciliidae Origin: 7uatemala$ >onduras$ Me*ico

    Adult Sie: + ; 3 inches

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    +reedin&

    #he Mic'ey Mouse Platy is se*ually mature as early as four months of age$ %hich means young fish should bese*ed and seperated %hen they are very young" !emale platys %ho mate %ill retain sperm pac'ets and cancontinue to give birth %ithout mating again for a number of months

    Once mating has occured$ and the eggs are fertilied$ it ta'es about , days for the fry to emerge" #he

    temperature can slo% do%n or speed up the process

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    #he males (s%ord( is yello%$ edged in blac' belo%" Captive breeding has produced many color varieties$including blac'$ red$ and many patterns thereof$ for the a)uarium hobby"

    #he green s%ordtail prefers s%ift;flo%ing$ heavily;vegetated rivers and streams$ but is also found in %armsprings and canals" Omnivorous$ its diet includes both plants and small crustaceans$ insects$ and annelid %orms"

    " hellerii has become a nuisance pest as an introduced species in a number of countries" It has caused ecologicaldamage because of its ability to rapidly reproduce in high numbers" !eral populations have establishedthemselves in southern Africa$ including 6atal$ Madagascar and eastern #ransvaal in South Africa and Oti'oto8a'e in 6amibia" Significant populations have also established themselves along the east coast of Australia" Oneof the most popular tropical a)uarium fish$ the green s%ordtail has been bred into various hybrid forms for thea)uarium hobby due to its hardiness and suitability for community tan's"

    #he males beautiful elongated caudal fins have been found to significantly affect their chances at mating" #hepresence of a %ell;endo%ed male spurs the maturity of females %hile it inhibits the maturity of uvenile males inthe vicinity of the %ell;endo%ed male

    +readin&

    S%ordtails are livebearers$ %hich means they give birth to already formed fry" #here are a fe% %ays todifferentiate males from females" #he first and most obvious is to loo' at the tail of the fish" If it is long and inshape of a s%ord$ it is a male" >o%ever$ %hen young$ this diphormism is not al%ays obvious and maleS%ordtails are %ell 'no%n to be late developpers" #he presence of a gonopodium in the male species is another%ay to tell males from females" 7onopodiums are e*tension of the anal fin rays that the male uses to fertilie thefemale" !emales$ in conterpart$ have a gravid patch at the end of their belly right under the anal fin" #his patchgets bigger as she gets ready to give birth" !ermales are also usually bigger than males" Its been said that femalescan sometimes change se* after breeding a fe% times" Opinions are divided on this subect" I actually have had afe% females that changed se* after after a %hile but Im not sure if they %ere actual females or really latedevelopping males" Some hobbyist also believe that females become males %hen there is a male shortage" Allthese facts remain to be proven"

    iphophorus >elleri is one of the easiest tropical fish to breed" !emales can give birth to , to ? batchs of fry %ithonly one fertiliation

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. Cichlidae.

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. Cichlidae.

    Family description

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Perciformes

    Suborder: 8abroidei

    !amily: Cichlidae$ >ec'el$ +1-

    SubfamiliesAstronotinae

    Cichlasomatinae

    Cichlinae

    9troplinae

    7eophaginae

    >eterochromidinae

    Paratilapiinae

    Pseudocrenilabrinae

    Ptychochrominae

    0etroculinae

    Cichlids

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    #he features that distinguish them from the other 8abroidei include:.3/ A single nostril on each side of the forehead$ instead of t%o"

    6o bony shelf belo% the orbit of the eye"

    ivision of the lateral line organ into t%o sections$ one on the upper half of the flan' and a second along the midline of the flan' from abouthalf%ay along the body to the base of the tail eterochromisphylogenetically %ithin neotropical cichlids$ although later papers concluded other%ise" Other problems centerupon the identity of the putative common ancestor for the 8a'e Hictoria superfloc'$ and the ancestral lineages of#anganyi'an cichlids"

    Comparisons.+2/ bet%een a morphologically;based phylogeny.+?/ and analyses of gene loci.+4/ producedifferences at the genus level" #here remains a consensus that the Cichlidae as a family is monophyletic".+1/.+5/

    One problem that transformed cichlid ta*onomy is related to dentition$ %hich had been used as a classifyingcharacteristic" In many cichlids$ tooth shape changes %ith age$ due to %ear$ and cannot be relied upon" 7enomese)uencing and other technologies transformed cichlid ta*onomy".3/

    an&e and habitat

    #ilapia mariae$ caught on a hoo' and line$ in Australia" Originally from Africa$ the species established feralpopulations in Australia".3+/

    Cichlids are the most species;rich non;Ostariophysan family in fresh%aters %orld%ide" #hey are most diverse inAfrica and South America" It is estimated that Africa alone hosts at least +$? species".+3/ Central America andMe*ico have appro*imately +3 species$ as far north as the 0io 7rande in southern #e*as" Madagascar has itso%n distinctive species

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    ana'ilia are found" 8a'e Abaeded in 9ritrea encompasses the entire distribution of " dinicolai$ and itstemperature ranges from 35 to -2 @C

