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    Transforming Cities with Transit Robert Cervero

    Panel on Planning the Future of Cities & Urban Mobility

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    Motorization & Car-Dependent Cities

    • Equate with:

     – Air Pollution…Local & Global  – Fossil Fuel Dependence

     – Social Exclusion

     – Neighborhood Disruption

     – Mounting Congestion -- Erodes Economic

    Growth & Quality of Life (Time Pollution)

    Induced Demand

    Can’t Built Your way Out of

    Traffic

    Congestion 

    Developed World 

    :

    9

    0

    % of added

    capacity gets consumed within 3

    -

    5 years

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    ASI Model: Avoid, Shift, Improve

    Avoid Shift Improve

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    Urban Visions Driving Transport Investments

    Urban Vision/ Land Use

    Transport Infrastructure

    • Developing Countries: with more congestion & pent-up demand for accessible locations,

    expect stronger city-shaping impacts of new

    motorways, metros, BRT

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    Land Use Visions shaping

    Transport Programs

    COPENHAGEN’s FINGER PLAN

    Ballerup

    Omstad

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    Copenhagen

    The Bicycle City

    The Micro-Scale

    Rail Station

    Protected Bike Parking

    at Rail

    Station

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    1953 1974 COPENHAGEN: LAND RECLAMATION FROM THE PRIVATE CAR

    20101978

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    3D’s of the

    Built Environment 

    Density

    Diversity   Design

    Less VKT/capita

    Impacts 

    R. Cervero & K. Kockelman, Travel

    Demand and the 3Ds: Density, Diversity,

    Design, Transportation Research, 1996.

    Sustainable Urbanism: Shaping Travel Through City Design

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    Dense & Compact Urban Form Matters

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    Civic

    Commercial

    Residential

    Before After  

    DIVERSITY: Mixed Land Uses

    Advantages of Mixed Uses:

    • Shortens trips; promotes

    walking/cycling & transit

    • Allows consolidating trips

    -- “trip chaining”

    • Spreads trips throughout day/

    week – activates/invigorates

    the project; natural surveillance

    • Allows shared parking

    Neighborhood

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    Mockingbi rd Stat ion 

    Before After 

    Reinventing/Reimagining: Adaptive Re-Use in Dallas

    Before AfterPlano Trans it Vil lage 

    Mockingbi rd Stat ion 

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    From mall parking lot to MXD of condos, senior housing, and daylit  creek park 

    Thornton Place, Northgate Mall, North Seattle, WA: LEED-ND pilotprogram

    Northgate

    Transit

    Center

    Adaptive Re-Use: Seattle Shopping Mall

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    Place making/Public  realm 

    DESIGN

    “Softening” perceptions of  densities 

    Enhancing walking  environments 

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    Urban Design & Pedestrian Access to Metros

    1.739.500

    352.800

    157.200

    -

     200.000

     400.000

     600.000

     800.000

     1.000.000

     1.200.000

     1.400.000

     1.600.000

     1.800.000

     2.000.000

    New York London Beijing

    Jobs accessed by foot

    within 20 minutes from a

    major CBD metro station

    Source: World Bank, Urban

    Transport for Development, 2008

    Beijing Central Station

    l i i i i l f hi i i

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    Key TOD Planning & Design Principles for Chinese Cities

    Break Up the Superblocks! 

    Source: Calthorpe Associates,

    Transit Oriented Districts Plan, Liangjiang New District, Chongqing Planning Bureau, 2013

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    Transit Oriented Development (TOD) • Compact

    • Mixed Land Uses

    • Pedestrian-friendly design

    • Physically “oriented” to transit; not just “adjacent”

    Transit Station & Environs – “A Place to Be…Not Just to Pass Through”

    Site Design

    Calthorpe’s

    Model Pleasant Hill

    California

    BART

    TOD

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    TOD is not new

    1906

    1912

    T it O i t d D l t (TOD) i St kh l

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    Retail

    Core

    Multi-family Housing

    Single-

    Family

    Housing

    Green

    Area

    Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) in Stockholm TOD on a Green Field: Văllingby

    Industrial

    Zone

    Vällingby

    Single-

    Family Housing

    Single-

    Family

    Housing

    Tramway Spine

    Skinny Streets/

    Traffic Calming

    Hammarby

    Sjöstad Congestion Pricing

    Community

    Gardens

    TOD on a Brown Field: Hammarby Sjȫstad 

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    TOD Mobile Sources

    Green Urbanism Stationary Sources

    • Design

    World-class transit

    (trunk & distribution)

    Station as hub)

    • Non-motorized access

    (bikepaths, ped-ways)

    • Bikesharing/

    Carsharing

    • Minimal Parking

    (reduced land

    consumption, building

    massing &

    impervious surfaces)

    • Energy self-sufficient

    (renewably powered –

    solar, wind turbines)

    • Zero-waste (recycle; re-use; methane

    digesters; rainwater

    collection for irrigation & gray-water use)

    • Community gardens

    (compost, canopies,

    food security)

    • Buildings: Green Roofs,

    Orientation (optimal temperatures),

    Materials (reycled; low impact)

    Green TOD A Marriage of TOD & Green Urbanism

    R. Cervero and K. Sullivan, 2011, Green TODs: Marrying Transit-Oriented

    Development and Green Urbanism. International Journal of Sustainable

    Development & World Ecology , Vol. 18, No. 3, 2011, pp. 210-218;.

    Overall Carbon Reduction/Energy Savings:

    33% below conventional development

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    Central Saint Giles, London … “Best” TOD in

    ITDB’s TOD Standard • 11-story office building with 405,000 ft2 of commercial space.

    • 15-story residential building with 109 dwelling units, half of which

    are affordable (in exchange for 2 more commercial floors).

    • Central pedestrian plaza between the 2 buildings, surrounded

    by 24,500ft2 of ground floor transparent retail & restaurant space.

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    TOD: Types & Functions • Market Served: Neighborhood; District; Regional

    • Land-Use Make-Up: Commercial-Office; Residential; Mixed- Use; “Complete Community”

    • Dominant Function: Node (access/logistics) vs. Place-Making (destination)

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    TOD Design Challenge: Conflict of Place and Node

    Node

    • Logistical Points – Interchange for Parking, Bus, Paratransit, Kiss-&-Ride, Taxi, Bikes, Scooters,

    Pedestrians, Delivery Trucks

    • Conflict Points - Safety 

    • Design Perspective – Engineering

    Place

    • Community Hub – Modern-day “Agora”

    • Attractive Milieu - Comfortable, Memorable,

    Accent on Aesthetics & Amenities, Connectivity,

    Legibility, Natural Surveillance

    • Design Perspective – Architecture/Planning

    O l i i l d

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    TOD Planning in Portland  50-year vision for

    managing region’s

    growth

     Hierarchy of Transit-Oriented Centers: compact,

    mixed use, great walking, civic spaces, parking reforms

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    Planning for TOD: Building a Typology Metro Portland

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    Stations

    with highest

    TOD Potential

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    • Exclusive Lanes: physical separation

    •  Advanced Bus Technology: clean fuels, light- weight materials, low floors, advanced communications, docking systems

    • Supportive Elements: signal priorities, bus turnouts, curb realignments, AVL, automated routing & dispa