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    9pen broodin&

    Open or substrate brooding cichlids lay their eggs in the open$ on roc's$ leaves$ or logs" 9*amples of openbrooding cichlids include Pterophyllum$ Symphysodon spp$ and Anomalochromis thomasi" Male and femaleparents usually engage in differing brooding roles" Most commonly$ the male patrols the pairs territory andrepels intruders$ %hile females fan %ater over the eggs$ removing the infertile and leading the fry %hile foraging">o%ever$ both se*es are able to perform the full range of parenting behaviours".23/

    Ca:e broodin&

    Secretive cave spa%ning cichlids lay their eggs in caves$ crevices$ holes$ or discarded mollusc shells$ fre)uentlyattaching the eggs to the roof of the chamber" 9*amples include Pelvicachromis spp"$ Archocentrus spp$ andApistogramma spp".2/ !ree;s%imming fry and parents communicate in captivity and in the %ild" !re)uentlythis communication is based on body movements$ such as sha'ing and pelvic fin flic'ing" In addition$ open andcave brooding parents assist in finding food resources for their fry" Multiple neotropical cichlid species performleaf;turning and fin;digging behaviors".23/

    9:ophile mouthbroodin&

    Ovophile mouthbrooders incubate their eggs in their mouths as soon as they are laid$ and fre)uently mouthbroodfree;s%imming fry for several %ee's" 9*amples include many 7reat 0ift Halley la'es

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    Satellite la'es such as 8a'e 9d%ard and 8a'e Kyoga have not been as strongly affected$ ho%ever$ and harbor anarray of similar species"

    Food and &ame ish

    Although cichlids are mostly small; to medium;sied$ many are notable as food and game fishes" Lith fe% thic'rib bones and tasty flesh$ artisan fishing is not uncommon in Central America and South America$ as %ell asareas surrounding the African rift la'es".24/

    #he most important food cichlids$ ho%ever$ are the tilapiines of 6orth Africa" !ast gro%ing$ tolerant of stoc'ingdensity$ and adaptable$ tilapiine species have been introduced and farmed e*tensively in many parts of Asia andare increasingly common a)uaculture targets else%here"

    !armed tilapia production is about +$2$ tonnes

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    its o%ner".?5/ #he popularity of the flo%erhorn cichlid declined in 3-".4/ O%ners released many specimensinto the rivers and canals of Malaysia and Singapore %here they threaten endemic communities".4+/

    6umerous cichlid species have been selectively bred to develop ornamental a)uarium strains" #he most intensiveprograms have involved angelfish and discus$ and many mutations that affect both coloration and finnage are'no%n".-/.43/.4,/ Other cichlids have been bred for albino$ leucistic$ and *anthistic pigment mutations$including oscars$ convicts and Pelvicachromis pulcher".-/.2/ Eoth dominant and recessive pigment mutations

    have been observed".+/ In convict cichlids$ for e*ample$ a leucistic coloration is recessively inherited$.4-/%hile in Oreochromis niloticus niloticus red coloration is caused by a dominant inherited mutation".42/

    #his selective breeding may have unintended conse)uences" !or e*ample$ hybrid strains of Mi'rogeophagusramirei have health and fertility problems".4?/ Similarly$ intentional inbreeding can cause physicalabnormalities$ such as the notched phenotype in angelfish".44/

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. Cichlidae.

    Pterophyllum scalare. Angel)ish.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Perciformes

    !amily: Cichlidae

    Subfamily: Cichlasomatinae

    #ribe: >eroini

    7enus: Pterophyllum$ >ec'el$ +1-

    Einomial name: Pterophyllum altum

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    species is the largest of the genus and specimens e*ceeding 2 cm in height ighlands$preferring a p> range bet%een -"2 to 2"1" #hese are very transparent blac'%aters %ith almost nil conductivity"#emperature range in these %aters is bet%een 41 and 1- @!

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    +reedin&

    P" scalare is relatively easy to breed in the a)uarium$ although one of the results of generations of inbreeding isthat many breeds have almost completely lost their rearing instincts resulting in the tendency of the parents to eattheir young" In addition$ it is very difficult to accurately identify the gender of any individual until they arenearly ready to breed"

    Angelfish pairs form long;term relationships %here each individual %ill protect the other from threats andpotential suitors" Fpon the death or removal of one of the mated pair$ breeders have e*perienced both the totalrefusal of the remaining mate to pair up %ith any other angelfish and successful breeding %ith subse)uent mates"

    epending upon a)uarium conditions$ P" scalare reaches se*ual maturity at the age of si* to t%elve months ormore" In situations %here the eggs are removed from the a)uarium immediately after spa%ning$ the pair iscapable of spa%ning every seven to ten days" Around the age of appro*imately three years$ spa%ning fre)uency%ill decrease and eventually cease"

    Lhen the pair is ready to spa%n$ they %ill choose an appropriate medium upon %hich to lay the eggs and spendone to t%o days pic'ing off detritus and algae from the surface" #his medium may be a broad;leaf plant in the

    a)uarium$ a flat surface such as a piece of slate placed vertically in the a)uarium$ a length of pipe$ or even theglass sides of the a)uarium" #he female %ill deposit a line of eggs on the spa%ning substrate$ follo%ed by themale %ho %ill fertilie the eggs" #his process %ill repeat itself until there are a total of + to more than +$3eggs$ depending on the sie and health of the female fish" As both parents care for the offspring throughoutdevelopment$ the pair %ill ta'e turns maintaining a high rate of %ater circulation around the eggs by s%immingvery close to the eggs and fanning the eggs %ith their pectoral fins" In a fe% days$ the eggs hatch and the fryremain attached to the spa%ning substrate" uring this period$ the fry %ill not eat and %ill survive by consumingthe remains of their yol' sacs" At one %ee'$ the fry %ill detach and become free;s%imming" Successful parents%ill 'eep close %atch on the eggs until they become free;s%imming" At the free;s%imming stage$ the fry can befed ne%ly;hatched brine shrimp """ more on %i'ipedia

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. Cichlidae.

    !i*rogeophagus ramirezi. ,am cichlid.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: ActinopterygiiOrder: Perciformes

    !amily: Cichlidae

    Subfamily: 7eophaginae

    7enus: Mi'rogeophagus

    Species: M" ramirei

    Einomial name: Mi'rogeophagus ramirei arry$ +5-1=.+/

    SynonymsApistogramma ramirei

    Microgeophagus ramirei

    Papiliochromis ramirei

    Papilochromis ramirei.3/.,/

    Mi'rogeophagus ramirei is a species of fresh%ater fish endemic to the Orinoco 0iver basin$ in the savannahs ofHeneuela and Colombia in South America".3/ #he species has been e*amined in studies on fish behaviour.-/and is a popular a)uarium fish$ traded under a variety of common names including 0am$ Elue ram$ 7erman blueram$ Asian ram$ Eutterfly cichlid$ 0amires d%arf cichlid$ %arf butterfly cichlid and 0amirei" #he species is amember of the family Cichlidae and is included in subfamily 7eophaginae"

    #he species is named after Manuel 0amire$ an early collector and importer of the species for the a)uariumtrade" 7eorge S" Myers and 0" 0" >arry

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    @n the a

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    -abidochromis caeruleus& -emon yello' lab

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: ActinopterygiiOrder: Perciformes

    !amily: Cichlidae

    7enus: 8abidochromis

    Species: 8" caeruleus

    Einomial name: 8abidochromis caeruleus$ !ryer$ +52?

    8abidochromis caeruleus is a species of cichlid fish that is endemic to the central %estern coastal region of 8a'eMala%i in 9ast Africa" It is also 'no%n as lemon yello% lab$ the blue strea' hap$ the electric yello% or yello%prince$ depending on the colour morph" A naturally occurring yello%;coloured variant from 6'hata Eay is one ofthe most popular cichlids amongst a)uarium hobbyists"

    #his species is a maternal mouthbrooder$ meaning the eggs are carried$ hatch$ and develop in the motherNs mouth

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. $sphronemidae.

    In some species$ %hen t%o males are put in a tan' together they %ill fight constantly" Other$ more peaceful$gouramis may sho% mild to moderate signs of aggression$ but are usually able to live together" Male gouramis%ill ignore many species$ such as danios$ mollies$ silver dollars$ and plecostomus catfish$ but %ill often sho%aggression to%ard species %ith long$ flo%ing fins li'e male guppies$ goldfish$ and bettas$ because they display along tail and bright colors$ presenting competition for impressing a female gourami" !emale gouramis sometimesbother other fish but usually 'eep to themselves"

    Species

    #here are about 5? species in +2 genera"

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. $sphronemidae.

    #etta splendens. Siamese )ighting )ish.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Perciformes

    !amily: Osphronemidae

    7enus: Eetta

    Species: E" splendens

    Einomial name

    Eetta splendens$ 0egan$ +5+

    #he Siamese fighting fish o%ever$brilliantly colored and longer finned varieties alfmoon= have beendeveloped through selective breeding"

    #his species lives appro*imately 32 years in captivity$ generally bet%een ,;-$ rarely 2? years$ fed %ith

    anabolics 45 years.citation needed/"

    #he fish is a member of the gourami family

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. $sphronemidae.

    carefully 'eeps them in his bubble nest$ ma'ing sure none fall to the bottom$ and repairing the bubble nest asneeded" Incubation lasts for 3-,? hours$ and the ne%ly;hatched larvae remain in the nest for the ne*t 3, days$until their yol' sacs are fully absorbed" After%ards the fry leave the nest and the free;s%imming stage begins" Itis common practice in the a)uarium hobby to remove the male at this point$ so that he %ould not eat his youngo%ever$ breeders have been able to ma'ethis colouration permanent$ and a %ide variety of hues breed true" A %ide variety of colours are available to thea)uarist such as red$ blue$ tur)uoise$ orange$ yello%$ green$ bright blue %ith pin' highlights$ cream and even true%hite

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. Perciormes. $sphronemidae.

    pec'ing order" !lirting fish behave similarly$ %ith vertical instead of horiontal stripes indicating a %illingnessand readiness to breed

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Family description

    #emporal range: 8ate Paleocene ; 0ecent

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    Superfamily: 8oricarioidea

    !amily: Callichthyidae$ Eonaparte$ +1,1

    7eneraAspidoras

    Callichthys

    Corydorasianema

    Hoplosternum

    8epthoplosternum

    Megalechis

    Erochis

    Scleromysta*

    Callichthyidae is a family of catfishes

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    ;istribution

    #he 6eotropical family Callichthyidae is found in most South American river drainages

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Corydoras aeneus& #ronze corydoras

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    !amily: Callichthyidae

    Subfamily: Corydoradinae

    7enus: Corydoras

    Species: C" aeneus

    Einomial name: Corydoras aeneus oplosoma aeneum" 7ill$ +121"

    Corydoras microps" 9igenmann Kennedy$ +5,"

    Corydoras veneuelanus" Ihering$ +5++"

    Corydoras macrosteus" 0egan$ +5+3"

    Corydoras schultei" >olly$ +5-"

    #he brone corydoras colo&y

    #hey are found in )uiet$ shallo% %aters %ith soft bottoms that can sometimes be heavily polluted by clouds ofdisturbed mud from the bottom$ but it also inhabits running %aters".+/ In its native habitat$ it inhabits %aters %itha temperature range of 32 @C to 31 @C ?";1"$ and hardness 2 to +5 7>".+/ 8i'e most

    members of the Corydoras genus$ these catfish have a uni)ue method of coping %ith the lo% o*ygen content thatprevails in such environments" In addition to utiliing their gills li'e any other fish$ they rapidly come to thesurface of the %ater and dra% air in through their mouth" #his air is then absorbed through the %all of theintestine and any surplus air is e*pelled through the vent".+/ It typically stays in schools of 3 to , individuals".+/ It feeds on %orms$ benthic crustaceans$ insects$ and plant matter".+/

    eproduction

    0eproduction occurs %ith the onset of the rainy season$ %hich changes the %ater chemistry".+/ !emales spa%n+3 egg;clutches %ith multiple males at a time$ but an entire egg clutch is inseminated by sperm of a singlemale".3/

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Erone cories have a uni)ue method of insemination" Lhen these fish reproduce$ the male %ill present hisabdomen to the female" #he female %ill attach her mouth to the males genital opening$ creating the %ell;'no%n(#;position( many Corydoras e*hibit during courtship" #he female %ill then drin' the sperm" #he sperm rapidlymoves through her intestines and is discharged together %ith her eggs into a pouch formed by her pelvic fins"#he female can then s%im a%ay and deposit the pouch some%here else alone" Eecause the #;position ise*hibited in other species than ust C" aeneus$ it is li'ely that they also e*hibit this behavior".,/ In the %ild$ eggsare laid on %ater%eeds".3/

    Males do not form territories or compete over females& interference bet%een males might only happen %hen t%omales present their abdomens simultaneously" On the other hand$ females do not choose bet%een males" Matingis more or less random& therefore$ male reproductive success is directly related to courtship fre)uency".3/

    #he eggs of C" aeneus e*hibit a uni)ue surface pattern %ith small villi;li'e protuberances %hich resembleattaching;filaments of teleost eggs" #hese structures allo% the eggs to be adhesive and stic' to a specific place orto each other" #he presence of these structures may be related to the turbid habitat in %hich this species lives".-/

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Corydoras paleatus. Peppered corydoras

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: ActinopterygiiOrder: Siluriformes

    !amily: Callichthyidae

    Subfamily: Corydoradinae

    7enus: Corydoras

    Species: C" paleatus

    Einomial name: Corydoras paleatus

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    #hey li'e to nibble on the algae that gro%s on floating plants$ but are not a specialied algae eating catfish" #helighting must not be too bright and you need to set up hiding places$ such as bog%ood

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Corydoras sterbai. Sterbas corydoras.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    !amily: Callichthyidae

    7enus: Corydoras

    Species: C" sterbai

    Einomial name: Corydoras sterbai$ Knaac'$ +5?3

    Sterbas corydoras o%ever$ li'e almost all fish it %ill not tolerate high levels of nitrates" Fnli'e some other catfish they are notgood algae eaters$ but are good at (cleaning up( leftover food and detritus from the substrate" Coryodras sterbaiare relatively small for catfish$ gro%ing to a ma*imum sie of only 3 3"? inches"

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Corydoras arcuatus& S*un* Corydoras or Arched corydoras

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: ActinopterygiiOrder: Siluriformes

    !amily: Callichthyidae

    Subfamily: Corydoradinae

    7enus: Corydoras

    Species: C" arcuatus

    Einomial name: Corydoras arcuatus

    Origin:South;America$ Peru$ 8oreto$ 0io Pacaya$ tributaries of 0io Fcayali and 0io Davari" 9cuador$ 6apo$ 0ioDasuni$ 0io 6apo tributary" Colombia$ 0io Ca)ueta$ 0io Amaonas" Erail$ Amaonas$ 0io Purus system 0ioIpi*una"

    9tymology: Arcuatus$ bent$ referring to the bent stripe over the body"

    Synonyms:6one"

    !irst import:Fn'no%n$ the fish %as originally described from a)uarium specimens

    escription:Eodycolor yello%ish beige %ith a light goldgreen shine$ long blac' stripe over the body$ spinesmelinated$ rest of the fins transparent"Occasionally the blac' stripe looses some of its intensity$ especiallybet%een the eye and the dorsal fin

    Care:A ? cm tan' %ith good filtration$ although no strong current is neccessary for the animals %ell;being"Lildcaught specimens need lots of hideouts to reduce stress$ and time to get used to the tan'" After that they canbe 'ept easily in a tan'" Its better for the fish if they are 'ept in large groups of 1 or more fish"Corydoras

    arcuatus#emperature: 3;3?

    !eeding: As described above %ildcaught specimens are very shy and easily scared fish" If you decide to 'eepthem in a community tan' ma'e sure they get enough to eat"

    Sie:?" cm

    p>: ?"2;4" >ardness: 3;3

    Ereeding: !eed lots of live food

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    Corydoras panda& Panda corydoras

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    !amily: Callichthyidae

    Subfamily: Corydoradinae

    7enus: Corydoras

    Species: C" panda

    Einomial name

    Corydoras panda

    6issen Isbrc'er$ +54+

    Corydoras panda is a species of catfish belonging to the genus Corydoras$ of the !amily Callichthyidae$ and is anative member of the riverine fauna of South America" It is found in Peru$ most notably in the >uanaco region$%here it inhabits the 0io A)uas$ the 0io Amarillae$ a tributary of the 0io Pachitea$ and the 0io Fcayali riversystem" #he species %as first collected by >"0" 0ichards in +5?1$ and %as named Corydoras panda by 6issenand Isbrc'er in +54+" #he specific name is an allusion to the appearance of the fish$ %hich possesses large blac'patches surrounding the eyes$ reminiscent of those found on the 7iant Panda" Accordingly$ the common namesfor this fish$ %hich is a popular a)uarium species$ are Panda Corydoras and Panda Catfish"

    Physical description

    Corydoras panda has an off;%hite to pin'ish;orange ground colour$ and %hen observed under certain lighting

    conditions$ a faint greenish iridescence is present upon the flan's and the operculum" #he fins of the fish matchthe body in ground colour$ upon close inspection being seen to be hyaline or translucent %ith coloured fin rays$%ith the dorsal fin being mar'ed by a conspicuous blac' blotch that covers almost the entire fin area" #he caudalpeduncle is mar'ed %ith a blac' band$ this blac' band encircling the caudal peduncle from dorsal to ventralsurface" #he adipose fin$ supported by a small fin spine$ sometimes contains blac' pigmentation" #he head is thesame ground colour as the body$ %ith a blac' mas' surrounding the eyes$ descending vertically from thefontanel$ over each eye$ and ending in a triangular %edge immediately before the ventral surface of the head" #hepectoral fins are positioned immediately behind the operculum$ and are usually oriented horiontally %hen thefish is at rest$ e*tended in a manner similar to the %ings of an aeroplane" #he pelvic fins are positioned upon theventral surface of the fish$ located some %ay behind the pectoral fins" #he first ray of the dorsal fin emanatesfrom the body at appro*imately its point of greatest elevation$ and a vertical line dra%n do%n%ards from thispoint meets the attachment point of the pelvic fins" #he anal fin is located far to the rear of the ventral surface ofthe body$ the attachment point of the first fin ray being some%hat for%ard of the blac' caudal peduncle mar'ingdescribed above"In common %ith all other members of the !amily Callichthyidae$ the body surface is covered$ not %ith scales$but %ith bony plates 'no%n as scutes" #he lines of demarcation bet%een individual scutes can be seen upon closee*amination of this and almost all other Callichthyid fishes$ and in the case of some specimens of this species$are highlighted by additional blac' pigment"

    #he fish possesses$ in common %ith almost all Corydoras species$ three pairs of barbels ; one pair of ma*illarybarbels and t%o pairs of rictal barbels"

    A fully mature adult specimen of this species attains a standard length of 22 millimetres

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    *abitat

    Corydoras panda inhabits clear river %aters that are relatively fast;flo%ing$ %ell;o*ygenated$ and flo%ing oversubstrates that may comprise soft sand or fine gravel" #hese rivers are usually %ell vegetated %ith assortedspecies of a)uatic plants" #he pro*imity of the home rivers of the fish to the Andes mountain range$ and thereplenishment of those rivers %ith melt%aters from Andean sno%s at higher altitudes$ has led the fish to beadaptable to cooler temperatures than the norm for tropical fishes ; the temperature range of the fish is [email protected] [email protected]$ though the fish e*hibits a mar'ed preference for the cooler regions of this temperature spectrum$

    particularly in captivity" Indeed$ the fish can$ for limited periods$ survive temperatures as lo% as [email protected]$ thoughcaptive rearing at such lo% temperatures is ill;advised" #he native %aters of Corydoras panda are conse)uentlymineral;deficient$ %ith a neutral to slightly acid p>$ and replication of such conditions in captivity arerecommended for successful maintenance"

    %o%ever$ %hile some Corydoras species re)uire a temperature drop inthe a)uarium for spa%ning to be stimulated$ in the case of Corydoras panda$ the temperature drop appears tomatter much less$ as specimens have spa%ned in the a)uarium %ithout a temperature drop" #he addition of ne%$clean$ o*ygenated %ater appears to be the primary stimulus for this species" In the %ild$ the appearance of ne%%ater courtesy of the rains is follo%ed by an increase in the populations of assorted food organisms$ and feedingupon these conditions the fishes for breeding"

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Once conditioned fishes are stimulated into spa%ning$ males begin chasing females energetically" !emales begindeveloping eggs %ithin their reproductive tracts$ and %hen ripe

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actinopterygii. &iluriormes. Callichthyidae

    oplosternum littorale. oplo Cat)ish

    Temporal range: Middle Miocene - Recent

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    !amily: Callichthyidae

    Subfamily: Callichthyinae

    7enus: >oplosternum$ 7ill$ +121

    #ype species: Callichthys laevigatus$ Halenciennes$ +1,-

    Species >oplosternum littorale

    >oplosternum magdalenae

    >oplosternum punctatum

    Synonyms: Cascadura$ 9llis$ +5+,

    Cataphractops$ !o%ler$ +5+2

    9llisichthys$ Miranda 0ibeiro$ +53

    iasternum$ !ran$ 3+

    9:er:ie0

    Origin: Amaon 0iver and tributaries

    Ma*imum Sie: Possible 1 inches" Si* more li'ely"

    >ousing: + gallons to start$ then move to larger )uartersSubstrate: Immaterial

    Peculiarity: Air breathers

    Se*ual ifferences: Males sport thic'er pectoral fins as they mature

    #emperature: +1C ; 35C

    Attitude: Peaceful" 7ood scavenger"

    Security: Shy at first" Adapts rapidly"

    !oods: >eavy eater

    Ereeding Comments: Eubble nesters" Males very protective"

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    7roups" Dou can 'eep your hoplos singly$ but they seem to enoy hanging around %ith their o%n 'ind not inthe tight formations of neon tetras but more li'e the cory cats" #hey are more active than most corydoras catfish"

    Later" Originally from Amaonia$ hoplo catfishes probably came from %aters %ith a p> belo% 4"" 6o prob"#hey adapt very )uic'ly to a %ide variety of p> levels"

    >oplos e*plore these ornaments but o%ever$ much li'e cories$ your hoplo catfish %ill often come front and center and loaf in plain site" #hey arenot hiders and couldnNt care less ho% you decorate your tan'" If you provide caves$ they %ill e*plore them">o%ever$ they are only part;time spelun'ers"

    Substrate" Dour hoplo catfishNs spotted pattern helps it blend into nearly any multi;colored bottom" #hey sho%up best over solid colors" Some hoplo o%ners li'e to display them over %hite sand to ma'e them `pop out"

    !oods" !eed your ne% hoplos %hatever the rest of your fish are cho%ing on: fla'es$ pellets$ %afers$ food stic's$froen$ freee;dried$ or live foods" Maybe feed a little of each" #hey eat them all %ith relish" Still$ they never

    seem to put on e*cess %eight" 8i'e most catfishes$ they prefer to munch at the night shift cafeteria" Also li'eother catfishes$ they )uic'ly adapt to your feeding schedule usually %ithin a %ee'"

    Se*ing" Once they mature$ the male hoplos develop thic'er pectoral fins" #he females probably get plumper"ItNs been so many decades since INve seen an adult$ I canNt remember"

    Air Ereathers" >oplo catfish

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    Family description

    #emporal range: Fpper Miocene ; 0ecent.+/

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    Superfamily: 8oricarioidea

    !amily: 8oricariidae$ 0afines)ue$ +1+2

    Subfamilieselturinae

    >ypoptopomatinae

    >ypostominae8ithogeneinae

    8oricariinae

    6eoplecostominae

    8oricariidae is the largest family of catfish ypostomus plecostomus$and are popular as a)uarium fish"

    Common names

    >ypostomus plecostomus$ the original plecostomus"

    Members of the family 8oricariidae are commonly referred to as suc'ermouth armoured catfishes$ armouredcatfish$ plecos or simply plecs& a shortened form of the species name plecostomus".3/

    #hese names are used practically interchangeably %hen referring to the 8oricariidae" #he name (Plecostomus(and its shortened forms have become synonymous %ith the 8oricariidae in general$ since Plecostomusplecostomus ypostomus plecostomus= %as one of the first species imported into the fish'eepinghobby" #his can cause some confusion as some unrelated fish may also be called plecostomus$ such as the(Eorneo Plecostomus($ %hich are actually balitorid fishes".,/

    In their native range$ these fish are 'no%n as cascudos or acars".-/

    7-numbers

    Some types of loricariids are often referred to by their 8;number& this has been become common since importsof loricariid catfish from South America often included specimens that had not been ta*onomically described"Currently 8;numbers are used not only by fish'eeping enthusiasts but by biologists since they represent a usefulstopgap until a ne% species of fish is given a full ta*onomic name".2/ It should be noted that in some cases t%odifferent 8;numbered catfish have turned out to be different populations of the same species$ %hile in other casesmultiple

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    Also$ unli'e most other catfish$ the prema*illae are highly mobile$ and the lo%er a%s have evolved to%ards amedial position %ith the teeth pointed rostroventrally& these are important evolutionary innovations".+2/ #he fishrotates its lo%er and upper a%s to scrape the substrate" #he lo%er a%s are most mobile".+5/

    8oricariid catfishes have evolved several modifications of the digestive tract that function as accessoryrespiratory organs or hydrostatic organs" #hese comple* structures %ould have been independently evolved anumber of times" #his includes an enlarged stomach in the Pterygoplichthyini$ >ypostomus$ and 8itho*us$ a F;

    shaped diverticulum in 0hinelepini$ and a ring;li'e diverticulum in Otocinclus" >o%ever$ even loricariids %ithan unmodified stomach have a slight ability to breathe air".3/

    Considerable se*ual dimorphism occurs in this family$ most pronounced during the breeding season" !ore*ample$ in 8oricariichthys$ the male has a large e*pansion of its lo%er lip$ %hich it uses to hold a clutch ofeggs".+1/ Ancistrus males have snouts %ith fleshy tentacles".+1/ In loricariids$ odontodes develop almostany%here on the e*ternal surface of the body and first appear soon after hatching& odontodes appear in a varietyof shapes and sies and are often se*ually dimorphic$ being larger in breeding males".+1/ In most Ancistrinispecies$ sharp evertible chee' spines ypostominae %ould present is almost e*clusively restricted to the genus >ypostomus$ and thespecies from the other genera had a conserved diploid number".++/ It has been found in some species that there isa BL se*;determination system".-/.3-/

    >colo&y

    #he suc'ermouth e*hibited by these catfish allo% them to adhere to obects in their habitats$ even in fast;flo%ing%aters".?/ #he mouth and teeth also are adapted to feed on a variety of foods such as algae$ invertebrates$ anddetritus".?/ Some species$ notably the Pana)ue$ are 'no%n for *ylophagy$ or the ability to digest %ood".32/

    Most species of 8oricariids are nocturnal animals" Some species are territorial$ %hile others$ such as Otocinclus$prefer to live in groups".,/

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    Air;breathing is %ell 'no%n among many loricariids" #he ability to breathe air is dependent on the ris' ofhypo*ia faced by a species& torrent;d%elling species tend to have no ability to breathe air$ %hile lo%;land$ pool;d%elling species such as those of >ypostomus have a great ability to breathe air".3/ Pterygoplichthys are 'no%nfor being 'ept out of %ater and sold alive in fish mar'ets$ surviving up to , hours out of %ater".3/ 8oricariidsare facultative air breathers& they %ill only breathe air if under stress and %ill only use their gills in situations%hen o*ygen levels are high" #he dry season is a li'ely time for this& there %ould be little food in the stomach$%hich %ould allo% its use for air breathing".3/

    8oricariids e*hibit a %ide range of reproductive strategies$ including cavity spa%ning$ attachment of eggs on theunderside of roc's$ and egg;carrying".+1/ Parental care is usually %ell;developed and the male guards the eggsand sometimes the larvae".+1/ #he eggs hatch after bet%een - and 3 days$ depending on the species".,/

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    /tocinclus 0estitus. 1'ar) /tto& 1'ar) or !idget suc*ermouth cat)ish.

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: ChordataClass: Actinopterygii

    Order: Siluriformes

    !amily: 8oricariidae

    Subfamily: >ypoptopomatinae

    #ribe: >ypoptopomatini

    7enus: Otocinclus

    Cope$ +14+

    #ype species

    Otocinclus vestitus

    Cope$ +14+Species: Over a doen$ see te*t"

    Synonyms: 8ampiella$ Isbrc'er$ 3+$ Macrotocinclus$ Isbrc'er Seidel$ 3+

    SeDin&

    ifficult" !emales are slightly bigger than males"

    Aan3 compatibility

    An e*cellent peaceful community fish" #here is$ ho%ever$ records of this fish suc'ing on slime coats of slo%moving large bodied fish such as Angelfish and iscus" #his is due to them be 'ept in near starvation conditionin the fish shop and theyve learned bad habits"

    ;iet

    Otos %ill mainly grae on some soft algaes$ primarily diatoms$ and blanched vegetables such as ucchinin:ironment Speciics

    A planted a)uarium is a must" 9nsure you get them in decent numbers$ , or more is good" ? or more is far better"#hey are a nervous fish if not 'ept in groups

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    #he caudal mar'ings are %hat separate this Otocinclus from the similar Otocinclus macrospilus" On the O"macrospilus$ there is a large round blac' spot at the base of the caudal fin %ith t%o faint blac' bars runningdo%n to the end of the tail"

    >o%ever on the O" vestitus this large blac' spot is ust a thin line

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    Ancistrus dolichopterus

    Scientific classification

    Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata

    Class: ActinopterygiiOrder: Siluriformes

    !amily: 8oricariidae

    Subfamily: >ypostominae

    #ribe: Ancistrini

    7enus: Ancistrus

    Kner $+12-

    Synonyms: Pristiancistrus !o%ler$ +5-2$ #hysanocara 0egan$ +5?$ enocara 0egan$ +5-

    Ancistrus is a genus of fresh%ater fish in the family 8oricariidae of order Siluriformes" !ish of this genus arecommonly 'no%n as the bushynose or bristlenose plecos"

    AaDonomy

    #he type species is Ancistrus cirrhosus".+/ #his genus is the largest genus %ithin the tribe Ancistrini".3/

    #he name ancistrus derives from the 7ree' ag'istron meaning hoo' ; a reference to the form of the chee'odontodes" #he genera Pristiancistrus$ #hysanocara and enocara are no% synonyms of Ancistrus".3/

    %ppearance and anatomy

    Ancistrus species sho% all the typical features of the 8oricariidae" #his includes a body covered in bony platesand a ventral suc'ermouth".,/ #he feature most commonly associated %ith the genus are the fleshy tentacles

    found on the head in adult males& females may possess tentacles along the snout margin but they are smaller andthey lac' tentacles on the head".,/ #entacules$ tentacles directly associated %ith odontodes$ develop on thepectoral fin spine of the males of some species".,/ Males also have evertable chee' odontodes %hich are lessdeveloped or absent in females" #hey also lac' odontodes along the snout".3/ In comparison %ith a typical pleco$a bristlenose is typically shorter colo&y

    #he diet of this genus is typical for a 8oricariid ; algae and auf%uchs" Eristlenoses do not school but hide %hennot feeding$ uveniles ho%ever are typically found in brightly lit shallo%s at the %ater margin ma'ing themsusceptible to predation by birds"

    Ancistrus species have the capability of obtaining o*ygen through their modified stomach".2/ #his allo%s themto survive in conditions %ith lo% o*ygen levels".3/

    Ereeding ta'es place in hollo%s$ caves and mud holes in ban's" Males may clean the inside of the cavity %iththeir suc'ermouth before allo%ing the female to approach and inspect the nest" Courtship includes e*panding thedorsal and caudal fins and attempts by the male to escort the female to the nest" Lhile the female inspects the

    nest$ the male 'eeps close contact".,/ #he female may lay 3;3 adhesive eggs$ usually to the ceiling of thecavity".,/

    modiicat la 2#. mai. 211

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    Animalia. Chordata. Actionpterygii. &iluriormes. 'oricariidae

    #he female plays no role in parental care& the male ta'es care of its young" Males %ill clean the eggs and thecavity %ith its fins and mouth" Males inspect eggs to remove diseased or infertile eggs$ and aerates the clutch byfanning them %ith its pectoral and pelvic fins".,/ uring this time$ a male usually %ill not leave the cavity tofeed$ or %ill leave only occasionally and )uic'ly return".,/ #he eggs hatch in -+ days over a period of 3?hours& the male guards the eggs for 4+ days after hatching".,/ #he fry remain in the cave$ attaching to the%alls and ceiling %ith their mouths$ absorbing their yol' sac in 3- days and becoming free s%imming".,/

    Males of these species are competitive and territorial" Males display to each other by positioning themselvesparallel to each other$ head to tail$ %ith dorsal and caudal fins erect and chee' odontode spines everted" If thisescalates to combat$ the males %ill circle each other and direct attac's at the head".,/ If an intruding malemanages to evict another male from the nest$ it may cannibalie the other males young".,/

    A male bristlenose may guard several clutches of eggs simultaneously" !emales prefer males that are alreadyprotecting eggs and may prefer males that are protecting larvae& it has been suggested that the tentacles may actas a fry mimic to attract females$ %hich %ould allo% males %ithout eggs in their nest to compete %ith malesguarding eggs".,/ Several clutches in various states of development from eggs to free;s%imming larvae can befound in one nest".3/

    @n the a

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    Plantae. Angiosperms.

    Anubias gracilis

    Scientiic classiication

    Kingdom: Plantae

    utch" al"

    Anubias gracilis %as first mentioned in +53 by Chevalier and thereafter validly described by >utchinson and

    aliel in +5,?".+/

    ;istribution

    Lest Africa: Sierra 8eone and 7uinea".+/"

    ;escription

    Its long;stal'ed medium;green leaves are spade;shaped and may gro% to +3 inches in length